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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#1
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718915/temperature-responses-of-photosynthetic-capacity-parameters-were-not-affected-by-foliar-nitrogen-content-in-mature-pinus-sylvestris
#2
Lasse Tarvainen, Martina Lutz, Mats Räntfors, Torgny Näsholm, Göran Wallin
A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that Vcmax and Jmax exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability...
July 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718835/do-refuge-plants-favour-natural-pest-control-in-maize-crops
#3
Reinaldo Quispe, Marina Mazón, Alexander Rodríguez-Berrío
The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests' natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies...
July 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718405/rna-binding-proteins-in-cancer-old-players-and-new-actors
#4
REVIEW
Bruno Pereira, Marc Billaud, Raquel Almeida
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key players in post-transcriptional events. The combination of versatility of their RNA-binding domains with structural flexibility enables RBPs to control the metabolism of a large array of transcripts. Perturbations in RBP-RNA networks activity have been causally associated with cancer development, but the rational framework describing these contributions remains fragmented. We review here the evidence that RBPs modulate multiple cancer traits, emphasize their functional diversity, and assess future trends in the study of RBPs in cancer...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717389/sexual-selection-reinforces-a-higher-flight-endurance-in-urban-damselflies
#5
Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op de Beeck, Robby Stoks
Urbanization is among the most important and globally rapidly increasing anthropogenic processes and is known to drive rapid evolution. Habitats in urbanized areas typically consist of small, fragmented and isolated patches, which are expected to select for a better locomotor performance, along with its underlying morphological traits. This, in turn, is expected to cause differentiation in selection regimes, as populations with different frequency distributions for a given trait will span different parts of the species' fitness function...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#6
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715138/microbial-functional-diversity-covaries-with-permafrost-thaw-induced-environmental-heterogeneity-in-tundra-soil
#7
Mengting M Yuan, Jin Zhang, Kai Xue, Liyou Wu, Ye Deng, Jie Deng, Lauren Hale, Xishu Zhou, Zhili He, Yunfeng Yang, Joy D Van Nostrand, Edward A G Schuur, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, C Ryan Penton, James R Cole, James M Tiedje, Yiqi Luo, Jizhong Zhou
Permafrost soil in high latitude tundra is one of the largest terrestrial carbon (C) stocks and is highly sensitive to climate warming. Understanding microbial responses to warming induced environmental changes are critical to evaluating their influences on soil biogeochemical cycles. In this study, a functional gene array (i.e. GeoChip 4.2) was used to analyze the functional capacities of soil microbial communities collected from a naturally degrading permafrost region in Central Alaska. Varied thaw history was reported to be the main driver of soil and plant differences across a gradient of minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites...
July 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715118/microrna159-targeted-slgamyb-transcription-factors-are-required-for-fruit-set-in-tomato
#8
Eder Marques da Silva, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira E Silva, Débora Brussolo Bidoia, Mariana da Silva Azevedo, Frederico Almeida de Jesus, Lilian Ellen Pino, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Esther Carrera, Isabel López-Díaz, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira
The transition from flowering to fruit production, namely fruit set, is crucial to ensure successful sexual plant reproduction. Although studies have described the importance of hormones (i.e., auxin and gibberelins) in controlling fruit set after pollination and fertilization, the role of microRNA-based regulation during ovary development and fruit set is still poorly understood. Here we show that microRNA159/GAMYB1 and -2 pathway (the miR159/GAMYB1/2 module) is crucial for tomato ovule development and fruit set...
July 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714988/snp-mediated-disruption-of-ctcf-binding-at-the-ifitm3-promoter-is-associated-with-risk-of-severe-influenza-in-humans
#9
E Kaitlynn Allen, Adrienne G Randolph, Tushar Bhangale, Pranay Dogra, Maikke Ohlson, Christine M Oshansky, Anthony E Zamora, John P Shannon, David Finkelstein, Amy Dressen, John DeVincenzo, Miguela Caniza, Ben Youngblood, Carrie M Rosenberger, Paul G Thomas
Previous studies have reported associations of IFITM3 SNP rs12252 with severe influenza, but evidence of association and the mechanism by which risk is conferred remain controversial. We prioritized SNPs in IFITM3 on the basis of putative biological function and identified rs34481144 in the 5' UTR. We found evidence of a new association of rs34481144 with severe influenza in three influenza-infected cohorts characterized by different levels of influenza illness severity. We determined a role for rs34481144 as an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for IFITM3, with the risk allele associated with lower mRNA expression...
July 17, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714942/palaeo-leaf-economics-reveal-a-shift-in-ecosystem-function-associated-with-the-end-triassic-mass-extinction-event
#10
W K Soh, I J Wright, K L Bacon, T I Lenz, M Steinthorsdottir, A C Parnell, J C McElwain
Climate change is likely to have altered the ecological functioning of past ecosystems, and is likely to alter functioning in the future; however, the magnitude and direction of such changes are difficult to predict. Here we use a deep-time case study to evaluate the impact of a well-constrained CO2-induced global warming event on the ecological functioning of dominant plant communities. We use leaf mass per area (LMA), a widely used trait in modern plant ecology, to infer the palaeoecological strategy of fossil plant taxa...
