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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926102/in-situ-temperature-relationships-of-biochemical-and-stomatal-controls-of-photosynthesis-in-four-lowland-tropical-tree-species
#1
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Net photosynthetic carbon uptake of Panamanian lowland tropical forest species is typically optimal at 30-32°C. The processes responsible for the decrease in photosynthesis at higher temperatures are not fully understood for tropical trees. We determined temperature responses of maximum rates of RuBP-carboxylation (VCMax ) and RuBP-regeneration (JMax ), stomatal conductance (Gs ) and respiration in the light (RLight ) in situ for four lowland tropical tree species in Panama. Gs had the lowest temperature optimum (TOpt ), similar to that of net photosynthesis, and photosynthesis became increasingly limited by stomatal conductance as temperature increased...
September 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924506/automated-classification-of-tropical-shrub-species-a-hybrid-of-leaf-shape-and-machine-learning-approach
#2
Miraemiliana Murat, Siow-Wee Chang, Arpah Abu, Hwa Jen Yap, Kien-Thai Yong
Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922585/climatic-and-anthropogenic-drivers-of-northern-amazon-fires-during-the-2015-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-event
#3
Marisa G Fonseca, Liana O Anderson, Egidio Arai, Yosio E Shimabukuro, Haron A M Xaud, Maristela R Xaud, Nima Madani, Fabien H Wagner, Luiz E O C Aragão
The strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event that occurred in 2015/2016 caused extreme drought in the northern Brazilian Amazon, especially in the state of Roraima, increasing fire occurrence. Here we map the extent of precipitation and fire anomalies and quantify the effects of climatic and anthropogenic drivers on fire occurrence during the 2015/2016 dry season (from December 2015 to March 2016) in the state of Roraima. To achieve these objectives we first estimated the spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies, based on long-term data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and the fire anomaly, based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) active fire detections during the referred period...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#4
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906052/forest-biomass-productivity-and-carbon-cycling-along-a-rainfall-gradient-in-west-africa
#5
Sam Moore, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Akwasi Duah-Gyamfi, Shalom D Addo-Danso, Forzia Ibrahim, Armel T Mbou, Agnès de Grandcourt, Riccardo Valentini, Giacomo Nicolini, Gloria Djagbletey, Kennedy Owusu-Afriyie, Agne Gvozdevaite, Imma Oliveras, Maria C Ruiz-Jaen, Yadvinder Malhi
Net primary productivity (NPP) is one of the most important parameters in describing the functioning of any ecosystem and yet it arguably remains a poorly quantified and understood component of carbon cycling in tropical forests, especially outside of the Americas. We provide the first comprehensive analysis of NPP and its carbon allocation to woody, canopy and root growth components at contrasting lowland West African forests spanning a rainfall gradient. Using a standardised methodology to study evergreen (EF), semi-deciduous (SDF), dry forests (DF) and woody savanna (WS), we find that (i) climate is more closely related with above and belowground C stocks than with NPP (ii) total NPP is highest in the SDF site, then the EF followed by the DF and WS and that (iii) different forest types have distinct carbon allocation patterns whereby SDF allocate in excess of 50% to canopy production and the DF and WS sites allocate 40-50% to woody production...
September 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904787/spatiotemporal-variability-of-soil-respiration-in-a-seasonal-tropical-forest
#6
Vanessa E Rubio, Matteo Detto
We monitored soil CO 2 effluxes for over 3 years in a seasonally wet tropical forest in Central Panama using automated and manual measurements from 2013 to 2016. The measurements displayed a high degree of spatial and temporal variability. Temporal variability could be largely explained by surface soil water dynamics over a broad range of temporal scales. Soil moisture was responsible for seasonal cycles, diurnal cycles, intraseasonal variability such as rain-induced pulses following dry spells, as well as suppression during near saturated conditions, and ultimately, interannual variability...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900253/leaf-thermotolerance-in-tropical-trees-from-a-seasonally-dry-climate-varies-along-the-slow-fast-resource-acquisition-spectrum
#7
Aniruddh Sastry, Deepak Barua
Knowledge of the upper limits of temperature tolerance is essential to understand how tropical trees will respond to global warming. We quantified leaf thermotolerance in 41 tree species growing in a seasonally dry tropical region of the Indian subcontinent to examine: (1) differences between evergreen and deciduous species; (2) relationships with leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf size; and, (3) seasonal variation in thermotolerance. Thermotolerance ranged from 45.5 °C to 50.5 °C among species, was higher for evergreen than deciduous species, and was negatively related to a continuous estimate of deciduousness...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894949/diet-and-feeding-ecology-of-the-western-hoolock-gibbon-hoolock-hoolock-in-a-tropical-forest-fragment-of-northeast-india
#8
Mrigakhi Borah, Ashalata Devi, Awadhesh Kumar
Forest fragmentation alters plant species diversity and composition, and causes diverse affects on the feeding behavior of wild primates. We investigated the feeding behavior and diet of two groups of western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) inhabiting a small isolated forest patch (21 km(2)) in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India, over a year using focal animal sampling. H. hoolock adults spent, on average, 35.2% of their total annual activity budget on feeding, and fed on young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits, petioles, buds and also on animal matter...
