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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738511/litter-thickness-but-not-root-biomass-explains-the-average-and-spatial-structure-of-soil-hydraulic-conductivity-in-secondary-forests-and-coffee-agroecosystems-in-veracruz-mexico
#1
B E Marín-Castro, S Negrete-Yankelevich, D Geissert
Secondary forests and coffee agroecosystems are considered good alternatives for conservation of a high capacity for water filtration in the soil where tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) once grew; however, it is not clear which characteristics of the vegetation modulate the field saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil (Kfs) and whether these characteristics persist in such derived systems. Here, we explore how changes in vegetation between secondary forests and coffee agroecosystems have consequences for the average value and spatial variation of litter thickness and root biomass, and whether these differences can explain the Kfs and its spatial distribution...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737737/tropical-forest-conservation-developing-without-deforestation
#2
Ben Phalan, Reem Hajjar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734050/estimating-synchronous-demographic-changes-across-populations-using-habc-and-its-application-for-a-herpetological-community-from-northeastern-brazil
#3
Marcelo Gehara, Adrian Antonio Garda, Fernanda P Werneck, Eliana F Oliveira, Emanuel Masiero da Fonseca, Felipe Camurugi, Felipe M de Magalhães, Flávia Mol Lanna, Jack W Sites, Ricardo Marques, Ricardo Silveira-Filho, Vinícius A São Pedro, Guarino R Colli, Gabriel C Costa, Frank T Burbrink
Many studies propose that Quaternary climatic cycles contracted and /or expanded the ranges of species and biomes. Strong expansion-contraction dynamics of biomes presume concerted demographic changes of associated fauna. The analysis of temporal concordance of demographic changes can be used to test the influence of Quaternary climate on diversification processes. Hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) is a powerful and flexible approach that models genetic data from multiple species, and can be used to estimate the temporal concordance of demographic processes...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733024/ecohealth-research-in-africa-where-from-where-to
#4
EDITORIAL
Robert Bergquist, Norbert W Brattig, Moses J Chimbari, Jakob Zinsstag, Jürg Utzinger
Epidemiological mapping and risk profiling build on the idea that diseases are tied to social-ecological systems that govern the distribution and abundance of transmissible pathogens, vectors and hosts. This is the heart of the emerging field of ecohealth, which examines how biological, cultural, demographic, economic, physical, political and social environments change can affect the health and wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems and the services they provide. This paper is an overview of a special issue of Acta Tropica, whose 15 publications reflect a geographically and epidemiologically diverse landscape of ecohealth in Africa...
July 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732022/global-economic-trade-offs-between-wild-nature-and-tropical-agriculture
#5
Luis R Carrasco, Edward L Webb, William S Symes, Lian P Koh, Navjot S Sodhi
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731828/geographical-variation-in-community-divergence-insights-from-tropical-forest-monodominance-by-ectomycorrhizal-trees
#6
Tadashi Fukami, Mifuyu Nakajima, Claire Fortunel, Paul V A Fine, Christopher Baraloto, Sabrina E Russo, Kabir G Peay
Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterized by diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. Such monodominance is a striking potential example of community divergence resulting in alternative stable states...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731827/convergence-consilience-and-the-evolution-of-temperate-deciduous-forests
#7
Erika J Edwards, David S Chatelet, Bo-Chang Chen, Jin Yao Ong, Shuichiro Tagane, Hironobu Kanemitsu, Kazuki Tagawa, Kentaro Teramoto, Brian Park, Kuo-Fang Chung, Jer-Ming Hu, Tetsukazu Yahara, Michael J Donoghue
The deciduous habit of northern temperate trees and shrubs provides one of the most obvious examples of convergent evolution, but how did it evolve? Hypotheses based on the fossil record posit that deciduousness evolved first in response to drought or darkness and preadapted certain lineages as cold climates spread. An alternative is that evergreens first established in freezing environments and later evolved the deciduous habit. We monitored phenological patterns of 20 species of Viburnum spanning tropical, lucidophyllous (subtropical montane and warm temperate), and cool temperate Asian forests...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731793/phylogeny-traits-and-biodiversity-of-a-neotropical-bat-assemblage-close-relatives-show-similar-responses-to-local-deforestation
#8
Hannah K Frank, Luke O Frishkoff, Chase D Mendenhall, Gretchen C Daily, Elizabeth A Hadly
If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729670/forest-edge-disturbance-increases-rattan-abundance-in-tropical-rain-forest-fragments
#9
Mason J Campbell, Will Edwards, Ainhoa Magrach, Susan G Laurance, Mohammed Alamgir, Gabriel Porolak, William F Laurance
Human-induced forest fragmentation poses one of the largest threats to global diversity yet its impact on rattans (climbing palms) has remained virtually unexplored. Rattan is arguably the world's most valuable non-timber forest product though current levels of harvesting and land-use change place wild populations at risk. To assess rattan response to fragmentation exclusive of harvesting impacts we examined rattan abundance, demography and ecology within the forests of northeastern, Australia. We assessed the community abundance of rattans, and component adult (>3 m) and juvenile (≤3 m) abundance in five intact forests and five fragments (23-58 ha) to determine their response to a range of environmental and ecological parameters...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729633/threats-to-large-brown-algal-forests-in-temperate-seas-the-overlooked-role-of-native-herbivorous-fish
#10
Fabrizio Gianni, Fabrizio Bartolini, Alexis Pey, Mathieu Laurent, Gustavo M Martins, Laura Airoldi, Luisa Mangialajo
Canopy-forming algae are declining globally due to multiple disturbances. This decline has recently been on the increase due to the spread of some tropical herbivorous fishes. This new phenomenon has drawn attention to the effects of fish herbivory in temperate areas, which have been assumed to be negligible compared to that of invertebrates, such as sea urchins. In this study, the impact of a Mediterranean native herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa, salema) was assessed on the canopy-forming seaweed Cystoseira amentacea var...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728308/methane-uptake-in-global-forest-and-grassland-soils-from-1981-to-2010
#11
Lijun Yu, Yao Huang, Wen Zhang, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun
Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Although forest and grassland soils generally consume atmospheric CH4, the quantities and spatiotemporal changes in CH4 uptake remain largely uncertain for these ecosystems at the global scale. In this study, we developed an empirical model to estimate the CH4 uptake in global forest and grassland soils during the period 1981-2010. We estimated that the mean values of CH4 uptake were 9.16 (± 3.84) Tg yr(-1) in forest soils and 3.73 (± 1.41) Tg yr(-1) in grassland soils during the study period...
