keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

functional diversity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792855/the-versatile-hippo-pathway-in-oral-maxillofacial-development-and-bone-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
Lin Xiang, Hui Yu, Xinyuan Zhang, Bin Wang, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Rui Ye, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
The Hipposignaling pathway is implicated in key aspects of cell proliferation, control of organ size, stem cell functions and tumor suppression. Its functions are primarily mediated either through direct effects on transcription factors to influence target gene expression or through crosstalk with other signaling pathways that regulate multiple physiological activities. Studies are revealing Hippo pathway involvement in diverse functions including renewal of intestinal epithelium, promotion of myocardial cell proliferation, cancer suppression, etc...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792672/biosynthesis-of-lincosamide-antibiotics-reactions-associated-with-degradation-and-detoxification-pathways-play-a-constructive-role
#2
Daozhong Zhang, Zhijun Tang, Wen Liu
Natural products typically are small molecules produced by living organisms. These products possess a wide variety of biological activities and thus have historically played a critical role in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology either as chemotherapeutic agents or as useful tools. Natural products are not synthesized for use by human beings; rather, living organisms produce them in response to various biochemical processes and environmental concerns, both internal and external. These processes/concerns are often dynamic and thus motivate the diversification, optimization, and selection of small molecules in line with changes in biological function...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792195/histamine-activates-inflammatory-response-and-depresses-casein-synthesis-in-mammary-gland-of-dairy-cows-during-sara
#3
Guangjun Chang, Lailai Wang, Nana Ma, Wenwen Zhang, Huanmin Zhang, Hongyu Dai, Xiangzhen Shen
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidences observed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by high concentration (HC) diet increases the translocation of histamine from digestive tract into circulation causing a diverse of diseases in dairy cows. However, it is largely unknown how it does affect the function of mammary gland and milk quality. Hence, this study aims to observe the effects of histamine derived from the digestive tract on the inflammatory response and casein synthesis in the mammary glands during SARA...
May 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792165/molecular-characterization-and-differential-expression-suggested-diverse-functions-of-p-type-ii-ca-2-atpases-in-triticum-aestivum-l
#4
Mehak Taneja, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
BACKGROUND: Plant P-type II Ca2+ ATPases are formed by two distinct groups of proteins (ACAs and ECAs) that perform pumping of Ca2+ outside the cytoplasm during homeostasis, and play vital functions during development and stress management. In the present study, we have performed identification and characterisation of P-type II Ca 2+ ATPase gene family in an important crop plant Triticum aestivum. RESULTS: Herein, a total of 33 TaACA and 9 TaECA proteins were identified from the various chromosomes and sub-genomes of Triticum aestivum...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#5
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791806/seasonal-dynamics-of-bacterioplankton-community-in-a-large-shallow-highly-dynamic-freshwater-lake
#6
Zhaoyu Kong, Wenbo Kou, Yantian Ma, Haotian Yu, Gang Ge, Lan Wu
The spatio-temporal shifts of bacterioplankton community can mirror their transition of functional traits in aquatic ecosystem. However, our understanding of spatio-temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition structure (BCCs) within large, shallow and highly dynamic freshwater lake is still elusive. Here we examined the seasonal and spatial variability of BCCs in the Poyang Lake by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to explore how hydrological changes affect the BCCs. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the BCCs varied significantly among four sampling seasons, but not spatially...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791492/characterization-of-the-caspase-family-in-zebrafish
#7
Olivia Spead, Tine Verreet, Cory J Donelson, Fabienne E Poulain
First discovered for their role in mediating programmed cell death and inflammatory responses, caspases have now emerged as crucial regulators of other cellular and physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. In the developing nervous system, for instance, the non-apoptotic functions of caspases have been shown to play critical roles in the formation of neuronal circuits by regulating axon outgrowth, guidance and pruning. How caspase activity is spatially and temporally maintained at sub-lethal levels within cells remains however poorly understood, especially in vivo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791086/modular-in-situ-functionalization-strategy-multicomponent-polymerization-via-palladium-norbornene-cooperative-catalysis
#8
Ki-Young Yoon, Guangbin Dong
Herein, we report the palladium/norbornene cooperatively catalyzed polymerization, which simplifies synthesis of functional aromatic polymers, including conjugated polymers. Specifically, an A2B2C-type multicomponent polymerization is developed using ortho-amination/ipso-alkynylation reaction for preparing various amine-functionalized arylacetylene-containing polymers. Within a single catalytic cycle, the amine side-chains are site-selectively installed in situ via C-H activation during the polymerization process, which represents a major difference from conventional cross-coupling polymerizations...