September 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889279/impact-of-land-use-on-the-mobility-of-hg-species-in-different-compartments-of-a-tropical-watershed-in-brazil
#9
Clara Ayume Ito de Lima, Marcelo Gomes de Almeida, Inacio Abreu Pestana, Wanderley R Bastos, Maria Cristina Nery do Nascimento Recktenvald, Cristina Maria Magalhães de Souza, Paulo Pedrosa
This study evaluated the levels of total Hg and CH3Hg(+) from a comprehensive perspective, considering the retention, leaching, and deposition of these contaminants in the main compartments (soil, plant litter, and sediment) of three landscapes (Atlantic Forest, pasture, and agricultural area) in a watershed in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Variables analyzed were total Hg, CH3Hg(+), organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size, and surface area. In soil samples, total Hg levels were the highest in agricultural soil followed by forest soil and pasture (97...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886023/geographic-patterns-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-human-yellow-fever-presence-in-the-americas
#10
Patricia Najera Hamrick, Sylvain Aldighieri, Gustavo Machado, Deise Galan Leonel, Luz Maria Vilca, Sonia Uriona, Maria Cristina Schneider
BACKGROUND: In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883445/plant-litter-dynamics-in-the-forest-stream-interface-precipitation-is-a-major-control-across-tropical-biomes
#11
Alan M Tonin, José F Gonçalves, Paulino Bambi, Sheyla R M Couceiro, Lorrane A M Feitoza, Lucas E Fontana, Neusa Hamada, Luiz U Hepp, Vânia G Lezan-Kowalczuk, Gustavo F M Leite, Aurea L Lemes-Silva, Leonardo K Lisboa, Rafael C Loureiro, Renato T Martins, Adriana O Medeiros, Paula B Morais, Yara Moretto, Patrícia C A Oliveria, Evelyn B Pereira, Lidiane P Ferreira, Javier Pérez, Mauricio M Petrucio, Deusiano F Reis, Renan S Rezende, Nadia Roque, Luiz E P Santos, Ana E Siegloch, Gabriela Tonello, Luz Boyero
Riparian plant litter is a major energy source for forested streams across the world and its decomposition has repercussions on nutrient cycling, food webs and ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about plant litter dynamics in tropical streams, even though the tropics occupy 40% of the Earth's land surface. Here we investigated spatial and temporal (along a year cycle) patterns of litter inputs and storage in multiple streams of three tropical biomes in Brazil (Atlantic forest, Amazon forest and Cerrado savanna), predicting major differences among biomes in relation to temperature and precipitation regimes...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881951/monitoring-temporal-variation-to-assess-changes-in-the-structure-of-subtropical-atlantic-forest-butterfly-communities
#12
Cristiano Agra Iserhard, Helena Piccoli Romanowski, Aline Richter, Milton de Souza Mendonça
The study of fauna through long-term surveys is important in unveiling how temporal patterns shape the structure of communities in tropical habitats. The butterfly assemblage of the subtropical Atlantic Forest may be considered highly diverse and shows changes in diversity and composition over time, highlighting the importance of long-term inventories. This work assessed temporal diversity patterns in the distribution and composition of butterfly assemblages in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil using combined data from three years of standardized sampling with entomological nets, increasing the knowledge on this group in the Neotropics for monitoring and conservation...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876401/landslides-zonation-hazard-relation-between-geological-structures-and-landslides-occurrence-in-hilly-tropical-regions-of-brazil
#13
Rodrigo I Cerri, Fábio A G V Reis, Marcelo F Gramani, Lucilia C Giordano, José Eduardo Zaine
This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875896/kryptousia-macronema-gen-nov-sp-nov-and-kryptousia-microlepis-sp-nov-nostocalean-cyanobacteria-isolated-from-phyllospheres
#14
Danillo Oliveira Alvarenga, Ana Paula Dini Andreote, Luis Henrique Zanini Branco, Marli Fatima Fiore
Tropical ecosystems worldwide host very diverse microbial communities, but are increasingly threatened by deforestation and climate change. Thus, characterization of biodiversity in these environments, and especially of microbial communities that show unique adaptations to their habitats, is a very urgent matter. Information about representatives of the phylum Cyanobacteria in tropical environments is scarce, even though they are fundamental primary producers that help other microbes to thrive in nutrient-depleted habitats, including phyllospheres...
