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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221824/surviving-in-a-cosexual-world-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-dioecy-in-tropical-trees
#1
Marjolein Bruijning, Marco D Visser, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, Liza S Comita, Stephen P Hubbell, Hans de Kroon, Eelke Jongejans
Dioecy has a demographic disadvantage compared with hermaphroditism: only about half of reproductive adults produce seeds. Dioecious species must therefore have fitness advantages to compensate for this cost through increased survival, growth, and/or reproduction. We used a full life cycle approach to quantify the demographic costs and benefits associated with dioecy while controlling for demographic differences between dioecious and hermaphroditic species related to other functional traits. The advantage of this novel approach is that we can focus on the effect of breeding system across a diverse tree community...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220625/predicting-gene-expression-in-massively-parallel-reporter-assays-a-comparative-study
#2
Anat Kreimer, Haoyang Zeng, Matthew D Edwards, Yuchun Guo, Kevin Tian, Sunyoung Shin, Rene Welch, Michael Wainberg, Rahul Mohan, Nicholas A Sinnott-Armstrong, Yue Li, Gökcen Eraslan, Talal Bin Amin, Jonathan Goke, Nikola S Mueller, Manolis Kellis, Anshul Kundaje, Michael A Beer, Sunduz Keles, David K Gifford, Nir Yosef
In many human diseases, associated genetic changes tend to occur within non-coding regions, whose effect might be related to transcriptional control. A central goal in human genetics is to understand the function of such non-coding regions: Given a region that is statistically associated with changes in gene expression (expression Quantitative Trait Locus; eQTL), does it in fact play a regulatory role? And if so, how is this role "coded" in its sequence? These questions were the subject of the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation eQTL challenge...
February 21, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220612/tree-mortality-across-biomes-is-promoted-by-drought-intensity-lower-wood-density-and-higher-specific-leaf-area
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Nathan J B Kraft, Alistair S Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits...
February 21, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#4
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220561/genetic-trends-for-fertility-udder-health-and-protein-yield-in-swedish-red-cattle-estimated-with-different-models
#5
S Eriksson, K Johansson, H Hansen Axelsson, W F Fikse
The aim of this study was to estimate and compare genetic trends in Swedish Red cattle using a full multiple-trait (MT) model and trait-group-wise models for female fertility, udder health and protein yield. Field data for maiden heifers from 1989 and cows with a first and second lactation between 1990 and 2007 were included. (Co)variance components were estimated prior to prediction of breeding values. The estimated genetic trends were clearly favourable for protein yield and udder conformation, and in most cases neutral to favourable for clinical mastitis and calving to first insemination...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220487/sex-differences-and-allee-effects-shape-the-dynamics-of-sex-structured-invasions
#6
Allison K Shaw, Hanna Kokko, Michael G Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220334/future-directions-in-personality-occupational-and-medical-selection-myths-misunderstandings-measurement-and-suggestions
#7
Eamonn Ferguson, Filip Lievens
This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies...
February 20, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219815/a-matter-of-distance-the-effect-of-oxytocin-on-social-discounting-is-empathy-dependent
#8
Sabrina Strang, Holger Gerhardt, Nina Marsh, Sergio Oroz Artigas, Yang Hu, René Hurlemann, Soyoung Q Park
Generosity is an important behavior enriching human society and can be observed across cultures. However, generosity has been shown to be modulated as a function of social distance, also referred to as social discounting. Oxytocin and empathy are other factors that have been shown to play an important role in generous behavior. However, how exactly oxytocin and empathy impact social discounting is yet unknown. Here, we administered oxytocin or placebo in a double-blind design, and measured social discounting behavior...