May 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790980/contrasting-patterns-of-genomic-diversity-reveal-accelerated-genetic-drift-but-reduced-directional-selection-on-x-chromosome-in-wild-and-domestic-sheep-species
#9
Ze-Hui Chen, Min Zhang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xue Ren, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Kiwoong Nam, Michael W Bruford, Meng-Hua Li
Analyses of genomic diversity along the X chromosome and of its correlation with autosomal diversity can facilitate understanding of evolutionary forces in shaping sex-linked genomic architecture. Strong selective sweeps and accelerated genetic drift on the X-chromosome have been inferred in primates and other model species, but no such insight has yet been gained in domestic animals compared with their wild relatives. Here, we analyzed X-chromosome variability in a large ovine data set, including a BeadChip array for 943 ewes from the world's sheep populations and 110 whole genomes of wild and domestic sheep...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790873/diversity-of-genetic-events-associated-with-mlh1-promoter-methylation-in-lynch-syndrome-families-with-heritable-constitutional-epimutation
#10
Julie Leclerc, Cathy Flament, Tonio Lovecchio, Lucie Delattre, Emilie Ait Yahya, Stéphanie Baert-Desurmont, Nelly Burnichon, Myriam Bronner, Odile Cabaret, Sophie Lejeune, Rosine Guimbaud, Gilles Morin, Jacques Mauillon, Philippe Jonveaux, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Thierry Frébourg, Nicole Porchet, Marie-Pierre Buisine
PurposeConstitutional epimutations are an alternative to genetic mutations in the etiology of genetic diseases. Some of these epimutations, termed secondary, correspond to the epigenetic effects of cis-acting genetic defects transmitted to the offspring following a Mendelian inheritance pattern. In Lynch syndrome, a few families with such apparently heritable MLH1 epimutations have been reported so far.MethodsWe designed a long-range polymerase chain reaction next-generation sequencing strategy to screen MLH1 entire gene and applied it to 4 French families with heritable epimutations and 10 additional patients with no proven transmission of their epimutations...
April 12, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790759/cyclization-of-ketones-with-nitriles-under-base-a-general-and-economical-synthesis-of-pyrimidines
#11
Lebin Su, Kang Sun, Neng Pan, Long Liu, Mengli Sun, Jianyu Dong, Yongbo Zhou, Shuang-Feng Yin
A facile, general, and economical synthesis of diversely functionalized pyrimidines has been realized under basic conditions via the copper-catalyzed cyclization of ketones with nitriles. The reaction proceeds via a novel pathway involving the nitriles acting as electrophiles and consecutive C-C bond and two C-N bond formations and shows broad substrate scope and good tolerance of many important functional groups. This strategy represents a new platform for constructing pyrimidine structures.
May 23, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790341/transition-metal-free-access-to-pyridocarbazoles-from-2-alkynylindole-3-carbaldehydes-via-azomethine-ylide
#12
Shalini Verma, Pawan K Mishra, Manoj Kumar, Souvik Sur, Akhilesh K Verma
An efficient approach for the synthesis of functionalized tetrahydro-pyrido/quinolinocarbazoles from 2-alkynylindole-3-carbaldehydes and L-proline utilizing a metal-free decarboxylative cyclization, ring expansion, and ring contraction strategy via the generation of azomethine ylide has been developed. The reaction of 2-alkynylindole-3-carbaldehydes with L-thioproline leads to the formation of γ-carbolines. By virtue of this expedient method, a diverse range of biologically active hetero-annulated carbazoles can be synthesized efficiently...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790337/copper-i-usy-as-a-ligand-free-and-recyclable-catalyst-for-ullmann-type-o-n-s-and-c-arylation-reactions-scope-and-application-to-total-synthesis
#13
Tony Garnier, Mathieu Danel, Valentin Magne, Anthony Pujol, Valérie Beneteau, Patrick Pale, Stefan Chassaing
The copper(I)-doped zeolite CuI-USY proved to be a versatile, efficient, and recyclable catalyst for various Ullmann-type coupling reactions. Easy-to-prepare and cheap, this catalytic material enables the arylation and heteroarylation of diverse O-, N-, S- and C-nucleophiles under ligand-free conditions, while exhibiting large functional group compatibility. The facility of this catalyst to promote C-O bond formation was further demonstrated with the total synthesis of 3-methylobovatol, a naturally occurring diaryl ether of biological relevance...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790299/4-oxo-%C3%AE-apo-13-carotenone-from-the-cyanobacterium-anabaena-cylindrica-pcc-7122
#14
Teresa P Martins, Mariana A Reis, Pedro N Leão
Apocarotenoids are widely distributed among living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, plants and even animals) and have been associated with several signaling functions. These compounds are generated by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), whose diversity greatly contributes to the large number of apocarotenoids that have been described so far. It is nevertheless expected that a considerable diversity of these molecules is yet to be discovered. In this work, we describe the isolation and structural elucidation of the apocarotenoid 4-oxo-β-apo-13-carotenone from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica PCC 7122, corresponding to the first report of this compound from natural sources...
