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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146777/comment-on-the-extent-of-forest-in-dryland-biomes
#1
Daniel M Griffith, Caroline E R Lehmann, Caroline A E Strömberg, Catherine L Parr, R Toby Pennington, Mahesh Sankaran, Jayashree Ratnam, Christopher J Still, Rebecca L Powell, Niall P Hanan, Jesse B Nippert, Colin P Osborne, Stephen P Good, T Michael Anderson, Ricardo M Holdo, Joseph W Veldman, Giselda Durigan, Kyle W Tomlinson, William A Hoffmann, Sally Archibald, William J Bond
Bastin et al (Reports, 12 May 2017, p. 635) infer forest as more globally extensive than previously estimated using tree cover data. However, their forest definition does not reflect ecosystem function or biotic composition. These structural and climatic definitions inflate forest estimates across the tropics and undermine conservation goals, leading to inappropriate management policies and practices in tropical grassy ecosystems.
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#2
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140600/vegetation-cover-another-dominant-factor-in-determining-global-water-resources-in-forested-regions
#3
Xiaohua Wei, Qiang Li, Mingfang Zhang, Krysta Giles-Hansen, Wenfei Liu, Houbao Fan, Yi Wang, Guoyi Zhou, Shilong Piao, Shirong Liu
Forested catchments provide critically important water resources. Due to dramatic global forest change over the past decades, the importance of including forest or vegetation change in the assessment of water resources under climate change has been highly recognized by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, this importance has not yet been examined quantitatively across the globe. Here, we used four remote sensing-based indices to represent changes in vegetation cover in forest dominated regions, and then applied them to widely-used models: the Fuh model and the Choudhury-Yang model to assess relative contributions of vegetation and climate changes to annual runoff variations from 2000 to 2011 in forested landscape (forest coverage > 30%) across the globe...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137616/foraging-dispersion-of-ryukyu-flying-foxes-and-relationships-with-fig-abundance-in-east-asian-subtropical-island-forests
#4
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Hsin-Yi Chang, Chi-Feng Tsai, Shigeyuki Baba
BACKGROUND: Figs are widely distributed key resources to many tropical-subtropical animals, and flying-foxes are major consumers and seed dispersers of figs. Bat-fig interrelationships, however, may vary among species differing in fruiting traits, i.e., bat- versus bird-dispersed figs. We examined Ryukyu flying-fox foraging dispersion and the relationships with tree species composition and fig abundance in forests of Iriomote Island. RESULTS: Bat foraging dispersion showed no spatial patterns with respect to different areas of the island, and was not explained by heterogeneity, density, or basal area (BA) of total trees, nor by relative density or BA of fruiting trees or total fruiting figs among sites...
November 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134399/influence-of-soil-pathogens-on-early-regeneration-success-of-tropical-trees-varies-between-forest-edge-and-interior
#5
Meghna Krishnadas, Liza S Comita
Soil fungi are key mediators of negative density-dependent mortality in seeds and seedlings, and the ability to withstand pathogens in the shaded understory of closed-canopy forests could reinforce light gradient partitioning by tree species. For four species of tropical rainforest trees-two shade-tolerant and two shade-intolerant-we conducted a field experiment to examine the interactive effects of fungal pathogens, light, and seed density on germination and early seedling establishment. In a fully factorial design, seeds were sown into 1 m(2) plots containing soil collected from underneath conspecific adult trees, with plots assigned to forest edge (high light) or shaded understory, high or low density, and fungicide or no fungicide application...
November 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134195/ecological-restoration-success-is-higher-for-natural-regeneration-than-for-active-restoration-in-tropical-forests
#6
Renato Crouzeilles, Mariana S Ferreira, Robin L Chazdon, David B Lindenmayer, Jerônimo B B Sansevero, Lara Monteiro, Alvaro Iribarrem, Agnieszka E Latawiec, Bernardo B N Strassburg
Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128984/taxonomic-resolution-and-functional-traits-in-the-analysis-of-tropical-oribatid-mite-assemblages
#7
Maria A Minor, Sergey G Ermilov, Alexei V Tiunov
We analysed species-level datasets representing Oribatida assemblages along a gradient of old-growth primary tropical forests, secondary forests, and plantation forests in Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam. We identified patterns in abundance, species richness and species assemblages of Oribatida, then applied taxonomic sufficiency approach to the datasets. Using three levels of higher-taxon aggregation, we evaluated whether aggregated datasets are useful in identifying ecological patterns, in comparison to species-level data...
