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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161805/robot-assisted-radical-cystectomy-with-totally-intracorporeal-urinary-diversion-initial-single-surgeon-s-experience-after-a-modified-modular-training
#1
Angelo Porreca, Francesco Chessa, Daniele Romagnoli, Antonio Salvaggio, Angelo Cafarelli, Marco Borghesi, Lorenzo Bianchi, Matteo Dandrea, Daniele D'Agostino, Donato Dente, Emanuele Cappa, Peter Wiklund, Eugenio Brunocilla, Riccardo Schiavina
BACKGROUND: To report the perioperative and early functional outcomes of patients undergoing Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with totally intracorporeal urinary diversion performed by a single surgeon after a modified modular training. METHODS: The surgeon (A.P.) attained a 30-days modified modular training at a referring Centre mentored by a worldwide-recognized robotic surgeon (P.W.). The training program consisted of: a) e-learning based on 10 hours of theoretical lessons made by the mentor; b) video-session concerning the different steps of the procedure, c) step-by-step in vivo modular training...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161774/building-trophic-specializations-that-result-in-substantial-niche-partitioning-within-a-young-adaptive-radiation
#2
Luz Patricia Hernandez, Dominique Adriaens, Christopher H Martin, Peter C Wainwright, Bert Masschaele, Manuel Dierick
Dietary partitioning often accompanies the increased morphological diversity seen during adaptive radiations within aquatic systems. While such niche partitioning would be expected in older radiations, it is unclear how significant morphological divergence occurs within a shorter time period. Here we show how differential growth in key elements of the feeding mechanism can bring about pronounced functional differences among closely related species. An incredibly young adaptive radiation of three Cyprinodon species residing within hypersaline lakes in San Salvador Island, Bahamas, has recently been described...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161748/whole-body-cryotherapy-as-a-recovery-technique-after-exercise-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Catriona Rose, Kate M Edwards, Jason Siegler, Kenneth Graham, Corinne Caillaud
This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effect of whole body cryotherapy on recovery after exercise. A systematic search was conducted to investigate the effect of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, exposure to temperatures between -110 to -190°C) on markers of recovery after damaging exercise in healthy, physically active subjects. Of the 16 eligible articles extracted, ten induced muscle damage using controlled exercise in a laboratory setting, while six induced damage during sport-specific training...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161638/to-what-extent-do-structural-changes-in-catalytic-metal-sites-affect-enzyme-function
#4
Yana Valasatava, Antonio Rosato, Nicholas Furnham, Janet M Thornton, Claudia Andreini
About half of known enzymatic reactions involve metals. Enzymes belonging to the same superfamily often evolve to catalyze different reactions on the same structural scaffold. The work presented here investigates how functional differentiation, within superfamilies that contain metalloenzymes, relates to structural changes at the catalytic metal site. In general, when the catalytic metal site is unchanged across the enzymes of a superfamily, the functional differentiation within the superfamily tends to be low and the mechanism conserved...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161631/perceived-epilepsy-stigma-mediates-relationships-between-personality-and-social-well-being-in-a-diverse-epilepsy-population
#5
Seth A Margolis, Luba Nakhutina, Sarah G Schaffer, Arthur C Grant, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Perceived epilepsy stigma and reduced social well-being are prevalent sources of distress in people with epilepsy (PWE). Yet, research on patient-level correlates of these difficulties is lacking, especially among underserved groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Racially/ethnically diverse adults with intractable seizures (N=60, 62% female; 79% Black, 20% Hispanic/Latino, 8% White) completed validated measures of personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI-3), perceived epilepsy stigma (Epilepsy Stigma Scale, ESS), and quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory in Epilepsy, QOLIE-89)...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161623/functions-of-myosin-motors-tailored-for-parasitism
#6
REVIEW
Christina Mueller, Arnault Graindorge, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161567/the-biology-of-rem-sleep
#7
REVIEW
John Peever, Patrick M Fuller
Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161507/development-of-spiroligomer-peptoid-hybrids
#8
Justin D Northrup, Giulia Mancini, Claire R Purcell, Christian E Schafmeister
Creating functional macromolecules that possess the diversity and functionality of proteins poses an enormous challenge, as this requires large, preorganized macromolecules to facilitate interactions. Peptoids have been shown to interact with proteins, and combinatorial libraries of peptoids have been useful in discovering new ligands for protein binding. We have created spiroligomer-peptoid hybrids that have a spirocyclic core that preorganizes functional groups in three-dimensional space. By utilizing spiroligomers, we can reduce the number of rotatable bonds between functional groups, while increasing the stereochemical diversity of the molecules...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161428/arabidopsis-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-delays-flowering-time-through-mediating-transcriptional-activation-of-flowering-locus-c
#9
Sihong Sang, Yao Chen, Qiaofeng Yang, Peng Wang
Timely flowering is critical for successful reproduction and seed yield in plants. A diverse range of regulators have been found to control flowering time in response to environmental and endogenous signals. Among these regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) acts as a central repressor of floral transition by blocking the expression of flowering integrator genes. Here, we report that Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate multikinase (AtIPK2β) functions in flowering time control by mediating transcriptional regulation of FLC at the chromatin level...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161414/structural-diversity-of-the-nucleosome
#10
Masako Koyama, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is compacted in chromatin, which generally suppresses transcription, replication, repair, and recombination. The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, whose structure was first determined at atomic resolution in 1997. However, recent findings have revealed that the nucleosome is not a structurally homogenous entity. Nucleosomes containing histone variants often have subtle but clear differences in their structural and functional characteristics, as compared to the canonical nucleosome...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161322/altered-juvenile-fish-communities-associated-with-invasive-halophila-stipulacea-seagrass-habitats-in-the-u-s-virgin-islands
#11
Lauren K Olinger, Sarah L Heidmann, Allie N Durdall, Colin Howe, Tanya Ramseyer, Sara G Thomas, Danielle N Lasseigne, Elizabeth J Brown, John S Cassell, Michele M Donihe, Mareike D Duffing Romero, Mara A Duke, Damon Green, Paul Hillbrand, Kristin R Wilson Grimes, Richard S Nemeth, Tyler B Smith, Marilyn Brandt
Caribbean seagrass habitats provide food and protection for reef-associated juvenile fish. The invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea is rapidly altering these seascapes. Since its arrival in the Caribbean in 2002, H. stipulacea has colonized and displaced native seagrasses, but the function of this invasive seagrass as a juvenile fish habitat remains unknown. To compare diversity, community structure, and abundance of juvenile fish between H. stipulacea and native seagrass beds, fish traps were deployed in four nearshore bays around St...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161247/errata-functional-annotation-of-chemical-libraries-across-diverse-biological-processes
#12
Jeff S Piotrowski, Sheena C Li, Raamesh Deshpande, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Yoko Yashiroda, Jacqueline M Barber, Hamid Safizadeh, Erin Wilson, Hiroki Okada, Abraham A Gebre, Karen Kubo, Nikko P Torres, Marissa A LeBlanc, Kerry Andrusiak, Reika Okamoto, Mami Yoshimura, Eva DeRango-Adem, Jolanda van Leeuwen, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Grant W Brown, Hiroyuki Hirano, Michael Costanzo, Brenda Andrews, Yoshikazu Ohya, Hiroyuki Osada, Minoru Yoshida, Chad L Myers, Charles Boone
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2436.
November 21, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161244/errata-functional-annotation-of-chemical-libraries-across-diverse-biological-processes
#13
Jeff S Piotrowski, Sheena C Li, Raamesh Deshpande, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Yoko Yashiroda, Jacqueline M Barber, Hamid Safizadeh, Erin Wilson, Hiroki Okada, Abraham A Gebre, Karen Kubo, Nikko P Torres, Marissa A LeBlanc, Kerry Andrusiak, Reika Okamoto, Mami Yoshimura, Eva DeRango-Adem, Jolanda van Leeuwen, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Grant W Brown, Hiroyuki Hirano, Michael Costanzo, Brenda Andrews, Yoshikazu Ohya, Hiroyuki Osada, Minoru Yoshida, Chad L Myers, Charles Boone
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2436.