July 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727200/landscape-genetic-analyses-reveal-fine-scale-effects-of-forest-fragmentation-in-an-insular-tropical-bird
#12
Aurélie Khimoun, William Peterman, Cyril Eraud, Bruno Faivre, Nicolas Navarro, Stéphane Garnier
Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest-specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea)...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725395/reduced-aboveground-tree-growth-associated-with-higher-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-in-tropical-forest-restoration
#13
Ellen K Holste, Karen D Holl, Rakan A Zahawi, Richard K Kobe
Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species (Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721215/assessment-of-season-dependent-body-condition-scores-in-relation-to-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-in-free-ranging-asian-elephants
#14
Sanjeeta Sharma Pokharel, Polani B Seshagiri, Raman Sukumar
We studied seasonal and annual changes in visual body condition scores (BCSs), and assessed how these scores were related to levels of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the seasonally dry tropical forests of the Mysore and Nilgiri Elephant Reserves in southern India. We assessed the animals' BCS visually on a scale of 1 to 5; where 1 represents a very thin and 5 represents a very fat elephant. To understand the influence of seasonality on BCS, we sampled the population during dry (n = 398) and wet seasons (n = 255) of 2013 and 2015 while, for annual changes in BCS, we sampled nine free-ranging adult females from different family groups that had been repeatedly sighted over seven years...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717252/rain-induced-changes-in-soil-co2-flux-and-microbial-community-composition-in-a-tropical-forest-of-china
#15
Qi Deng, Dafeng Hui, Guowei Chu, Xi Han, Quanfa Zhang
Rain-induced soil CO2 pulse, a rapid excitation in soil CO2 flux after rain, is ubiquitously observed in terrestrial ecosystems, yet the underlying mechanisms in tropical forests are still not clear. We conducted a rain simulation experiment to quantify rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest. Soil CO2 flux rapidly increased by ~83% after rains, accompanied by increases in both bacterial (~51%) and fungal (~58%) Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) biomass. However, soil CO2 flux and microbial community in the plots without litters showed limited response to rains...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716927/nuclear-genomes-distinguish-cryptic-species-suggested-by-their-dna-barcodes-and-ecology
#16
Daniel H Janzen, John M Burns, Qian Cong, Winnie Hallwachs, Tanya Dapkey, Ramya Manjunath, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Paul D N Hebert, Nick V Grishin
DNA sequencing brings another dimension to exploration of biodiversity, and large-scale mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding has exposed many potential new cryptic species. Here, we add complete nuclear genome sequencing to DNA barcoding, ecological distribution, natural history, and subtleties of adult color pattern and size to show that a widespread neotropical skipper butterfly known as Udranomia kikkawai (Weeks) comprises three different species in Costa Rica. Full-length barcodes obtained from all three century-old Venezuelan syntypes of U...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708897/climate-drivers-of-the-amazon-forest-greening
#17
Fabien Hubert Wagner, Bruno Hérault, Vivien Rossi, Thomas Hilker, Eduardo Eiji Maeda, Alber Sanchez, Alexei I Lyapustin, Lênio Soares Galvão, Yujie Wang, Luiz E O C Aragão
Our limited understanding of the climate controls on tropical forest seasonality is one of the biggest sources of uncertainty in modeling climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Combining leaf production, litterfall and climate observations from satellite and ground data in the Amazon forest, we show that seasonal variation in leaf production is largely triggered by climate signals, specifically, insolation increase (70.4% of the total area) and precipitation increase (29.6%). Increase of insolation drives leaf growth in the absence of water limitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708878/reforestation-induced-changes-of-landscape-composition-and-configuration-modulate-freshwater-supply-and-flooding-risk-of-tropical-watersheds
#18
Qiong Gao, Mei Yu
Impact of changes in land cover and land use on hydrological service of tropical watersheds is one of the focal research tropics in both hydrology and Land Cover Land Use Changes (LCLUC). Land fragmentation is an important feature of LCLUC, however, its impact on hydrological service of tropical watershed is unclear despite a few theoretical frameworks. In this paper, we described a simulation study of eight tropical watersheds in Puerto Rico using the Soil Water Assessment Tool. Annual average stream discharge was derived according to the simulations with the land cover maps in 1977, 1991, and 2000...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#19
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
July 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706988/unsustainable-development-pathways-caused-by-tropical-deforestation
#20
Luis Roman Carrasco, Thi Phuong Le Nghiem, Zhirong Chen, Edward B Barbier
Global sustainability strategies require assessing whether countries' development trajectories are sustainable over time. However, sustainability assessments are limited because losses of natural capital and its ecosystem services through deforestation have not been comprehensively incorporated into national accounts. We update the national accounts of 80 nations that underwent tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012 and evaluate their development trajectories using weak and strong sustainability criteria...
July 2017: Science Advances
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