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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150985/general-illness-and-psychological-factors-in-patients-with-chronic-nasal-symptoms
#1
Naveed Kara, Alexander C Yao, Julia Newton, Vincent Deary, James O'Hara, Janet A Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Only a minority of patients referred to specialists with sinonasal symptoms have clear evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of and associations between (i) general illness factors (fatigue, autonomic dysfunction) and (ii) psychological factors (anxiety, depression, somatisation, personality traits) in patients presenting with sinonasal symptoms. DESIGN: The following validated questionnaires were administered to patients: the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) to identify symptom burden, Composite Autonomic Symptom Score-31 (COMPASS-31) measuring autonomic function, Chalder fatigue questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) addressing somatisation symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the International Personality Item Pool-50 (IPIP-50)...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150721/adaptive-snp-set-association-testing-in-generalized-linear-mixed-models-with-application-to-family-studies
#2
Jun Young Park, Chong Wu, Saonli Basu, Matt McGue, Wei Pan
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it has been increasingly recognized that, as a complementary approach to standard single SNP analyses, it may be beneficial to analyze a group of functionally related SNPs together. Among the existent population-based SNP-set association tests, two adaptive tests, the aSPU test and the aSPUpath test, offer a powerful and general approach at the gene- and pathway-levels by data-adaptively combining the results across multiple SNPs (and genes) such that high statistical power can be maintained across a wide range of scenarios...
November 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150689/distinct-genetic-architectures-for-phenotype-means-and-plasticities-in-zea-mays
#3
Aaron Kusmec, Srikant Srinivasan, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S Schnable
Phenotypic plasticity describes the phenotypic variation of a trait when a genotype is exposed to different environments. Understanding the genetic control of phenotypic plasticity in crops such as maize is of paramount importance for maintaining and increasing yields in a world experiencing climate change. Here, we report the results of genome-wide association analyses of multiple phenotypes and two measures of phenotypic plasticity in a maize nested association mapping (US-NAM) population grown in multiple environments and genotyped with ~2...
September 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150481/identification-of-pleiotropic-cancer-susceptibility-variants-from-genome-wide-association-studies-reveals-functional-characteristics
#4
Yi-Hsuan Wu, Rebecca E Graff, Michael N Passarelli, Joshua D Hoffman, Elad Ziv, Thomas J Hoffmann, John S Witte
BACKGROUND: There exists compelling evidence that some genetic variants are associated with the risk of multiple cancer sites (i.e., pleiotropy). However, the biological mechanisms through which the pleiotropic variants operate are unclear. METHODS: We obtained all cancer risk associations from the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute GWAS Catalog, and correlated cancer risk variants were clustered into groups. Pleiotropic variant groups and genes were functionally annotated...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150403/the-cortisol-reactivity-threshold-model-direction-of-trait-rumination-and-cortisol-reactivity-association-varies-with-stressor-severity
#5
Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Bradley M Avery, Maria Ditcheva, Vaibhav R Sapuram
Various internalizing risk factors predict, in separate studies, both augmented and reduced cortisol responding to lab-induced stress. Stressor severity appears key: We tested whether heightened trait-like internalizing risk (here, trait rumination) predicts heightened cortisol reactivity under modest objective stress, but conversely predicts reduced reactivity under more robust objective stress. Thus, we hypothesized that trait rumination would interact with a curvilinear (quadratic) function of stress severity to predict cortisol reactivity...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150144/atypical-depression-and-non-atypical-depression-is-hpa-axis-function-a-biomarker-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149838/genetic-variation-in-populations-of-the-earthworm-lumbricus-rubellus-across-contaminated-mine-sites
#7
Craig Anderson, Luis Cunha, Pierfrancesco Sechi, Peter Kille, David Spurgeon