May 22, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790249/the-mechanisms-of-epigenetic-inheritance-how-diverse-are-they
#15
Oleg N Tikhodeyev
Although epigenetic inheritance (EI) is a rapidly growing field of modern biology, it still has no clear place in fundamental genetic concepts which are traditionally based on the hereditary role of DNA. Moreover, not all mechanisms of EI attract the same attention, with most studies focused on DNA methylation, histone modification, RNA interference and amyloid prionization, but relatively few considering other mechanisms such as stable inhibition of plastid translation. Herein, we discuss all known and some hypothetical mechanisms that can underlie the stable inheritance of phenotypically distinct hereditary factors that lack differences in DNA sequence...
May 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790000/o-glcnac-cycling-in-the-developing-adult-and-geriatric-brain
#16
REVIEW
Olof Lagerlöf
Hundreds of proteins in the nervous system are modified by the monosaccharide O-GlcNAc. A single protein is often O-GlcNAcylated on several amino acids and the modification of a single site can play a crucial role for the function of the protein. Despite its complexity, only two enzymes add and remove O-GlcNAc from proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Global and local regulation of these enzymes make it possible for O-GlcNAc to coordinate multiple cellular functions at the same time as regulating specific pathways independently from each other...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789962/genome-based-identification-and-analysis-of-ionotropic-receptors-in-spodoptera-litura
#17
Jia-Ying Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Xin-Min Zhang, Nai-Yong Liu
The ability to sense and recognize various classes of compounds is of particular importance for survival and reproduction of insects. Ionotropic receptor (IR), a sub-family of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, has been identified as one of crucial chemoreceptor super-families, which mediates the sensing of odors and/or tastants, and serves as non-chemosensory functions. Yet, little is known about IR characteristics, evolution, and functions in Lepidoptera. Here, we identify the IR gene repertoire from a destructive polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura...
May 22, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789932/the-cognitive-nuances-of-surprising-events-exposure-to-unexpected-stimuli-elicits-firing-variations-in-neurons-of-the-dorsal-ca1-hippocampus
#18
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
May 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789755/regulatory-mechanisms-in-t-cell-receptor-signalling
#19
REVIEW
Guillaume Gaud, Renaud Lesourne, Paul E Love
The remarkable T cell receptor (TCR) performs essential functions in the initiation of intracellular signals required for T cell development, repertoire selection and effector responses to foreign antigens. How TCR signals elicit such diverse cellular responses and outcomes remains a major question for investigation. Recent years have witnessed important advances in our understanding of the regulatory processes that control and modulate the TCR signalling response. Here, we review newly identified mechanisms for the regulation of TCR signalling and then discuss how the TCR signalling response is regulated to control two critical cellular processes - namely, positive selection and T cell homeostasis...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789713/upregulation-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-foxd2-as1-promotes-carcinogenesis-by-epigenetically-silencing-ephb3-through-ezh2-and-lsd1-and-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#20
Tong-Peng Xu, Wen-Yu Wang, Pei Ma, You Shuai, Kun Zhao, Yan-Fen Wang, Wei Li, Rui Xia, Wen-Ming Chen, Er-Bao Zhang, Yong-Qian Shu
Accumulating data indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve as important modulators in biological processes and are dysregulated in diverse tumors. The function of FOXD2-AS1 in gastric cancer (GC) progression and related biological mechanisms remain undefined. A comprehensive analysis identified that FOXD2-AS1 enrichment was upregulated markedly in GC and positively correlated with a large tumor size, a later pathologic stage, and a poor prognosis. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) in GEO datasets uncovered that cell cycle and DNA replication associated genes were enriched in patients with high FOXD2-AS1 expression...
May 23, 2018: Oncogene
keyword
keyword
86403
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"