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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637270/in-planta-recapitulation-of-isoprene-synthases-evolution-from-ocimene-synthases
#1
Mingai Li, Jia Xu, Alberto Algarra Alarcon, Silvia Carlin, Enrico Barbaro, Luca Cappellin, Violeta Velikova, Urska Vrhovsek, Francesco Loreto, Claudio Varotto
Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic volatile hydrocarbon compound naturally emitted by plants and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. It has been proposed that isoprene synthases (IspS) may readily evolve from other terpene synthases, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally investigated.We isolated and functionally validated in Arabidopsis the first isoprene synthase gene, AdoIspS, from a monocotyledonous species (Arundo donax L., Poaceae). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that AdoIspS and dicots isoprene synthases most likely originated by parallel evolution from TPS-b monoterpene synthases...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637094/acclimation-responses-to-high-light-by-guazuma-ulmifolia-lam-malvaceae-leaves-at-different-stages-of-development
#2
Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Juliana Silva Rocha, Geovana Lourenço, Karina Sanada, Cristiano Medri, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira
The recomposition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excessive light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded leaves (NewL, expanded after the light shift) of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636746/evaluation-of-the-parent-report-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-in-a-sample-of-children-recruited-from-intimate-partner-violence-services-a-multidimensional-rasch-analysis
#3
Shelby Elaine McDonald, Lin Ma, Kathy E Green, Stephanie A Hitti, Anna M Cody, Courtney Donovan, James Herbert Williams, Frank R Ascione
OBJECTIVE: Our study applied multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) to compare structural models of the parent-report version of the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU; English and North American Spanish translations). METHOD: A total of 291 maternal caregivers were recruited from community-based domestic violence services and reported on their children (77.9% ethnic minority; 47% female), who ranged in age from 7 to 12 years (mean = 9.07, standard deviation = 1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#4
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636616/temnothorax-rugatulus-ant-colonies-consistently-vary-in-nest-structure-across-time-and-context
#5
Nicholas DiRienzo, Anna Dornhaus
A host of animals build architectural constructions. Such constructions frequently vary with environmental and individual/colony conditions, and their architecture directly influences behavior and fitness. The nests of ant colonies drive and enable many of their collective behaviors, and as such are part of their 'extended phenotype'. Since ant colonies have been recently shown to differ in behavior and life history strategy, we ask whether colonies differ in another trait: the architecture of the constructions they create...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636273/long-term-belowground-effects-of-grassland-management-the-key-role-of-liming
#6
Jemma Heyburn, Paul McKenzie, Michael J Crawley, Dario A Fornara
The functioning of human-managed grassland ecosystems strongly depends on how common management practices will affect grassland 'belowground compartment' including soil biogeochemistry and plant roots. Key questions remain about how animal grazing, liming (e.g. the addition of CaCO3 to soils), and nutrient fertilization might affect, in the long-term, soil nutrient cycling and multiple root traits. Here we focus on a mesotrophic grassland located in Berkshire, UK, where contrasting levels of rabbit grazing, liming and different inorganic fertilizers have been applied since 1991...
June 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636081/cell-size-and-wall-dimensions-drive-distinct-variability-of-earlywood-and-latewood-density-in-northern-hemisphere-conifers
#7
Jesper Björklund, Kristina Seftigen, Fritz Schweingruber, Patrick Fonti, Georg von Arx, Marina V Bryukhanova, Henri E Cuny, Marco Carrer, Daniele Castagneri, David C Frank
Interannual variability of wood density - an important plant functional trait and environmental proxy - in conifers is poorly understood. We therefore explored the anatomical basis of density. We hypothesized that earlywood density is determined by tracheid size and latewood density by wall dimensions, reflecting their different functional tasks. To determine general patterns of variability, density parameters from 27 species and 349 sites across the Northern Hemisphere were correlated to tree-ring width parameters and local climate...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635624/effects-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-alleles-on-immune-cell-gene-expression
#8
REVIEW
Ramesh Ram, Grant Morahan
Genetic studies have identified 61 variants associated with the risk of developing Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). The functions of most of the non-HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) genetic variants remain unknown. We found that only 16 of these risk variants could potentially be linked to a protein-coding change. Therefore, we investigated whether these variants affected susceptibility by regulating changes in gene expression. To do so, we examined whole transcriptome profiles of 600 samples from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC)...
June 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635540/reduced-serum-vgf-levels-were-reversed-by-antidepressant-treatment-in-depressed-patients
#9
Haitang Jiang, Suzhen Chen, Na Lu, Yingying Yue, Yingying Yin, Yuqun Zhang, Wenhao Jiang, Jinfeng Liang, Yonggui Yuan
OBJECTIVES: VGF, a non-acronymic neuropeptide, is important in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in the functioning and efficacy of some antidepressant drugs. In this study we assessed whether serum VGF levels change in MDD patients and if antidepressant treatments can restore these changes. METHODS: We measured serum VGF concentrations using sandwich ELISA in drug-free MDD patients before treatment began (n = 26) and at 8 weeks after antidepressant treatment (n = 26) with escitalopram and duloxetine, two common antidepressants...
