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tropical forest

C A Poveda-Coronel, D Riaño-Jiménez, J R Cure
Colombian tropical dry forest is considered the most endangered tropical biome due to anthropic activities. Desierto de la Tatacoa (DsT) is an example of high disturbed tropical dry forest which still maintains a high biodiversity. The objective of the study was to record the diversity and phenology of wild bees in this place by monthly sampling between December 2014 and December 2016 in a 9-km2 area. During the study, there was a prolonged El Niño-Southern Oscillation period. Bees were collected by entomological nets, malaise traps, eugenol scent trapping, and nest traps...
January 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Yunhe Yin, Danyang Ma, Shaohong Wu
Variations in forest net primary productivity (NPP) reflects the combined effects of key climate variables on ecosystem structure and function, especially on the carbon cycle. We performed risk analysis indicated by the magnitude of future negative anomalies in NPP in comparison with the natural interannual variability to investigate the impact of future climatic projections on forests in China. Results from the multi-model ensemble showed that climate change risk of decreases in forest NPP would be more significant in higher emission scenario in China...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
R Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima
Palm oil is used in various valued commodities and is a large global industry worth over US$ 50 billion annually. Oil palms (OP) are grown commercially in Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries within Latin America and Africa. The large-scale land-use change has high ecological, economic, and social impacts. Tropical countries in particular are affected negatively by climate change (CC) which also has a detrimental impact on OP agronomy, whereas the cultivation of OP increases CC. Amelioration of both is required...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nalaka Geekiyanage, Uromi Manage Goodale, Kunfang Cao, Kaoru Kitajima
Karst hills, that is, jagged topography created by dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, are distributed extensively in tropical forest regions, including southern parts of China. They are characterized by a sharp mosaic of water and nutrient availability, from exposed hilltops with poor soil development to valleys with occasional flooding, to which trees show species-specific distributions. Here we report the relationship of leaf functional traits to habitat preference of tropical karst trees. We described leaf traits of 19 tropical tree species in a seasonal karst rainforest in Guangxi Province, China, 12 species in situ and 13 ex situ in a non-karst arboretum, which served as a common garden, with six species sampled in both...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Géraldine Derroire, Jennifer S Powers, Catherine M Hulshof, Luis E Cárdenas Varela, John R Healey
A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to environmental changes along a successional gradient...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
M Arasumani, Danish Khan, Arundhati Das, Ian Lockwood, Robert Stewart, Ravi A Kiran, M Muthukumar, Milind Bunyan, V V Robin
Tropical montane habitats, grasslands, in particular, merit urgent conservation attention owing to the disproportionate levels of endemic biodiversity they harbour, the ecosystem services they provide, and the fact that they are among the most threatened habitats globally. The Shola Sky Islands in the Western Ghats host a matrix of native forest-grassland matrix that has been planted over the last century, with exotic timber plantations. The popular discourse on the landscape change is that mainly forests have been lost to the timber plantations and recent court directives are to restore Shola forest trees...
2018: PloS One
Elmar M Veenendaal, Mireia Torello-Raventos, Heloisa S Miranda, Naomi Margarete Sato, Imma Oliveras, Frank van Langevelde, Gregory P Asner, Jon Lloyd
We assessed data from 11 experiments examining the effects of the timing and/or frequency of fire on tropical forest and/or savanna vegetation structure over one decade or more. The initial 'control treatment' in many such cases consisted of previously cleared land. This is as opposed to natural vegetation subject to some sort of endogenous fire regime before the imposition of fire treatments. Effects of fire on fractional foliar cover are up to 10-fold greater when clearing pre-treatments are imposed. Moreover, because many of the 'classic' fire trials were initialised with applied management questions in mind, most have also used burning regimes much more frequent and/or severe than those occurring in the absence of human activity...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Carlos M Delgado-Martínez, Fredy Alvarado, Eduardo Mendoza, Sandra Flores-Hernández, Audomaro Navarrete, Eutimio Navarrete, Francisco Botello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Ecology
D M P Valente, M M Zenker, J A Teston
Biodiversity knowledge on insects is urgently needed due to the ever growing demand for food and the consequent deforestation process and loss of natural habitats in many understudied tropical regions. In this paper, we describe the outcome of a biodiversity research on tiger moths performed for the first time in a poorly studied Amazonian landscape-the savanna. We sampled tiger moths monthly with UV automatic light traps for 12 consecutive months in two sampling points in an area of savanna in eastern Amazon, and we compared our results to previously available data for eastern Amazon...