September 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875526/towards-physiologically-meaningful-water-use-efficiency-estimates-from-eddy-covariance-data
#15
Jürgen Knauer, Sönke Zaehle, Belinda E Medlyn, Markus Reichstein, Christopher A Williams, Mirco Migliavacca, Martin G De Kauwe, Christiane Werner, Claudia Keitel, Pasi Kolari, Jean-Marc Limousin, Maj-Lena Linderson
Intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) characterizes the physiological control on the simultaneous exchange of water and carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge of iWUE is commonly gained from leaf-level gas exchange measurements, which are inevitably restricted in their spatial and temporal coverage. Flux measurements based on the eddy covariance (EC) technique can overcome these limitations, as they provide continuous and long-term records of carbon and water fluxes at the ecosystem scale. However, vegetation gas exchange parameters derived from EC data are subject to scale-dependent and method-specific uncertainties that compromise their ecophysiological interpretation as well as their comparability among ecosystems and across spatial scales...
September 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875505/atlantic-bats-a-dataset-of-bat-communities-from-the-atlantic-forests-of-south-america
#16
Renata de Lara Muylaert, Richard D Stevens, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa Esbérard, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello, Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Luiz H Varzinczak, Deborah Faria, Marcelo de Moraes Weber, Patricia Kerches Rogeri, André Luis Regolin, Hernani Fernandes Magalhães de Oliveira, Luciana de Moraes Costa, Marília A S Barros, Gilberto Sabino-Santos, Mara Ariane Crepaldi de Morais, Vinicius Silva Kavagutti, Fernando C Passos, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Felipe Gonçalves Motta Maia, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Mauro Galetti
Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. ATLANTIC BATS dataset comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875494/abundance-of-small-mammals-in-the-atlantic-forest-asmaf-a-data-set-for-analyzing-tropical-community-patterns
#17
Marcos S L Figueiredo, Camila S Barros, Ana C Delciellos, Edú B Guerra, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela, Maja Kajin, Martin R Alvarez, Paulo H Asfora, Diego Astúa, Helena G Bergallo, Rui Cerqueira, Lena Geise, Rosana Gentile, Carlos Eduardo V Grelle, Gilson E Iack-Ximenes, Leonardo C Oliveira, Marcelo Weksler, Marcus V Vieira
Local abundance results from the interaction between populational and environmental processes. The abundance of the species in a community is also one of the most basic descriptors of its structure. Despite its importance, information about species abundances is fragmentary, creating a knowledge gap about species abundances known as Prestonian Shortfall. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of small mammal abundance in the Atlantic Forest. Data were extracted from 114 published sources and from unpublished data collected by our research groups spanning from 1943 to 2017...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875172/the-biodiversity-cost-of-carbon-sequestration-in-tropical-savanna
#18
Rodolfo C R Abreu, William A Hoffmann, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Natashi A Pilon, Davi R Rossatto, Giselda Durigan
Tropical savannas have been increasingly viewed as an opportunity for carbon sequestration through fire suppression and afforestation, but insufficient attention has been given to the consequences for biodiversity. To evaluate the biodiversity costs of increasing carbon sequestration, we quantified changes in ecosystem carbon stocks and the associated changes in communities of plants and ants resulting from fire suppression in savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. Fire suppression resulted in increased carbon stocks of 1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873422/evaluating-multiple-causes-of-persistent-low-microwave-backscatter-from-amazon-forests-after-the-2005-drought
#19
Steve Frolking, Stephen Hagen, Bobby Braswell, Tom Milliman, Christina Herrick, Seth Peterson, Dar Roberts, Michael Keller, Michael Palace
Amazonia has experienced large-scale regional droughts that affect forest productivity and biomass stocks. Space-borne remote sensing provides basin-wide data on impacts of meteorological anomalies, an important complement to relatively limited ground observations across the Amazon's vast and remote humid tropical forests. Morning overpass QuikScat Ku-band microwave backscatter from the forest canopy was anomalously low during the 2005 drought, relative to the full instrument record of 1999-2009, and low morning backscatter persisted for 2006-2009, after which the instrument failed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866806/potential-of-mangrove-associated-endophytic-fungi-for-production-of-carbohydrolases-with-high-saccharification-efficiency
#20
M M C Maroldi, V M Vasconcellos, P T Lacava, C S Farinas
The endophytic fungi represent a potential source of microorganisms for enzyme production. However, there have been only few studies exploiting their potential for the production of enzymes of industrial interest, such as the (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic cocktail required in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Here, a collection of endophytic fungi isolated from mangrove tropical forests was evaluated for the production of carbohydrolases and performance on the hydrolysis of cellulose. For that, 41 endophytic strains were initially screened using a plate assay containing crystalline cellulose as the sole carbon source and the selected strains were cultivated under solid-state fermentation for endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase enzyme quantification...
September 2, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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