November 21, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161022/structural-and-functional-studies-of-the-daunorubicin-priming-ketosynthase-dpsc
#14
David R Jackson, Gaurav Shakya, Avinash B Patel, Lina Y Mohammed, Kostas Vasilakis, Pakorn Wattana-Amorn, Timothy R Valentic, Jacob Milligan, Matthew P Crump, John Crosby, Shiou-Chuan Tsai
Daunorubicin is a type II polyketide, one of a large class of polyaromatic natural products with anticancer, antibiotic and antiviral activity. Type II polyketides are formed by the assembly of malonyl-CoA building blocks, though in rare cases, biosynthesis is initiated by the incorporation of a non-malonyl derived starter unit, which adds molecular diversity to the poly-β-ketone backbone. Priming mechanisms for the transfer of novel starter units onto polyketide synthases (PKS) are still poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161016/selective-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-peptide-toxins-from-animal-venom-pharmacological-probes-and-analgesic-drug-development
#15
Ying Wu, Hui Ma, Fan Zhang, Chun-Lei Zhang, Xiaohan Zou, Zhengyu Cao
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play critical roles in action potential generation and propagation. Nav channelopathy as well as pathological sensitization contribute to allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent evidence has demonstrated the significant roles of Nav subtypes (Nav1.3, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9) in nociceptive transduction and therefore these Navs may represent attractive targets for analgesic drug discovery. Animal toxins are structurally diverse peptides that are highly potent yet selective on ion channel subtypes and therefore representing valuable probes to elucidate the structures, gating properties and cellular functions of ion channels...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161013/intelligent-peptide-gathering-mechanical-arm-tames-wild-trojan-horse-peptides-for-the-controlled-delivery-of-cancer-nanotherapeutics
#16
Nian-Qiu Shi, Yan Li, Yong Zhang, Nan Shen, Ling Qi, Shu-Ran Wang, Xian-Rong Qi
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), also called "Trojan-Horse" peptides, have been used for facilitating intracellular delivery of numerous diverse cargoes and even nanocarriers. However, the lack of targeting specificity ("wildness" or nonselectivity) of CPP-nanocarriers remains an intractable challenge for many in vivo applications. In this work, we used an intelligent "peptide-gathering mechanical arm" (Int PMA) to curb CPPs' wildness and enhance the selectivity of R9-liposome-based cargo delivery for tumor targeting...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160935/oh-the-places-they-ll-go-a-survey-of-phytopathogen-effectors-and-their-host-targets
#17
Madiha Khan, Derek Seto, Rajagopal Subramaniam, Darrell Desveaux
Phytopathogens translocate effector proteins into plant cells where they sabotage the host cellular machinery to promote infection. An individual pathogen can translocate numerous distinct effectors during the infection process to target an array of host macromolecules (proteins, metabolites, DNA, etc…) and manipulate them using a variety of enzymatic activities. In this review, we have surveyed the literature for effector targets and curated them to convey the range of functions carried out by phytopathogenic proteins inside host cells...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160768/diverse-modes-of-synaptic-signaling-regulation-and-plasticity-distinguish-classes-of-c-elegans-glutamatergic-neurons
#18
Donovan Ventimiglia, Cornelia I Bargmann
Synaptic vesicle release properties vary between neuronal cell types, but in most cases the molecular basis of this heterogeneity is unknown. Here, we compare in vivo synaptic properties of two neuronal classes in the C. elegans central nervous system, using VGLUT-pHluorin to monitor synaptic vesicle exocytosis and retrieval in intact animals. We show that the glutamatergic sensory neurons AWC(ON) and ASH have distinct synaptic dynamics associated with tonic and phasic synaptic properties, respectively. Exocytosis in ASH and AWC(ON) is differentially affected by SNARE-complex regulators that are present in both neurons: phasic ASH release is strongly dependent on UNC-13, whereas tonic AWC(ON) release relies upon UNC-18 and on the protein kinase C homolog PKC-1...
November 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160618/deciphering-the-fine-nucleotide-diversity-of-full-hla-class-i-and-class-ii-genes-in-a-well-documented-population-from-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Thomas Goeury, Lisa Creary, Lydie Brunet, Maxime Galan, Maeva Pasquier, Barbara Kervaire, André Langaney, Jean-Marie Tiercy, Marcelo A Fernández-Viña, José Manuel Nunes, Alicia Sanchez-Mazas
With the aim to understand how NGS improves both our assessment of genetic variation within populations and our knowledge on HLA molecular evolution, we sequenced and analysed 8 HLA loci in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa (Mandenka). The results of full-gene NGS-MiSeq sequencing compared to those obtained by traditional typing techniques or limited sequencing strategies showed that segregating sites located outside exon 2 are crucial to describe not only class I, but also class II population diversity...
November 21, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160594/leptin-action-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Ayelén Toro, Teresa Vilariño-García, Julieta Maymó, Pilar Guadix, José L Dueñas, Manuel Fernández-Sánchez, Cecilia Varone, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is now considered an important signalling molecule of the reproductive system, as it regulates the production of gonadotrophins, the blastocyst formation and implantation, the normal placentation, as well as the foeto-placental communication. Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, and the placenta is the second leptin-producing tissue in humans. Placental leptin is an important cytokine which regulates placental functions in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Leptin seems to play a crucial role during the first stages of pregnancy as it modulates critical processes such as proliferation, protein synthesis, invasion and apoptosis in placental cells...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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