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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444952/similarity-in-volatile-communities-leads-to-increased-herbivory-and-greater-tropical-forest-diversity
#1
Tara Joy Massad, Marcílio Martins de Moraes, Casey Philbin, Celso Oliveira, Gerardo Cebrian Torrejon, Lydia Fumiko Yamaguchi, Christopher S Jeffrey, Lee A Dyer, Lora A Richards, Massuo Jorge Kato
A longstanding paradigm in ecology is that there are positive associations between herbivore diversity, specialization, and plant species diversity, with a focus on taxonomic diversity. However, phytochemical diversity is also an informative metric, as insect herbivores interact with host-plants not as taxonomic entities, but as sources of nutrients, primary metabolites, and mixtures of attractant and repellant chemicals. The present research examines herbivore responses to phytochemical diversity measured as volatile similarity in the tropical genus Piper...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441412/the-role-of-climate-and-environmental-variables-in-structuring-bird-assemblages-in-the-seasonally-dry-tropical-forests-sdtfs
#2
Gabriela Silva Ribeiro Gonçalves, Pablo Vieira Cerqueira, Leandro Schlemmer Brasil, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos
Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439536/types-and-rates-of-forest-disturbance-in-brazilian-legal-amazon-2000-2013
#3
Alexandra Tyukavina, Matthew C Hansen, Peter V Potapov, Stephen V Stehman, Kevin Smith-Rodriguez, Chima Okpa, Ricardo Aguilar
Deforestation rates in primary humid tropical forests of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have declined significantly since the early 2000s. Brazil's national forest monitoring system provides extensive information for the BLA but lacks independent validation and systematic coverage outside of primary forests. We use a sample-based approach to consistently quantify 2000-2013 tree cover loss in all forest types of the region and characterize the types of forest disturbance. Our results provide unbiased forest loss area estimates, which confirm the reduction of primary forest clearing (deforestation) documented by official maps...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434535/fruits-of-the-forest-human-stable-isotope-ecology-and-rainforest-adaptations-in-late-pleistocene-and-holocene-%C3%A2-36-to-3-ka-sri-lanka
#4
Patrick Roberts, Nimal Perera, Oshan Wedage, Siran Deraniyagala, Jude Perera, Saman Eregama, Michael D Petraglia, Julia A Lee-Thorp
Sri Lanka has yielded some of the earliest dated fossil evidence for Homo sapiens (∼38-35,000 cal. years BP [calibrated years before present]) in South Asia, within a region that is today covered by tropical rainforest. Archaeozoological and archaeobotanical evidence indicates that these hunter-gatherers exploited tropical forest resources, yet the contribution of these resources to their overall subsistence strategies has, as in other Late Pleistocene rainforest settings, remained relatively unexplored...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#5
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#6
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#7
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure Amazon forests. Two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others; and therefore, the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses were investigated. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ) and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424205/the-use-of-soil-pollen-to-determine-the-sex-of-overhead-individuals-of-a-temperate-dioecious-shrub
#8
Anna Sugiyama, Koji Shichi, Takashi Masaki, Stephen P Hubbell
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In dioecious species, determining the sex of individual plants from one-time phenological observations is rarely feasible when some individuals capable of reproducing are not flowering or fruiting at the time of observation. Currently, sexing those individuals requires long-term phenological data on individuals and populations, but such data are rarely available or feasible to collect. We tested the hypothesis that differences in soil pollen concentrations beneath the crowns of female and male plants would exist and be sufficient to reliably determine the sex of the individual plant overhead in a dioecious species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423423/invertebrates-fungal-biomass-and-leaf-breakdown-in-pools-and-riffles-of-neotropical-streams
#9
Renato Tavares Martins, Lidimara Souza da Silveira, Marcos Pereira Lopes, Roberto Gama Alves
We evaluated fungal biomass (as ergosterol concentration) and invertebrate colonization during leaf breakdown of Picramnia sellowii Planch. (Picramniaceae) in pools and riffles of three low-order forested streams in southeastern Brazil. We hypothesized that leaf breakdown will be higher in riffles due to the high physical fragmentation and fungal activity. The experiment was carried out during the dry season of 2012, using 108 litter bags, each containing 3 ± 0.05 g of air-dried leaves. After 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of incubation, six litter bags (riffle = 3 and pool = 3) were removed from each stream...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419436/ammonia-oxidizer-populations-vary-with-nitrogen-cycling-across-a-tropical-montane-mean-annual-temperature-gradient
#10
S Pierre, I Hewson, J P Sparks, C M Litton, C Giardina, P M Groffman, T J Fahey
Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil N cycling and availability by using a highly constrained natural mean annual temperature (MAT) elevation gradient in a tropical montane wet forest...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419434/estimating-species-richness-in-hyper-diverse-large-tree-communities
#11
Hans Ter Steege, Daniel Sabatier, Sylvia Mota de Oliveira, William E Magnusson, Jean-François Molino, Vitor F Gomes, Edwin T Pos, Rafael P Salomão
Species richness estimation is one of the most widely used analyses carried out by ecologists, and nonparametric estimators are probably the most used techniques to carry out such estimations. We tested the assumptions and results of nonparametric estimators and those of a logseries approach to species richness estimation for simulated tropical forests and five datasets from the field. We conclude that nonparametric estimators are not suitable to estimate species richness in tropical forests, where sampling intensity is usually low and richness is high, because the assumptions of the methods do not meet the sampling strategy used in most studies...