November 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128249/nationwide-ground-level-ozone-measurements-in-china-suggest-serious-risks-to-forests
#8
Pin Li, Alessandra De Marco, Zhaozhong Feng, Alessandro Anav, Daojing Zhou, Elena Paoletti
We processed hourly ozone (O3) concentrations collected in 2015 and in 2016 by a network of 1497 stations across China, with the main aim of assessing the risk that present ambient O3 exposure is posing to Chinese forests. Our results indicate that the values of the metrics AOT40 (the accumulated hourly O3 concentrations above 40 ppb during daylight hours) recommended as European Union standard, and W126 (the sum of weighted hourly concentrations from 8:00 to 20:00) recommended as USA standard for forest protection, exceeded the critical levels (5 ppm h across 6 months for AOT40 and 7-21 ppm h over 3 months for W126) on average by 5...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127217/adding-landscape-genetics-and-individual-traits-to-the-ecosystem-function-paradigm-reveals-the-importance-of-species-functional-breadth
#9
Antonio R Castilla, Nathaniel S Pope, Megan O'Connell, María F Rodriguez, Laurel Treviño, Alonso Santos, Shalene Jha
Animal pollination mediates both reproduction and gene flow for the majority of plant species across the globe. However, past functional studies have focused largely on seed production; although useful, this focus on seed set does not provide information regarding species-specific contributions to pollen-mediated gene flow. Here we quantify pollen dispersal for individual pollinator species across more than 690 ha of tropical forest. Specifically, we examine visitation, seed production, and pollen-dispersal ability for the entire pollinator community of a common tropical tree using a series of individual-based pollinator-exclusion experiments followed by molecular-based fractional paternity analyses...
November 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126640/the-response-of-tree-growth-to-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-additions-in-a-tropical-montane-rainforest
#10
Lai Jiang, Di Tian, Suhui Ma, Xuli Zhou, Longchao Xu, Jianxiao Zhu, Xin Jing, Chengyang Zheng, Haihua Shen, Zhang Zhou, Yide Li, Biao Zhu, Jingyun Fang
Rapid increase of global nitrogen (N) deposition has greatly altered carbon cycles and functioning of forest ecosystems. Previous studies have focused on changes in carbon dynamics of temperate and subtropical forests through N enrichment experiments; however, the effects of N deposition on tree growth remain inconsistent, especially in tropical forests. Here, we conducted a five-year N addition experiment (0 and 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1)) in a tropical montane rain forest in Hainan Island, China, to explore the effects of enhanced N deposition on growth of trees...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118358/spatial-distribution-of-carbon-stored-in-forests-of-the%C3%A2-democratic-republic-of-congo
#11
Liang Xu, Sassan S Saatchi, Aurélie Shapiro, Victoria Meyer, Antonio Ferraz, Yan Yang, Jean-Francois Bastin, Norman Banks, Pascal Boeckx, Hans Verbeeck, Simon L Lewis, Elvis Tshibasu Muanza, Eddy Bongwele, Francois Kayembe, Daudet Mbenza, Laurent Kalau, Franck Mukendi, Francis Ilunga, Daniel Ebuta
National forest inventories in tropical regions are sparse and have large uncertainty in capturing the physiographical variations of forest carbon across landscapes. Here, we produce for the first time the spatial patterns of carbon stored in forests of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) by using airborne LiDAR inventory of more than 432,000 ha of forests based on a designed probability sampling methodology. The LiDAR mean top canopy height measurements were trained to develop an unbiased carbon estimator by using 92 1-ha ground plots distributed across key forest types in DRC...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118136/variably-hungry-caterpillars-predictive-models-and-foliar-chemistry-suggest-how-to-eat-a-rainforest
#12
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M Redmond, Margaret E Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E Miller, George D Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of host plant use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here, we used standardized food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in a species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions for two hectares of an exhaustively sampled forest...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117202/oil-palm-monoculture-induces-drastic-erosion-of-an-amazonian-forest-mammal-fauna
#13
Ana Cristina Mendes-Oliveira, Carlos A Peres, Paula Cristina R de A Maués, Geovana Linhares Oliveira, Ivo G B Mineiro, Susanne L Silva de Maria, Renata C S Lima
Oil palm monoculture comprises one of the most financially attractive land-use options in tropical forests, but cropland suitability overlaps the distribution of many highly threatened vertebrate species. We investigated how forest mammals respond to a landscape mosaic, including mature oil palm plantations and primary forest patches in Eastern Amazonia. Using both line-transect censuses (LTC) and camera-trapping (CT), we quantified the general patterns of mammal community structure and attempted to identify both species life-history traits and the environmental and spatial covariates that govern species intolerance to oil palm monoculture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104539/annonaceae-breaking-the-wall-of-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Ali Attiq, Juriyati Jalil, Khairana Husain
