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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#1
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913139/estimating-heritable-genetic-contributions-to-innate-immune-and-endocrine-phenotypic-correlations-a-need-to-explore-repeatability
#2
REVIEW
Timothy J Greives, Ned A Dochtermann, Emily C Stewart
The immune system plays an important role in enhancing an individual's ability to survive in a world inhabited by pathogens and parasites. The innate immune system is regulated by processes encoded in an individual's genome, providing an avenue for selection to act on this system, as well as the phenotypic relationships generated between this system and other traits of interest. While relationships between innate immunity and endocrine traits (e.g. testosterone) have been reported often in the literature, these relationships are complex and may differ under varying environmental conditions...
November 29, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#3
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912058/impaired-amino-acid-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-a-cause-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Dora C Tărlungeanu, Elena Deliu, Christoph P Dotter, Majdi Kara, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Mateja Tesulov, Emanuela Morelli, Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, Kaya Bilguvar, Ryuichi Ohgaki, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Anide Johansen, Seham Esharif, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Meral Topcu, Avner Schlessinger, Cesare Indiveri, Kent E Duncan, Ahmet Okay Caglayan, Murat Gunel, Joseph G Gleeson, Gaia Novarino
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912040/patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-physical-function-item-bank-version-1-0-physical-function-assessment-for-athletic-patient-populations
#5
Leif P Madsen, Todd A Evans, Kelli R Snyder, Carrie L Docherty
CONTEXT: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) item banks have been validated for general populations, but their application to high-functioning patient populations remains speculative. OBJECTIVE: To examine the measurement properties of the PROMIS physical function item bank, version 1.0, when applied to individuals representing high levels of physical ability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III collegiate athletic training rooms and intramural events...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911997/community-trait-structure-in-phytoplankton-seasonal-dynamics-from-a-method-for-sparse-trait-data
#6
Kyle F Edwards
The distribution of functional traits in communities, and how trait distributions shift over time and space, is critical information for understanding community structure, the maintenance of diversity, and community effects on ecosystem function. It is often the case that traits tightly linked to ecological performance, such as physiological capacities, are laborious to measure and largely unknown for speciose communities; however, these traits are particularly important for unraveling the mechanistic basis of community structure...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911943/enhanced-in-planta-fitness-through-adaptive-mutations-in-efpr-a-dual-regulator-of-virulence-and-metabolic-functions-in-the-plant-pathogen-ralstonia-solanacearum
#7
Anthony Perrier, Rémi Peyraud, David Rengel, Xavier Barlet, Emmanuel Lucasson, Jérôme Gouzy, Nemo Peeters, Stéphane Genin, Alice Guidot
Experimental evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, where bacteria were maintained on plant lineages for more than 300 generations, revealed that several independent single mutations in the efpR gene from populations propagated on beans were associated with fitness gain on bean. In the present work, novel allelic efpR variants were isolated from populations propagated on other plant species, thus suggesting that mutations in efpR were not solely associated to a fitness gain on bean, but also on additional hosts...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911803/genomic-sequencing-based-mutational-enrichment-analysis-identifies-motility-genes-in-a-genetically-intractable-gut-microbe
#8
Sena Bae, Olaf Mueller, Sandi Wong, John F Rawls, Raphael H Valdivia
A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#9
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910883/the-mechanism-of-transactivation-regulation-due-to-polymorphic-short-tandem-repeats-strs-using-igf1-promoter-as-a-model
#10
Holly Y Chen, Suk Ling Ma, Wei Huang, Lindan Ji, Vincent H K Leung, Honglin Jiang, Xiaoqiang Yao, Nelson L S Tang
Functional short tandem repeats (STR) are polymorphic in the population, and the number of repeats regulates the expression of nearby genes (known as expression STR, eSTR). STR in IGF1 promoter has been extensively studied for its association with IGF1 concentration in blood and various clinical traits and represents an important eSTR. We previously used an in-vitro luciferase reporter model to examine the interaction between STRs and SNPs in IGF1 promoter. Here, we further explored the mechanism how the number of repeats of the STR regulates gene transcription...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909914/association-of-snp-variants-of-mhc-class-ii-drb-gene-with-thermo-physiological-traits-in-tropical-goats
#11
Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Adebowale E Salako, Marcos De Donato, Sunday O Peters, Michael I Takeet, Mathew Wheto, Moses Okpeku, Ikhide G Imumorin
Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909429/temperature-sensitivity-as-a-microbial-trait-using-parameters-from-macromolecular-rate-theory
#12
Charlotte J Alster, Peter Baas, Matthew D Wallenstein, Nels G Johnson, Joseph C von Fischer
The activity of soil microbial extracellular enzymes is strongly controlled by temperature, yet the degree to which temperature sensitivity varies by microbe and enzyme type is unclear. Such information would allow soil microbial enzymes to be incorporated in a traits-based framework to improve prediction of ecosystem response to global change. If temperature sensitivity varies for specific soil enzymes, then determining the underlying causes of variation in temperature sensitivity of these enzymes will provide fundamental insights for predicting nutrient dynamics belowground...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909404/prefrontal-cortex-activity-is-associated-with-biobehavioral-components-of-the-stress-response
#13
Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Tyler R Orem, Douglas A Granger, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Contemporary theory suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is associated with individual variability in the psychobiology of the stress response. Advancing our understanding of this complex biobehavioral pathway has potential to provide insight into processes that determine individual differences in stress susceptibility. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during a variation of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in 53 young adults. Salivary cortisol was assessed as an index of the stress response, trait anxiety was assessed as an index of an individual's disposition toward negative affectivity, and self-reported stress was assessed as an index of an individual's subjective psychological experience...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908524/genetic-correlation-between-alcohol-preference-and-conditioned-fear-exploring-a-functional-relationship
#14
Julia A Chester, Marcus M Weera
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders have a high rate of co-occurrence, possibly because they are regulated by common genes. In support of this idea, mice selectively bred for high (HAP) alcohol preference show greater fear potentiated startle (FPS), a model for fear-related disorders such as PTSD, compared to mice selectively bred for low (LAP) alcohol preference. This positive genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS behavior suggests that the two traits may be functionally related...