February 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219476/genetic-parameters-and-genome-wide-associations-of-twinning-rate-in-a-local-breed-the-maremmana-cattle
#9
B Moioli, R Steri, C Marchitelli, G Catillo, L Buttazzoni
This study seeks to verify the feasibility of increasing twinning in a herd of the Italian autochtonous Maremmana breed. The data set included 1260 individuals born from 1963 to 2014, 527 males and 733 females, 402 of them calving at least once from 1983 through 2015. Breeding values for twinning were estimated by a single-trait linear animal model. However, since twinning is a dichotomous trait and the frequency of twins is far smaller than the frequency of single births, breeding values were also estimated by a single-trait animal threshold model...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219444/a-functional-snp-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-controls-cell-type-specific-methylation-of-the-vstm1-gene-locus
#10
Dilip Kumar, Kia Joo Puan, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Bernett Lee, Geertje H A Westerlaken, Doreen Haase, Rossella Melchiotti, Zhuang Li, Nurhashikin Yusof, Josephine Lum, Geraldine Koh, Shihui Foo, Joe Yeong, Alexessander Couto Alves, Juha Pekkanen, Liang Dan Sun, Astrid Irwanto, Benjamin P Fairfax, Vivek Naranbhai, John E A Common, Mark Tang, Chin Keh Chuang, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Julian C Knight, Xuejun Zhang, Fook Tim Chew, Shyam Prabhakar, Liu Jianjun, De Yun Wang, Francesca Zolezzi, Michael Poidinger, E Birgitte Lane, Linde Meyaard, Olaf Rötzschke
BACKGROUND: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) databases represent a valuable resource to link disease-associated SNPs to specific candidate genes whose gene expression is significantly modulated by the SNP under investigation. We previously identified signal inhibitory receptor on leukocytes-1 (SIRL-1) as a powerful regulator of human innate immune cell function. While it is constitutively high expressed on neutrophils, on monocytes the SIRL-1 surface expression varies strongly between individuals...
February 20, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219262/individual-differences-in-the-flexibility-of-peripersonal-space
#11
Samuel B Hunley, Arwen M Marker, Stella F Lourenco
The current study investigated individual differences in the flexibility of peripersonal space (i.e., representational space near the body), specifically in relation to trait claustrophobic fear (i.e., fear of suffocating or being physically restricted). Participants completed a line bisection task with either a laser pointer (Laser condition), allowing for a baseline measure of the size of one's peripersonal space, or a stick (Stick condition), which produces expansion of one's peripersonal space. Our results revealed that individuals high in claustrophobic fear had larger peripersonal spaces than those lower in claustrophobic fear, replicating previous research...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218997/wox14-promotes-bioactive-gibberellin-synthesis-and-vascular-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis
#12
Erwan Denis, Nadia Kbiri, Viviane Mary, Gaëlle Claisse, Natalia Conde E Silva, Martin Kreis, Yves Deveaux
Procambial and cambial stem cells provide the initial cells that allow the formation of vascular tissues. WOX4 and WOX14 have been shown to act redundantly to promote procambial cell proliferation and differentiation. Gibberellins (GAs), which have an important role in wood formation, also stimulate cambial cell division. Here we show that loss of WOX14 function phenocopies some traits of GA-deficient mutants that can be complemented by exogenous GA application, whereas WOX14 overexpression stimulates the expression of GA3ox anabolism genes and represses GA2ox catabolism genes, promoting the accumulation of bioactive GA...
February 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218807/characterizing-fish-responses-to-a-river-restoration-over-21-years-based-on-species-traits
#13
Stefanie Höckendorff, Jonathan D Tonkin, Peter Haase, Margret Bunzel-Drüke, Olaf Zimball, Matthias Scharf, Stefan Stoll
Understanding restoration effectiveness is often impaired by a lack of quality, long-term monitoring data and, to date, few studies have used species trait information to gain insight into the processes that drive the reaction of fish communities to restoration. We examined fish community responses using a highly resolved dataset with 21 consecutive years of data (4 years pre- and 17 years post-restoration) at multiple restored and unrestored sampling reaches from a river restoration project at the Lippe River, Germany...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218758/variant-aware-saturating-mutagenesis-using-multiple-cas9-nucleases-identifies-regulatory-elements-at-trait-associated-loci
#14
Matthew C Canver, Samuel Lessard, Luca Pinello, Yuxuan Wu, Yann Ilboudo, Emily N Stern, Austen J Needleman, Frédéric Galactéros, Carlo Brugnara, Abdullah Kutlar, Colin McKenzie, Marvin Reid, Diane D Chen, Partha Pratim Das, Mitchel A Cole, Jing Zeng, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Guillaume Lettre, Daniel E Bauer, Stuart H Orkin
Cas9-mediated, high-throughput, saturating in situ mutagenesis permits fine-mapping of function across genomic segments. Disease- and trait-associated variants identified in genome-wide association studies largely cluster at regulatory loci. Here we demonstrate the use of multiple designer nucleases and variant-aware library design to interrogate trait-associated regulatory DNA at high resolution. We developed a computational tool for the creation of saturating-mutagenesis libraries with single or multiple nucleases with incorporation of variants...