Inventories of tropical forests have listed Annonaceae as one of the most diverse plant families. For centuries, it is employed in traditional medicines to cure various pathological conditions including snakebite, analgesic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, arthritis pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, and weight loss etc. Phytochemical analysis of Annonaceae family have reported the occurrence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene flavone glycosides, sterols, lignans, and annonaceous acetogenin characteristically affiliated with Annonaceae sp...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100686/carbon-exchanges-and-their-responses-to-temperature-and-precipitation-in-forest-ecosystems-in-yunnan-southwest-china
#15
Xuehai Fei, Qinghai Song, Yiping Zhang, Yuntong Liu, Liqing Sha, Guirui Yu, Leiming Zhang, Changqun Duan, Yun Deng, Chuansheng Wu, Zhiyun Lu, Kang Luo, Aiguo Chen, Kun Xu, Weiwei Liu, Hua Huang, Yanqiang Jin, Ruiwu Zhou, Jing Li, Youxing Lin, Liguo Zhou, Yane Fu, Xiaolong Bai, Xianhui Tang, Jinbo Gao, Wenjun Zhou, John Grace
Forest ecosystems play an increasingly important role in the global carbon cycle. However, knowledge on carbon exchanges, their spatio-temporal patterns, and the extent of the key controls that affect carbon fluxes is lacking. In this study, we employed 29-site-years of eddy covariance data to observe the state, spatio-temporal variations and climate sensitivity of carbon fluxes (gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE)) in four representative forest ecosystems in Yunnan...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097728/a-fossil-species-of-the-enigmatic-early-polypod-fern-genus-cystodium-cystodiaceae-in-cretaceous-amber-from-myanmar
#16
Ledis Regalado, Alexander R Schmidt, Marc S Appelhans, Bork Ilsemann, Harald Schneider, Michael Krings, Jochen Heinrichs
The monospecific fern genus Cystodium (Cystodiaceae; Polypodiales) occurs exclusively in the tropical forests of the Malay Archipelago, the Admiralty Islands, the Louisiade Archipelago, and the Solomon Islands. Divergence time estimates suggest that the genus originated in the Mesozoic; however, fossil evidence to validate this suggestion has been lacking. Amber from Myanmar (Burmese amber) is an important source of new information on the diversity of vascular cryptogams in the Cretaceous. This paper describes the fossil taxon Cystodium sorbifolioides nov...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095549/landscape-level-effects-on-aboveground-biomass-of-tropical-forests-a-conceptual-framework
#17
Melina Melito, Jean Paul Metzger, Alexandre Adalardo De Oliveira
Despite the general recognition that fragmentation can reduce forest biomass through edge effects, a systematic review of the literature does not reveal a clear role of edges in modulating biomass loss. Additionally, the edge effects appear to be constrained by matrix type, suggesting that landscape composition has an influence on biomass stocks. The lack of empirical evidence of pervasive edge-related biomass losses across tropical forests highlights the necessity for a general framework linking landscape structure with aboveground biomass...
November 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095520/the-grand-challenge-of-great-ape-health-and-conservation-in-the-anthropocene
#18
Dominic A Travis, Elizabeth V Lonsorf, Thomas R Gillespie
"Ecosystem Health recognizes the inherent interdependence of the health of humans, animals and ecosystems and explores the perspectives, theories and methodologies emerging at the interface between ecological and health sciences." This broad focus requires new approaches and methods for solving problems of greater complexity at larger scales than ever before. Nowhere is this point more salient than the case of disease emergence and control at the human-non human primate interface in shrinking tropical forests under great anthropogenic pressure...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093226/pleistocene-population-expansions-of-shade-tolerant-trees-indicate-fragmentation-of-the-african-rainforest-during-the-ice-ages
#19
Rosalía Piñeiro, Gilles Dauby, Esra Kaymak, Olivier J Hardy
The fossil record in tropical Africa suggests that dry conditions during the Ice Ages caused expansion of savannahs and contraction of the rainforest. Forest refugia have been proposed to be located in areas of Central Africa that currently harbour high rates of endemic species. However, to what extent the forest was fragmented remains unknown. Nuclear microsatellites and plastid sequences of 732 trees of two species occurring in the same habitat-mature lowland evergreen rainforests-but with remarkably different dispersal capacities-animal versus gravity-were analysed...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090404/an-assessment-to-prioritise-the-critical-erosion-prone-sub-watersheds-for-soil-conservation-in-the-gumti-basin-of-tripura-north-east-india
#20
Istak Ahmed, Nibedita Das Pan, Jatan Debnath, Moujuri Bhowmik
Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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