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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150543/toxicokinetics-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-the-shellfish-toxin-domoic-acid-in-nonhuman-primates
#1
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148600/new-evidence-for-the-recent-divergence-of-devil-s-hole-pupfish-and-the-plausibility-of-elevated-mutation-rates-in-endangered-taxa
#2
Christopher H Martin, Sebastian Höhna
Saglam et al. (2016) recently argued that the Devil's Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis), a conservation icon with the smallest known species range, was isolated 60 kya based on a new genomic dataset. If true, this would be a radically long timescale for any species to persist at population sizes less than 500 individuals, in contrast to conservation genetics theory. However, here we argue that their analyses and interpretation are inappropriate. They placed highly restrictive prior distributions on divergence times, which do not appropriately model the large uncertainty and result in removing nearly all uncertainty from their analyses, and chose among models by assuming that pupfishes exhibit human mutation rates...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146811/state-to-state-chemistry-for-three-body-recombination-in-an-ultracold-rubidium-gas
#3
Joschka Wolf, Markus Deiß, Artjom Krükow, Eberhard Tiemann, Brandon P Ruzic, Yujun Wang, José P D'Incao, Paul S Julienne, Johannes Hecker Denschlag
Experimental investigation of chemical reactions with full quantum state resolution for all reactants and products has been a long-term challenge. Here we prepare an ultracold few-body quantum state of reactants and demonstrate state-to-state chemistry for the recombination of three spin-polarized ultracold rubidium (Rb) atoms to form a weakly bound Rb2 molecule. The measured product distribution covers about 90% of the final products, and we are able to discriminate between product states with a level splitting as small as 20 megahertz multiplied by Planck's constant...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145825/assembling-large-genomes-analysis-of-the-stick-insect-clitarchus-hookeri-genome-reveals-a-high-repeat-content-and-sex-biased-genes-associated-with-reproduction
#4
Chen Wu, Victoria G Twort, Ross N Crowhurst, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: Stick insects (Phasmatodea) have a high incidence of parthenogenesis and other alternative reproductive strategies, yet the genetic basis of reproduction is poorly understood. Phasmatodea includes nearly 3000 species, yet only the genome of Timema cristinae has been published to date. Clitarchus hookeri is a geographical parthenogenetic stick insect distributed across New Zealand. Sexual reproduction dominates in northern habitats but is replaced by parthenogenesis in the south...
November 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145486/geography-of-current-and-future-global-mammal-extinction-risk
#5
Ana D Davidson, Kevin T Shoemaker, Ben Weinstein, Gabriel C Costa, Thomas M Brooks, Gerardo Ceballos, Volker C Radeloff, Carlo Rondinini, Catherine H Graham
Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145425/statistical-analysis-of-co-occurrence-patterns-in-microbial-presence-absence-datasets
#6
Kumar P Mainali, Sharon Bewick, Peter Thielen, Thomas Mehoke, Florian P Breitwieser, Shishir Paudel, Arjun Adhikari, Joshua Wolfe, Eric V Slud, David Karig, William F Fagan
Drawing on a long history in macroecology, correlation analysis of microbiome datasets is becoming a common practice for identifying relationships or shared ecological niches among bacterial taxa. However, many of the statistical issues that plague such analyses in macroscale communities remain unresolved for microbial communities. Here, we discuss problems in the analysis of microbial species correlations based on presence-absence data. We focus on presence-absence data because this information is more readily obtainable from sequencing studies, especially for whole-genome sequencing, where abundance estimation is still in its infancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144214/circadian-rhythms-of-trematode-parasites-applying-mixed-models-to-test-underlying-patterns
#7
Emily R Hannon, Dana M Calhoun, Sindhu Chadalawada, Pieter T J Johnson
Circadian rhythms of parasites and their hosts can influence processes such as transmission, pathology and life cycle evolution. For trematode parasites that depend on free-living infectious stages (i.e. cercariae) to move among host species, the timing of parasite release is hypothesized to increase the likelihood of contacting a host. Yet, a persistent challenge in studying such biorhythms involves selection of appropriate analytical techniques. Here, we extend a generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM) framework to cosinor analyses, thereby allowing flexibility in the statistical distribution of the response variable, incorporation of multiple covariates and inclusion of hierarchical grouping effects...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142438/molecular-simulation-based-combinatorial-modeling-and-antioxidant-activities-of-zingiberaceae-family-rhizomes
#8
Talambedu Usha, Sushen Pradhan, Arvind Kumar Goyal, Shanmugarajan Dhivya, H P Prashanth Kumar, Manoj Kumar Singh, Neelu Joshi, Bharat Chandra Basistha, K R Siddalinga Murthy, Saravanakumar Selvaraj, Sushil Kumar Middha
Objective: The main aim of this scientific report was to investigate a series of phytochemicals in silico and the pharmacology of four plants found at higher altitude in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae (incl. Costaceae) from North-East India, particularly Sikkim. First, the goal was to determine the biological activities of the four herbs (used under Zingiberaceae family) using antioxidant assays to identify the best species. Second, previously reported compounds in litero were subsequently screened for their anticancerous activities using in silico methods...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142282/spatial-distribution-of-tree-species-in-evergreen-deciduous-broadleaf-karst-forests-in-southwest-china
