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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534494/airborne-observations-reveal-elevational-gradient-in-tropical-forest-isoprene-emissions
#1
Dasa Gu, Alex B Guenther, John E Shilling, Haofei Yu, Maoyi Huang, Chun Zhao, Qing Yang, Scot T Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Saewung Kim, Roger Seco, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Karla M Longo, Julio Tóta, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Oscar Vega, Ying Liu, Manish Shrivastava, Eliane G Alves, Fernando C Santos, Guoyong Leng, Zhiyuan Hu
Isoprene dominates global non-methane volatile organic compound emissions, and impacts tropospheric chemistry by influencing oxidants and aerosols. Isoprene emission rates vary over several orders of magnitude for different plants, and characterizing this immense biological chemodiversity is a challenge for estimating isoprene emission from tropical forests. Here we present the isoprene emission estimates from aircraft eddy covariance measurements over the Amazonian forest. We report isoprene emission rates that are three times higher than satellite top-down estimates and 35% higher than model predictions...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533968/changes-in-the-spatial-and-temporal-pattern-of-natural-forest-cover-on-hainan-island-from-the-1950s-to-the-2010s-implications-for-natural-forest-conservation-and-management
#2
Siliang Lin, Yaozhu Jiang, Jiekun He, Guangzhi Ma, Yang Xu, Haisheng Jiang
The study of the past, present, and future state and dynamics of the tropical natural forest cover (NFC) might help to better understand the pattern of deforestation and fragmentation as well as the influence of social and natural processes. The obtained information will support the development of effective conservation policies and strategies. In the present study, we used historical data of the road network, topography, and climatic productivity to reconstruct NFC maps of Hainan Island, China, from the 1950s to the 2010s, using the random forest algorithm...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#3
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527145/an-appraisal-of-indonesia-s-immense-peat-carbon-stock-using-national-peatland-maps-uncertainties-and-potential-losses-from-conversion
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Warren, Kristell Hergoualc'h, J Boone Kauffman, Daniel Murdiyarso, Randall Kolka
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the world's tropical peatlands occur in Indonesia where rapid conversion and associated losses of carbon, biodiversity and ecosystem services have brought peatland management to the forefront of Indonesia's climate mitigation efforts. We evaluated peat volume from two commonly referenced maps of peat distribution and depth published by Wetlands International (WI) and the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), and used regionally specific values of carbon density to calculate carbon stocks...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516322/do-functional-diversity-and-trait-dominance-determine-carbon-storage-in-an-altered-tropical-landscape
#5
Achim Häger, Gerardo Avalos
Altered landscapes play a major role in biodiversity conservation and carbon (C) storage in the tropics. There is increasing evidence that C storage potential is controlled by tree functional diversity, but underlying mechanisms are debated. We analyzed the effects of trait dominance (mass-ratio hypothesis), species diversity, and trait variation (species complementarity) on C storage in the soils and vegetation of 20 agroforestry systems (AFS) and seven forested sites in Costa Rica. AFS consisted of organic and conventional coffee farms and pastures with trees...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513916/global-forest-carbon-uptake-due-to-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-from-1850-to-2100
#6
Rong Wang, Daniel Goll, Yves Balkanski, Didier Hauglustaine, Olivier Boucher, Philippe Ciais, Ivan Janssens, Josep Penuelas, Bertrand Guenet, Jordi Sardans, Laurent Bopp, Nicolas Vuichard, Feng Zhou, Bengang Li, Shilong Piao, Shushi Peng, Ye Huang, Shu Tao
Spatial patterns and temporal trend of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition are important for quantifying their impact on forest carbon (C) uptake. In a first step, we modeled historical and future change in the global distributions of the atmospheric deposition of N and P from the dry and wet deposition of aerosols and gases containing N and P. Future projections were compared between two scenarios with contrasting aerosol emissions. Modeled fields of N and P deposition and P concentration were evaluated using globally distributed in situ measurements...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510201/ultramafic-geoecology-of-south-and-southeast-asia