September 22, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635343/primary-psychopathy-and-alcohol-pathology-in-college-students-the-role-of-protective-behavioral-strategies
#10
Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634812/semi-industrial-scale-production-of-a-new-yeast-with-probiotic-traits-cryptococcus-sp-ymhs-isolated-from-the-red-sea
#11
Ashraf F El-Baz, Hesham A El-Enshasy, Yousseria M Shetaia, Hoda Mahrous, Nor Zalina Othman, Ahmed E Yousef
A new yeast strain with promising probiotic traits was isolated from the Red Sea water samples. The isolate (YMHS) was subjected to genetic characterization and identified as Cryptococcus sp. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions showed 95% sequence similarity between the isolate and Cryptococcus albidus. Cryptococcus sp. YMHS exhibited desirable characteristics of probiotic microorganisms; it has tolerance to low pH in simulated gastric juice, resistance to bile salts, hydrophobic characteristics, broad antimicrobial activity, and in vitro ability to degrade cholesterol...
June 20, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#12
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634237/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-psl-polysaccharide-is-a-social-but-noncheatable-trait-in-biofilms
#13
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634199/characterising-cis-regulatory-variation-in-the-transcriptome-of-histologically-normal-and-tumour-derived-pancreatic-tissues
#14
Mingfeng Zhang, Soren Lykke-Andersen, Bin Zhu, Wenming Xiao, Jason W Hoskins, Xijun Zhang, Lauren M Rost, Irene Collins, Martijn van de Bunt, Jinping Jia, Hemang Parikh, Tongwu Zhang, Lei Song, Ashley Jermusyk, Charles C Chung, Bin Zhu, Weiyin Zhou, Gail L Matters, Robert C Kurtz, Meredith Yeager, Torben Heick Jensen, Kevin M Brown, Halit Ongen, William R Bamlet, Bradley A Murray, Mark I McCarthy, Stephen J Chanock, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Brian M Wolpin, Jill P Smith, Sara H Olson, Gloria M Petersen, Jianxin Shi, Laufey Amundadottir
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic architecture of gene expression in pancreatic tissues. DESIGN: We performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=95) using RNA sequencing and the corresponding 1000 genomes imputed germline genotypes. Data from pancreatic tumour-derived tissue samples (n=115) from The Cancer Genome Atlas were included for comparison. RESULTS: We identified 38 615 cis-eQTLs (in 484 genes) in histologically normal tissues and 39 713 cis-eQTL (in 237 genes) in tumour-derived tissues (false discovery rate <0...
June 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634035/psoriasis-associated-late-cornified-envelope-lce-proteins-have-antibacterial-activity
#15
Hanna Niehues, Lam C Tsoi, Danique A van der Krieken, Patrick A M Jansen, Merel A W Oortveld, Diana Rodijk-Olthuis, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen, Wiljan J A J Hendriks, Richard W Helder, Joke A Bouwstra, Ellen H van den Bogaard, Philip E Stuart, Rajan P Nair, James T Elder, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Joost Schalkwijk
Terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocytes express a large number of structural and antimicrobial proteins that are involved in the physical barrier function of the stratum corneum and provide innate cutaneous host defense. Late cornified envelope (LCE) genes, located in the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1, encode a family of 18 proteins of unknown function, whose expression is largely restricted to epidermis. Deletion of two members, LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3B/C-del), is a widely replicated psoriasis risk factor that interacts with the major psoriasis-psoriasis risk gene HLA-C*06...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633642/prediction-and-analysis-of-three-gene-families-related-to-leaf-rust-puccinia-triticina-resistance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#16
Fred Y Peng, Rong-Cai Yang
BACKGROUND: The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens...
June 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633464/hyposmia-and-disgust-gender-specific-effects
#17
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Reduced olfactory function is associated with altered trait disgust in men. This study sought to determine whether hyposmic women show similar changes in disgust responsiveness. We compared patients with hyposmia (25 men, 23 women) and 50 normosmic individuals (25 men, 25 women) with regard to their tendency to experience disgust across different disgust domains (disgust proneness), their self-disgust and their tendency to perceive their own disgust feelings as difficult to control and embarrassing (disgust sensitivity)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633463/the-body-odor-disgust-scale-bods-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-olfactory-disgust-assessment
#18
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633414/an-extended-model-of-heartwood-secondary-metabolism-informed-by-functional-genomics
#19
Jose M Celedon, Jörg Bohlmann
The development of heartwood (HW) and the associated accumulation of secondary metabolites, which are also known as 'specialized metabolites' or 'extractives', is an important feature of tree biology. Heartwood development can affect tree health with broader implications for forest health. Heartwood development also defines a variety of wood quality traits that are important in the forest industry such as durability and colour of wood products. In the bioproducts industry, HW provides a source of high-value small molecules such as fragrances and antimicrobials...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633378/the-cost-of-avoiding-freezing-in-stems-trade-off-between-xylem-resistance-to-cavitation-and-supercooling-capacity-in-woody-plants
#20
Nadia S Arias, Fabián G Scholz, Guillermo Goldstein, Sandra J Bucci
Stems and leaves of Olea europaea L. (olive) avoid freezing damage by substantial supercooling during the winter season. Physiological changes during acclimation to low temperatures were studied in five olive cultivars. Water relations and hydraulic traits, ice nucleation temperature (INT) and temperatures resulting in 50% damage (LT50) were determined. All cultivars showed a gradual decrease in INT and LT50 from the dry and warm summer to the wet and cold winter in Patagonia, Argentina. During acclimation to low temperatures there was an increase in leaf cell wall rigidity and stomatal conductance (gs), as well as a decrease in leaf apoplastic water content, leaf water potential (Ψ), sap flow and stem hydraulic conductivity (ks)...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
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