February 20, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218403/unveiling-gene-trait-relationship-by-cross-platform-meta-analysis-on-chinese-hamster-ovary-cell-transcriptome
#15
Liang Zhao, Hsu-Yuan Fu, Ravali Raju, Nandita Vishwanathan, Wei-Shou Hu
In the past few years, transcriptome analysis has been increasingly employed to better understand the physiology of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at a global level. As more transcriptome data accumulated, meta-analysis on data sets collected from various sources can potentially provide better insights on common properties of those cells. Here, we performed meta-analysis on transcriptome data of different CHO cell lines obtained using NimbleGen or Affymetrix microarray platforms. Hierarchical clustering, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) accordantly showed the samples were clustered into two groups: one consists of adherent cells in serum-containing medium, and the other suspension cells in serum-free medium...
February 20, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217109/e-coli-group-1-capsular-polysaccharide-exportation-nanomachinary-as-a-plausible-antivirulence-target-in-the-perspective-of-emerging-antimicrobial-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Shivangi Sachdeva, Raghuvamsi V Palur, Karpagam U Sudhakar, Thenmalarchelvi Rathinavelan
Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids them to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217103/the-risky-side-of-creativity-domain-specific-risk-taking-in-creative-individuals
#17
Vaibhav Tyagi, Yaniv Hanoch, Stephen D Hall, Mark Runco, Susan L Denham
Risk taking is often associated with creativity, yet little evidence exists to support this association. The present article aimed to systematically explore this association. In two studies, we investigated the relationship between five different domains of risk taking (financial, health and safety, recreational, ethical and social) and five different measures of creativity. Results from the first (laboratory-based) offline study suggested that creativity is associated with high risk taking tendencies in the social domain but not the other domains...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217006/mutagenesis-and-tilling-to-dissect-gene-function-in-plants
#18
Zerihun Tadele
Mutagenesis can be random or targeted and occur by nature or artificially by humans. However, the bulk of mutagenesis employed in plants are random and caused by physical agents such as x-ray and gamma-ray or chemicals such as ethyl-methane sulfonate (EMS). Researchers are interested in first identifying these mutations and/or polymorphisms in the genome followed by investigating their effects in the plant function as well as their application in crop improvement. The high-throughput technique called TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genomes) has been already established and become popular for identifying candidate mutant individuals harboring mutations in the gene of interest...
December 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217004/rna-silencing-in-plants-mechanisms-technologies-and-applications-in-horticultural-crops
#19
Qigao Guo, Qing Liu, Neil A Smith, Guolu Liang, Ming-Bo Wang
Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3' UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies...
December 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215579/mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-defects
#20
REVIEW
Ayman W El-Hattab, William J Craigen, Fernando Scaglia
The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depends on a number of nuclear gene-encoded proteins including a battery of enzymes forming the replisome needed to synthesize mtDNA. These enzymes need to be in balanced quantities to function properly that is in part achieved by exchanging intramitochondrial contents through mitochondrial fusion. In addition, mtDNA synthesis requires a balanced supply of nucleotides that is achieved by nucleotide recycling inside the mitochondria and import from the cytosol. Mitochondrial DNA maintenance defects (MDMDs) are a group of diseases caused by pathogenic variants in the nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance resulting in impaired mtDNA synthesis leading to quantitative (mtDNA depletion) and qualitative (multiple mtDNA deletions) defects in mtDNA...
February 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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