April 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419347/evolutionary-trade-offs-between-drought-resistance-mechanisms-across-a-precipitation-gradient-in-a-seasonally-dry-tropical-oak-quercus-oleoides
#12
Jose A Ramírez-Valiente, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
In seasonally dry tropical forest regions, drought avoidance during the dry season coupled with high assimilation rates in the wet season is hypothesized to be an advantageous strategy for forest trees in regions with severe and long dry seasons. In contrast, where dry seasons are milder, drought tolerance coupled with a conservative resource-use strategy is expected to maximize carbon assimilation throughout the year. Tests of this hypothesis, particularly at the intraspecific level, have been seldom conducted...
April 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418158/the-phenology-of-leaf-quality-and-its-within-canopy-variation-are-essential-for-accurate-modeling-of-photosynthesis-in-tropical-evergreen-forests
#13
Jin Wu, Shawn P Serbin, Xiangtao Xu, Loren P Albert, Min Chen, Ran Meng, Scott R Saleska, Alistair Rogers
Leaf quantity (i.e. canopy leaf area index, LAI), quality (i.e. per-area photosynthetic capacity), and longevity all influence the photosynthetic seasonality of tropical evergreen forests. However, these components of tropical leaf phenology are poorly represented in most terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). Here, we explored alternative options for the representation of leaf phenology effects in TBMs that employ the Farquahar, von Caemmerer & Berry (FvCB) representation of CO2 assimilation. We developed a two-fraction leaf (sun and shade), two-layer canopy (upper and lower) photosynthesis model to evaluate different modeling approaches and assessed three components of phenological variations (i...
April 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417324/current-remote-sensing-approaches-to-monitoring-forest-degradation-in-support-of-countries-measurement-reporting-and-verification-mrv-systems-for-redd
#14
REVIEW
Anthea L Mitchell, Ake Rosenqvist, Brice Mora
Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414883/temperature-and-rainfall-interact-to-control-carbon-cycling-in-tropical-forests
#15
REVIEW
Philip G Taylor, Cory C Cleveland, William R Wieder, Benjamin W Sullivan, Christopher E Doughty, Solomon Z Dobrowski, Alan R Townsend
Tropical forests dominate global terrestrial carbon (C) exchange, and recent droughts in the Amazon Basin have contributed to short-term declines in terrestrial carbon dioxide uptake and storage. However, the effects of longer-term climate variability on tropical forest carbon dynamics are still not well understood. We synthesised field data from more than 150 tropical forest sites to explore how climate regulates tropical forest aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and organic matter decomposition, and combined those data with two existing databases to explore climate - C relationships globally...
April 17, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414813/dna-barcoding-evaluation-and-implications-for-phylogenetic-relationships-in-lauraceae-from-china
#16
Zhi-Fang Liu, Xiu-Qin Ci, Lang Li, Hsi-Wen Li, John G Conran, Jie Li
Lauraceae are an important component of tropical and subtropical forests and have major ecological and economic significance. Owing to lack of clear-cut morphological differences between genera and species, this family is an ideal case for testing the efficacy of DNA barcoding in the identification and discrimination of species and genera. In this study, we evaluated five widely recommended plant DNA barcode loci matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS2 and the entire ITS region for 409 individuals representing 133 species, 12 genera from China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413850/scenarios-in-tropical-forest-degradation-carbon-stock-trajectories-for-redd
#17
REVIEW
Rafael B de Andrade, Jennifer K Balch, Amoreena L Parsons, Dolors Armenteras, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Janette Bulkan
BACKGROUND: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i) develop short-term emissions factors (per area) for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii) describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413848/impact-of-data-model-and-point-density-on-aboveground-forest-biomass-estimation-from-airborne-lidar
#18
Mariano Garcia, Sassan Saatchi, Antonio Ferraz, Carlos Alberto Silva, Susan Ustin, Alexander Koltunov, Heiko Balzter
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Different sensors and survey configurations can affect the metrics derived from the LiDAR data...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413847/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-tropical-forest-degradation-an-underestimated-source
#19
Timothy R H Pearson, Sandra Brown, Lara Murray, Gabriel Sidman
BACKGROUND: The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410432/patterns-of-orchid-bee-species-diversity-and-turnover-among-forested-plateaus-of-central-amazonia
#20
Yasmine Antonini, Carolina de Barros Machado, Pedro Manoel Galetti, Marcio Oliveira, Rodolfo Dirzo, Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia...
2017: PloS One
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