January 6, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Marcos Roberto Dias Batista, Felipe Bastos Rocha, Louis Bernard Klaczko
Variation of ecophysiological traits may help to explain geographic distribution patterns of Drosophila sibling species. Many traits in ectotherms have optimal performance within specific temperature ranges. Altitudinal gradients are potentially informative for characterizing differences of sibling species distributions. We collected two sibling species of the tripunctata group - Drosophila mediopunctata (MPT) and D. unipunctata (UNI) - at eight altitudes (ranging from 593 to 1185m above sea level) located at a continuous Atlantic Rainforest reserve in consecutive years (2009-2011), with two collections at the hot-rainy season and two at the cold-dry season...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Anthony Lau, Nancy E Karraker, David Dudgeon
Forest loss has been associated with reduced survival in many vertebrates, and previous research on amphibians has mostly focused on effects at early life stages. Paramesotriton hongkongensis is a tropical newt that breeds in streams but spends up to 10 months per year in terrestrial habitats. Populations are threatened by habitat degradation and collection for the pet trade, but the cryptic terrestrial lifestyle of this newt has limited our understanding of its population ecology, which inhibits development of a species-specific conservation plan...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Hua-Feng Wang, Meng Xu
Research on individual trait variation has gained much attention because of its implication for ecosystem functions and community ecology. The effect of individual variation on population and community abundance (number of individuals) variation remains scarcely tested. Using two established ecological scaling laws (Taylor's law and abundance-size relationship), we derived a new scaling relationship between the individual size variation and spatial variation of abundance. Tested against multi-plot tree data from Diaoluo Mountain tropical forest in Hainan, China, the new scaling relationship showed that individual size variation reduced the spatial variation of community assemblage abundance, but not of taxon-specific population abundance...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Marijn Bauters, Travis W Drake, Hans Verbeeck, Samuel Bodé, Pedro Hervé-Fernández, Phoebe Zito, David C Podgorski, Faustin Boyemba, Isaac Makelele, Landry Cizungu Ntaboba, Robert G M Spencer, Pascal Boeckx
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is an important determinant of N availability for natural ecosystems worldwide. Increased anthropogenic N deposition shifts the stoichiometric equilibrium of ecosystems, with direct and indirect impacts on ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical cycles. Current simulation data suggest that remote tropical forests still receive low atmospheric N deposition due to a lack of proximate industry, low rates of fossil fuel combustion, and absence of intensive agriculture. We present field-based N deposition data for forests of the central Congo Basin, and use ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to characterize the organic N fraction...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Danilla Cristina Lemos Souza, Bruno César Rossini, Francine Beatriz de Souza, Alexandre Magno Sebbenn, Celso Luís Marino, Mário Luiz Teixeira de Moraes
Myracrodruon urundeuva is a tree species of high economic importance due the strength and durability of its wood. Threatened of extinction in Brazil, it is present only in a few forest remnants, mostly in conservation units. Currently, there is little information on the genetic diversity of natural populations in Brazil and even less information about the genome of this species. Here, new species-specific microsatellite loci were developed based on next-generation sequencing (Illumina). More than 100,000 loci were identified in the run, with di- to hexanucleotides motifs...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
Laura Bononi, Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani, Danilo Tosta Souza, Marta Alves Moitinho, Vanessa Nessner Kavamura, Itamar Soares Melo
Microbial communities regulate nutrient cycling in soil, thus the impact of climate change on the structure and function of these communities can cause an imbalance of nutrients in the environment. Structural and functional changes of soil bacterial communities in two contrasting biomes in Brazil, the Atlantic Forest and the Tropical Dry Forest (Caatinga), were studied by simulating, in microcosms, rainfall and drought events. Soil samples were collected in three Brazilian states: Bahia, Pernambuco and São Paulo, in a total of four sampling sites...
December 29, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Justin M Becknell, Stephen Porder, Steven Hancock, Robin Chazdon, Michelle Hofton, James B Blair, James R Kellner
Tropical secondary forests (TSF) are a global carbon sink of 1.6 Pg C ∙ year-1 . However, TSF carbon uptake is estimated using chronosequence studies that assume differently aged forests can be used to predict change in aboveground biomass density (AGBD) over time. We tested this assumption using two airborne lidar datasets separated by 11.5 years over a Neotropical landscape. Using data from 1998 we predicted canopy height and AGBD within 1.1 and 10.3% of observations in 2009, with higher accuracy for forest height than AGBD and for older TSFs in comparison to younger ones...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
Bachelot Benedicte, María Uriarte, Robert Muscarella, Jimena Forero-Montaña, Jill Thompson, Krista McGuire, Jess Zimmerman, Nathan G Swenson, James S Clark
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil may influence tropical tree dynamics and forest succession. The mechanisms are poorly understood, because the functional characteristics and abundances of tree species and AM fungi are likely to be codependent. We used generalized joint attribute modeling to evaluate if AM fungi are associated with three forest community metrics for a sub-tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. The metrics chosen to reflect changes during forest succession are: the abundance of seedlings of different successional status, the amount of foliar damage on seedlings of different successional status, and community-weighted mean functional trait values (adult specific leaf area (SLA), adult wood density, and seed mass)...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
Boris B Demenou, Jean-Louis Doucet, Olivier J Hardy
Paleo-environmental reconstructions show that the distribution of tropical African rain forests was affected by Quaternary climate changes. They suggest that the Dahomey Gap (DG)-the savanna corridor that currently separates Upper Guinean (UG, West Africa) and Lower Guinean (LG, western Central Africa) rain forest blocks-was forested during the African Humid Holocene period (from at least 9 ka till 4.5 ka), and possibly during other interglacial periods, while an open vegetation developed in the DG under drier conditions, notably during glacial maxima...
December 27, 2017: Heredity
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