November 23, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908264/hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-prostate-cancer-progression-cross-talk-with-androgen-and-estrogen-receptors-and-cancer-stem-cells
#15
Matteo A Russo, Linda Ravenna, Laura Pellegrini, Elisa Petrangeli, Luisa Salvatori, Thea Magrone, Massimo Fini, Marco Tafani
Tumors are complex tissues in which transformed cells communicate with the surrounding microenvironment and evolve traits promoting their own survival and malignancy. Hypoxia and inflammation are constant characteristics of prostate tumor microenvironment influencing both cancer stem cells and differentiated tumor cells. HIFs and NF-kB are the key regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxic and inflammatory stresses, respectively, and a crosstalk between HIFs and NF-kB pathways has been widely documented...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907259/spectral-diversity-area-relationships-for-assessing-biodiversity-in-a%C3%A2-wildland-agriculture-matrix
#16
Kyla Marie Dahlin
Species-area relationships have long been used to assess patterns of species diversity across scales. Here, this concept is extended to spectral diversity using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over western Michigan. This mixture of mesic forest and agricultural lands offers two end-points on the local-scale diversity continuum; one set of well-mixed forest patches and one set of highly homogeneous agricultural patches. Using the sum of the first three principal component values and the principal components' convex hull volume, spectral diversity was compared within and among these plots and to null expectations for perfectly random and perfectly patchy landscapes...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907111/measuring-psychobiosocial-states-in-sport-initial-validation-of-a-trait-measure
#17
Claudio Robazza, Maurizio Bertollo, Montse C Ruiz, Laura Bortoli
We examined the item characteristics, the factor structure, and the concurrent validity of a trait measure of psychobiosocial states. In Study 1, Italian athletes (N = 342, 228 men, 114 women, Mage = 23.93, SD = 6.64) rated the intensity, the frequency, and the perceived impact dimensions of a psychobiosocial states scale, trait version (PBS-ST), which is composed of 20 items (10 functional and 10 dysfunctional) referring to how they usually felt before an important competition. In Study 2, the scale was cross validated in an independent sample (N = 251, 181 men, 70 women, Mage = 24...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906459/integrative-genomic-analysis-identifies-ancestry-related-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-on-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-and-supports-the-association-of-genetic-ancestry-with-survival-disparities-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Meganathan P Ramakodi, Karthik Devarajan, Elizabeth Blackman, Denise Gibbs, Danièle Luce, Jacqueline Deloumeaux, Suzy Duflo, Jeffrey C Liu, Ranee Mehra, Rob J Kulathinal, Camille C Ragin
BACKGROUND: African Americans with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have a lower survival rate than whites. This study investigated the functional importance of ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HNSCC and also examined the effect of functionally important genetic elements on racial disparities in HNSCC survival. METHODS: Ancestry-informative SNPs, RNA sequencing, methylation, and copy number variation data for 316 oral cavity and laryngeal cancer patients were analyzed across 178 DNA repair genes...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906175/impaired-haematopoietic-stem-cell-differentiation-and-enhanced-skewing-towards-myeloid-progenitors-in-aged-caspase-2-deficient-mice
#19
Swati Dawar, Nur Hezrin Shahrin, Nikolina Sladojevic, Richard J D'Andrea, Loretta Dorstyn, Devendra K Hiwase, Sharad Kumar
The apoptotic cysteine protease caspase-2 has been shown to suppress tumourigenesis in mice and its reduced expression correlates with poor prognosis in some human malignancies. Caspase-2-deficient mice develop normally but show ageing-related traits and, when challenged by oncogenic stimuli or certain stress, show enhanced tumour development, often accompanied by extensive aneuploidy. As stem cells are susceptible to acquiring age-related functional defects because of their self-renewal and proliferative capacity, we examined whether loss of caspase-2 promotes such defects with age...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905389/-lipid-profile-and-psychometric-traits-in-patients-with-psychosomatic-disorders-and-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#20
A V Shevchenko, B M Doronin, V B Kuznetsova, T G Amstislavskaya
AIM: To explore the correlation of serum cholesterol and triglycerides with psychometric traits in patients with psychosomatic disorders and chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with CCI, aged from 46 to 76 years, were examined. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in the blood. A battery of tests for assessment of cognitive functions and neurotic traits was used. RESULTS: The level of cholesterol was higher in patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS) compared to patients with CCI without psychosomatic disorders but did not differ from that in patients with gastric ulcer (GU)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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