July 17, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714527/multimodality-imaging-of-intermediate-lesions-data-from-ffr-oct-nirs-ivus
#11
Dariusz Biały, Magdalena Wawrzyńska, Jacek Arkowski, Marcin Rogała, Klaudia Proniewska, Wojciech Wańha, Wojciech Wojakowski, Tomasz Roleder
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) assesses a functional impact of the atheroma on the myocardial ischemia, but it does not take into account the morphology of the lesion. Previous optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies presented their potential to detect vulnerable plaque, which is not possible by FFR assessment. With the following study, the intermediate lesions were assessed by FFR, OCT and combined NIRS-IVUS imaging to identify plaque vulnerability...
July 17, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713828/the-effect-of-small-sample-size-on-measurement-equivalence-of-psychometric-questionnaires-in-mimic-model-a-simulation-study
#12
Jamshid Jamali, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Peyman Jafari
Evaluating measurement equivalence (also known as differential item functioning (DIF)) is an important part of the process of validating psychometric questionnaires. This study aimed at evaluating the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model for DIF detection when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small. In this simulation-based study, Type I error rates and power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF were investigated under different combinations of reference to focal group sample size ratio, magnitude of the uniform-DIF effect, scale length, the number of response categories, and latent trait distribution...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713412/the-emerging-oilseed-crop-sesamum-indicum-enters-the-omics-era
#13
REVIEW
Komivi Dossa, Diaga Diouf, Linhai Wang, Xin Wei, Yanxin Zhang, Mareme Niang, Daniel Fonceka, Jingyin Yu, Marie A Mmadi, Louis W Yehouessi, Boshou Liao, Xiurong Zhang, Ndiaga Cisse
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops widely grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional seeds. It is well adapted to harsh environments and constitutes an alternative cash crop for smallholders in developing countries. Despite its economic and nutritional importance, sesame is considered as an orphan crop because it has received very little attention from science. As a consequence, it lags behind the other major oil crops as far as genetic improvement is concerned. In recent years, the scenario has considerably changed with the decoding of the sesame nuclear genome leading to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, comprehensive genetic maps, high-quality transcriptome assemblies, web-based functional databases and diverse daft genome sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713411/physiological-biochemical-epigenetic-and-molecular-analyses-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum-genotypes-with-contrasting-salt-tolerance
#14
Suresh Kumar, A S Beena, Monika Awana, Archana Singh
Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant's growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713401/genome-wide-association-study-reveals-natural-variations-contributing-to-drought-resistance-in-crops
#15
REVIEW
Hongwei Wang, Feng Qin
Crops are often cultivated in regions where they will face environmental adversities; resulting in substantial yield loss which can ultimately lead to food and societal problems. Thus, significant efforts have been made to breed stress tolerant cultivars in an attempt to minimize these problems and to produce more stability with respect to crop yields across broad geographies. Since stress tolerance is a complex and multi-genic trait, advancements with classical breeding approaches have been challenging. On the other hand, molecular breeding, which is based on transgenics, marker-assisted selection and genome editing technologies; holds great promise to enable farmers to better cope with these challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#16
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
July 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711986/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-reading-ability-show-connection-to-socio-economic-outcomes
#17
Michelle Luciano, Saskia P Hagenaars, Simon R Cox, William David Hill, Gail Davies, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary, David M Evans, Nicholas G Martin, Margaret J Wright, Timothy C Bates
Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p < 0...
July 15, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711192/predictors-of-anxiety-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-the-first-two-years-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Sonja Rutten, Peter M van der Ven, Daniel Weintraub, Gregory M Pontone, Albert F G Leentjens, Henk W Berendse, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Odile A van den Heuvel
AIM: Anxiety has a negative impact on daily functioning and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims at assessing which sociodemographic and clinical characteristics predict the course of anxiety in early PD. METHODS: The participants of this two-year prospective cohort study were recently diagnosed PD patients not receiving psychiatric medications or dopamine replacement therapy at baseline. Assessments were performed annually after baseline...
July 5, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710681/evaluating-the-european-health-literacy-survey-questionnaire-in-patients-with-stroke-a-latent-trait-analysis-using-rasch-modeling
#19
Yi-Jing Huang, Cheng-Te Chen, Gong-Hong Lin, Tzu-Yi Wu, Sheng-Shiung Chen, Li-Fong Lin, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ching-Lin Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The effective self-management and treatment of long-term disability after stroke depends greatly on the health literacy of patients. The European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) is a comprehensive and theory-based measure that captures multiple self-perceived competencies of health literacy and covers a diverse range of health contexts. However, there is no psychometric evidence on the HLS-EU-Q in the stroke population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the HLS-EU-Q in patients with stroke using Rasch analysis...
July 14, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710498/gene-network-dysregulation-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-of-humans-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#20
Efrain A Ribeiro, Joseph R Scarpa, Susanna P Garamszegi, Andrew Kasarskis, Deborah C Mash, Eric J Nestler
Metabolic and functional alterations of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are thought to contribute to impulsivity, which is a hallmark of addictive behaviors that underlie compulsive drug seeking and taking in humans. To determine if there is a transcriptional signature in dlPFC neurons of humans with cocaine use disorder, we performed total RNA-sequencing on neuronal nuclei isolated from post-mortem dlPFC of cocaine addicts and healthy controls. Our results point toward a transcriptional mechanism whereby cocaine alters specific gene networks in dlPFC neurons...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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