BACKGROUND: Populations of the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, are commonly found across highly contaminated former mine sites and are considered to have under-gone selection for mitigating metal toxicity. Comparison of adapted populations with those found on less contaminated soils can provide insights into ecological processes that demonstrate the long-term effects of soil contamination. Contemporary sequencing methods allow for portrayal of demographic inferences and highlight genetic variation indicative of selection at specific genes...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149730/divergence-of-insulin-superfamily-ligands-receptors-and-igf-binding-proteins-in-marine-versus-freshwater-stickleback-evidence-of-selection-in-known-and-novel-genes
#8
Tim Pellissier, Hend Al Nafea, Sara V Good
Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a teleost model for understanding genetic, physiological and morphological changes accompanying freshwater (FW) adaptation. There is growing evidence that the insulin superfamily plays important roles in traits involved in marine and FW adaptation. We performed a candidate gene analysis to look for evidence of selection on 33 insulin superfamily ligand-receptor genes and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (Igfbp's) in stickleback. Using genotype data from 11 marine and 10 FW populations, we calculated the number of SNPs per site in regulatory and intronic regions, the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in coding regions, Wright's fixation index (Fst), and performed t-tests to identify SNPs with divergent genotype frequencies between marine/FW versus Atlantic/Pacific populations...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149545/mechanical-properties-in-metal-organic-frameworks-emerging-opportunities-and-challenges-for-device-functionality-and-technological-applications
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas C Burtch, Jurn Heinen, Thomas D Bennett, David Dubbeldam, Mark D Allendorf
Some of the most remarkable recent developments in metal-organic framework (MOF) performance properties can only be rationalized by the mechanical properties endowed by their hybrid inorganic-organic nanoporous structures. While these characteristics create intriguing application prospects, the same attributes also present challenges that will need to be overcome to enable the integration of MOFs with technologies where these promising traits can be exploited. In this review, emerging opportunities and challenges are identified for MOF-enabled device functionality and technological applications that arise from their fascinating mechanical properties...
November 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149417/spl13-regulates-shoot-branching-and-flowering-time-in-medicago-sativa
#10
Ruimin Gao, Margaret Y Gruber, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
Our results show SPL13 plays a crucial role in regulating vegetative and reproductive development in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), and that MYB112 is targeted and downregulated by SPL13 in alfalfa. We previously showed that transgenic Medicago sativa (alfalfa) plants overexpressing microRNA156 (miR156) show a bushy phenotype, reduced internodal length, delayed flowering time, and enhanced biomass yield. In alfalfa, transcripts of seven SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, including SPL13, are targeted for cleavage by miR156...
November 17, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149249/human-accelerated-regions-and-other-human-specific-sequence-variations-in-the-context-of-evolution-and-their-relevance-for-brain-development
#11
Anastasia Levchenko, Alexander Kanapin, Anastasia Samsonova, Raul Gainetdinov
The review discusses, in a format of a timeline, the studies of different types of genetic variants, present in Homo sapiens, but absent in all other primate, mammalian or vertebrate species, tested so far. The main characteristic of these variants is that they are found in regions of high evolutionary conservation. These sequence variations include single nucleotide substitutions (called human accelerated regions), deletions and segmental duplications. The rationale for finding such variations in the human genome is that they could be responsible for traits, specific to our species, of which the human brain is the most remarkable...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148147/altered-n170-and-mood-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder-an-electrophysiological-study-of-configural-face-processing
#12
Ivy F Tso, Tyler B Grove, Savanna A Mueller, Lisa O'Donnell, Jinsoo Chun, Melvin G McInnis, Patricia J Deldin
OBJECTIVES: Altered social behavior during mood episodes in bipolar disorder often has detrimental and long-lasting interpersonal consequences. Abnormal face processing may play a role in linking brain functions to clinical symptoms and behavior. This study aimed to understand configural face processing in bipolar disorder as a function of basic communicative attributes of the face and mood symptoms using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder (BP) and 43 healthy controls (HC) viewed face stimuli varying in emotion (neutral or fearful), head orientation (forward or deviated), and gaze direction (direct or averted) while ERPs were recorded...