#7
REVIEW
M L Galey, A van der Ent, M C M Iqbal, N Rajakaruna
Globally, ultramafic outcrops are renowned for hosting floras with high levels of endemism, including plants with specialised adaptations such as nickel or manganese hyperaccumulation. Soils derived from ultramafic regoliths are generally nutrient-deficient, have major cation imbalances, and have concomitant high concentrations of potentially phytotoxic trace elements, especially nickel. The South and Southeast Asian region has the largest surface occurrences of ultramafic regoliths in the world, but the geoecology of these outcrops is still poorly studied despite severe conservation threats...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504834/resource-stoichiometry-and-availability-modulate-species-richness-and-biomass-of-tropical-litter-macro-invertebrates
#8
Malte Jochum, Andrew D Barnes, Patrick Weigelt, David Ott, Katja Rembold, Achmad Farajallah, Ulrich Brose
1. The high biodiversity and biomass of soil communities is crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality, and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500804/a-large-outbreak-of-thiamine-deficiency-among-illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana
#9
Emilie Mosnier, Florence Niemetzky, Juliette Stroot, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Paul Brousse, Basma Guarmit, Denis Blanchet, Muriel Ville, Philippe Abboud, Felix Djossou, Mathieu Nacher
AbstractFrom September 2013 to July 2014, several gold miners working in the tropical forest consulted the Maripasoula Health Center in French Guiana for edema and findings consistent with right-sided cardiac failure. Of the 42 cases of beriberi that were diagnosed, one patient died. The laboratory and clinical investigation demonstrated vitamin B1 deficiency in most of the patients tested. Furthermore, 30 of 42 patients responded favorably to 500 mg of intravenous or intramuscular thiamine supplementation...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500789/atlantic-small-mammal-a-dataset-of-communities-of-rodents-and-marsupials-of-the-atlantic-forests-of-south-america
#10
Ricardo S Bovendorp, Nacho Villar, Edson F de Abreu-Junior, Carolina Bello, André L Regolin, Alexandre R Percequillo, Mauro Galetti
The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500421/seasonal-fluctuations-of-astrovirus-but-not-coronavirus-shedding-in-bats-inhabiting-human-modified-tropical-forests
#11
Anne Seltmann, Victor M Corman, Andrea Rasche, Christian Drosten, Gábor Á Czirják, Henry Bernard, Matthew J Struebig, Christian C Voigt
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are considered a major threat to global health. Most EIDs appear to result from increased contact between wildlife and humans, especially when humans encroach into formerly pristine habitats. Habitat deterioration may also negatively affect the physiology and health of wildlife species, which may eventually lead to a higher susceptibility to infectious agents and/or increased shedding of the pathogens causing EIDs. Bats are known to host viruses closely related to important EIDs...
May 12, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500284/hotspot-analyses-indicate-significant-conservation-gaps-for-evergreen-broadleaved-woody-plants-in-china
#12
Yue Xu, Zehao Shen, Lingxiao Ying, Zhiheng Wang, Jihong Huang, Runguo Zang, Youxu Jiang
Evergreen broadleaved woody plants (EBWPs) are dominant components in forests and savanna of the global tropic and subtropic regions. Southern China possesses the largest continuous area of subtropical EBWPs distribution, harboring a high proportion of endemic species. Hotspot and gap analyses are effective methods for analyzing the spatial pattern of biodiversity and conservation and were used here for EBWPs in China. Based on a distribution data set of 6,265 EBWPs with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 km, we measured diversity of EBWPs in China using four indices: species richness, corrected weighted endemism, relative phylogenetic diversity, and phylogenetic endemism...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494004/increasing-land-use-intensity-reverses-the-relative-occupancy-of-two-quadrupedal-scavengers
#13
Joshua P Twining, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482109/organic-and-inorganic-nitrogen-uptake-by-21-dominant-tree-species-in-temperate-and-tropical-forests
#14
Min Liu, Changcheng Li, Xingliang Xu, Wolfgang Wanek, Ning Jiang, Huimin Wang, Xiaodong Yang
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest...