November 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146906/qtl-mapping-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-classical-d-locus-controlling-seed-and-flower-color-in-linum-usitatissimum-flax
#13
Gurudatt Pavagada Sudarshan, Manoj Kulkarni, Leonid Akhov, Paula Ashe, Hamid Shaterian, Sylvie Cloutier, Gordon Rowland, Yangdou Wei, Gopalan Selvaraj
The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146897/gwas-for-male-pattern-baldness-identifies-71-susceptibility-loci-explaining-38-of-the-risk
#14
Nicola Pirastu, Peter K Joshi, Paul S de Vries, Marilyn C Cornelis, Paul M McKeigue, NaNa Keum, Nora Franceschini, Marco Colombo, Edward L Giovannucci, Athina Spiliopoulou, Lude Franke, Kari E North, Peter Kraft, Alanna C Morrison, Tõnu Esko, James F Wilson
Male pattern baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is one of the most common conditions affecting men, reaching a prevalence of ~50% by the age of 50; however, the known genes explain little of the heritability. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide association study including more than 70,000 men, identifying 71 independently replicated loci, of which 30 are novel. These loci explain 38% of the risk, suggesting that MPB is less genetically complex than other complex traits. We show that many of these loci contain genes that are relevant to the pathology and highlight pathways and functions underlying baldness...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146239/innately-activated-tlr4-signal-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-sustained-by-crf-amplification-loop-and-regulates-impulsivity
#15
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Laure Aurelian
Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait believed to represent the behavior that defines the volition to initiate alcohol drinking. We have previously shown that a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal located in the central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) controls the initiation of binge drinking in alcohol-preferring P rats, and TLR4 expression is upregulated by alcohol-induced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at these sites. However, the function of the TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-shell), a site implicated in the control of reward, drug-seeking behavior and impulsivity and the contribution of other signal-associated genes, are still poorly understood...
November 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146020/clinical-and-demographic-predictors-of-continuing-remission-or-relapse-following-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-medication-after-a-first-episode-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Meghan Bowtell, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Eoin Killackey, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication for one to two years following remission of symptoms after a first episode of psychosis. However, recent research has suggested that this may not be indicated. Consistent predictors of outcome would be beneficial to guide clinicians as to which individuals are likely to have a successful discontinuation. OBJECTIVES: This study reviews the literature with the aim of identifying demographic and clinical predictors of either relapse or continued remission in those with a first episode of psychosis following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145427/do-microplastic-particles-affect-daphnia-magna-at-the-morphological-life-history-and-molecular-level
#17
Hannes K Imhof, Jakub Rusek, Michaela Thiel, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Laforsch
Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones). Microplastic particles of ~40 μm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles) leading to an average of ~30 particles in the digestive tract which reflects a high microplastic contamination but still resembles a natural situation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144398/predict-the-relationship-between-gene-and-large-yellow-croaker-s-economic-traits
#18
Xiangxiang Zeng, Shuting Jin, Jin Jiang, Kunhuang Han, Xiaoping Min, Xiangrong Liu
The importance of a gene's impact on traits is well appreciated. Gene expression will affect the growth, immunity, reproduction and environmental resistance of some fish, and then affect the economic performance of fish-related business. Studying the connection between gene and character can help elucidate the growth of fishes. Thus far, a collected database containing large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) genes does not exist. The gene having to do with the growth efficiency of fish will have a huge impact on research...
November 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143711/defining-the-breeding-goal-for-a-sheep-breed-including-production-and-functional-traits-using-market-data
#19
A Theodoridis, A Ragkos, G Rose, D Roustemis, G Arsenos
In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143606/metabolic-pathways-and-genes-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-barley-near-isogenic-lines-differing-by-allelic-state-of-the-black-lemma-and-pericarp-blp-gene
#20
Anastasiya Y Glagoleva, Nikolay A Shmakov, Olesya Y Shoeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Natalia V Shatskaya, Andreas Börner, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Some plant species have 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. However, the chemical and genetic nature of this 'melanin-like' black pigment have not yet been fully explored due to its complex structure and ability to withstand almost all solvents. Nevertheless, identification of genetic networks participating in trait formation is key to understanding metabolic processes involved in the expression of 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. The aim of the current study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing by allelic state of the Blp (black lemma and pericarp) locus...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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