May 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481404/mendelian-inheritance-genetic-linkage-and-genotypic-disequilibrium-for-nine-microsatellite-loci-in-cariniana-estrellensis-raddi-kuntze-lecythidaceae
#15
T Y K Kubota, A M Silva, J Cambuim, A A Silva, S Pupin, M S Silva, M A Moraes, M L T Moraes, A M Sebbenn
Cariniana estrellensis is one of the largest trees found in Brazilian tropical forests. The species is typical of advanced stages of succession, characteristic of climax forests, and essential in genetic conservation and environmental restoration plans. In this study, we assessed Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in nine microsatellite loci for a C. estrellensis population. We sampled and genotyped 285 adult trees and collected seeds from 20 trees in a fragmented forest landscape in Brazil...
May 4, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480629/drivers-of-tree-fecundity-in-pedunculate-oak-quercus-robur-refugial-populations-at-the-species-southwestern-range-margin
#16
Eva Moracho, Pedro Jordano, Arndt Hampe
RATIONALE: The current low-latitudinal range margins of many extra-tropical plant species consist of small and scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial distribution affects mating patterns and reproductive success. Here we examine flower and acorn production and their determinants in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). METHODS: We monitored male flower, female flower and acorn production in 159 adult trees from 12 oak stands over two years...
May 8, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477048/growth-and-reproduction-respond-differently-to-climate-in-three-neotropical-tree-species
#17
Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, J Julio Camarero
The response of tropical forests to anthropogenic climate change is critically important to future global carbon budgets, yet remains highly uncertain. Here, we investigate how precipitation, temperature, solar radiation and dry- and wet-season lengths are related to annual tree growth, flower production, and fruit production in three moist tropical forest tree species using long-term datasets from tree rings and litter traps in central Panama. We also evaluated how growth, flower, and fruit production were interrelated...
May 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474209/climatic-induced-shifts-in-the-distribution-of-teak-tectona-grandis-in-tropical-asia-implications-for-forest-management-and-planning
#18
Jiban Chandra Deb, Stuart Phinn, Nathalie Butt, Clive A McAlpine
Modelling the future suitable climate space for tree species has become a widely used tool for forest management planning under global climate change. Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most valuable tropical hardwood species in the international timber market, and natural teak forests are distributed from India through Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. The extents of teak forests are shrinking due to deforestation and the local impacts of global climate change. However, the direct impacts of climate changes on the continental-scale distributions of native and non-native teak have not been examined...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473393/high-quality-draft-genome-sequences-of-four-lignocellulose-degrading-bacteria-isolated-from-puerto-rican-forest-soil-gordonia-sp-paenibacillus-sp-variovorax-sp-and-vogesella-sp
#19
Hannah L Woo, Kristen M DeAngelis, Hazuki Teshima, Karen Davenport, Hajnalka Daligault, Tracy Erkkila, Lynne Goodwin, Wei Gu, Chien-Chi Lo, Christine Munk, Matthew Scholz, Yan Xu, Patrick Chain, David Bruce, Chris Detter, Roxanne Tapia, Cliff Han, Blake A Simmons, Terry C Hazen
Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequences of four phylogenetically diverse lignocellulose-degrading bacteria isolated from tropical soil (Gordonia sp., Paenibacillus sp., Variovorax sp., and Vogesella sp.) to elucidate the genetic basis of their ability to degrade lignocellulose. These isolates may provide novel enzymes for biofuel production.
May 4, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472589/patterns-of-genomic-diversification-reflect-differences-in-life-history-and-reproductive-biology-between-figs-ficus-and-the-stone-oaks-lithocarpus
#20
Chai-Shian Kua, Charles Cannon
One of the remarkable aspects of the tremendous biodiversity found in tropical forests is the wide range of evolutionary strategies that have produced this diversity, indicating many paths to diversification. We compare two diverse groups of trees with profoundly different biologies to discover whether these differences are reflected in their genomes. Ficus (Moraceae), with its complex co-evolutionary relationship with obligate pollinating wasps, produces copious tiny seeds which are widely dispersed. Lithocarpus (Fagaceae), with generalized insect pollination, produces large seeds that are poorly dispersed...
May 4, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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