#9
Hu Du, Fang Hu, Fuping Zeng, Kelin Wang, Wanxia Peng, Hao Zhang, Zhaoxia Zeng, Fang Zhang, Tongqing Song
Understanding the spatial distribution of tree species in subtropical evergreen-deciduous broadleaf karst forest is fundamental to studying species coexistence and karst species diversity. Here, complete spatial randomness and heterogeneous Poisson process models were used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 146 species with at least one individual per ha in a 25-ha plot in southwest China. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and the torus-translation test (TTT) to explain the distributions of observed species...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141765/bionomics-and-spatial-distribution-of-triatomine-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-texas-and-other-southern-states-usa
#10
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Sarah A Hamer, Sage Lane, Michael Z Levy, Gabriel L Hamer
Defining spatial and temporal occurrences of triatomine vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, in the US is critical for public health protection. Through a citizen science program and field collections from 2012 to 2016, we collected 3,215 triatomines, mainly from Texas. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we identified seven Triatoma species and report sex, length, and blood engorgement status. Many citizen-collected triatomines (92.9%) were encountered indoors, in peridomestic settings, or in dog kennels and represent spillover transmission risk of T...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141036/the-disjunct-pattern-of-the-neotropical-harvestman-discocyrtus-dilatatus-gonyleptidae-explained-by-climate-driven-range-shifts-in-the-quaternary-paleodistributional-and-molecular-evidence
#11
Julia Vergara, Luis E Acosta, Raúl E González-Ittig, Luis M Vaschetto, Cristina N Gardenal
The disjunct distribution of the harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae) is used as a case study to test the hypothesis of a trans-Chaco Pleistocene paleobridge during range expansion stages. This would have temporarily connected humid regions ('Mesopotamia' in northeastern Argentina, and the 'Yungas' in the northwest, NWA) in the subtropical and temperate South American lowlands. The present study combines two independent approaches: paleodistributional reconstruction, using the Species Distribution Modeling method MaxEnt and projection onto Quaternary paleoclimates (6 kya, 21 kya, 130 kya), and phylogeographic analyses based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I molecular marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141028/developing-methods-for-assessing-abundance-and-distribution-of-european-oysters-ostrea-edulis-using-towed-video
#12
Linnea Thorngren, Thomas Dunér Holthuis, Susanne Lindegarth, Mats Lindegarth
Due to large-scale habitat losses and increasing pressures, benthic habitats in general, and perhaps oyster beds in particular, are commonly in decline and severely threatened on regional and global scales. Appropriate and cost-efficient methods for mapping and monitoring of the distribution, abundance and quality of remaining oyster populations are fundamental for sustainable management and conservation of these habitats and their associated values. Towed video has emerged as a promising method for surveying benthic communities in a both non-destructive and cost-efficient way...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137168/origin-and-evolution-of-the-neo-sex-chromosomes-in-pamphagidae-grasshoppers-through-chromosome-fusion-and-following-heteromorphization
#13
Ilyas Yerkinovich Jetybayev, Alexander Gennadievich Bugrov, Olesya Georgievna Buleu, Anton Gennadievich Bogomolov, Nikolay Borisovich Rubtsov
In most phylogenetic lineages, the evolution of sex chromosomes is accompanied by their heteromorphization and degradation of one of them. The neo-sex chromosomes are useful model for studying early stages of these processes. Recently two lineages of the neo-sex chromosomes on different stages of heteromorphization was discovered in Pamphagidae family. The neo-sex chromosome heteromorphization was analyzed by generation of DNA probes derived from the neo-Xs and neo-Ys followed with chromosome painting in nineteen species of Pamphagidae family...
November 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136659/predicting-the-distributions-of-egypt-s-medicinal-plants-and-their-potential-shifts-under-future-climate-change
#14
Emad Kaky, Francis Gilbert
Climate change is one of the most difficult of challenges to conserving biodiversity, especially for countries with few data on the distributions of their taxa. Species distribution modelling is a modern approach to the assessment of the potential effects of climate change on biodiversity, with the great advantage of being robust to small amounts of data. Taking advantage of a recently validated dataset, we use the medicinal plants of Egypt to identify hotspots of diversity now and in the future by predicting the effect of climate change on the pattern of species richness using species distribution modelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136119/the-bat-as-a-new-model-of-cortical-development
#15
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Jasmin Camacho, Jeanelle Ariza, Hailee Rogers, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Anna Kreutz, Richard Behringer, John J Rasweiler, Stephen C Noctor
The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Here, we introduce the bat Carollia perspicillata as a new model species. The brain of C. perspicillata is similar in size to that of mouse but has a cortical neurogenic period at least 5 times longer than mouse, and nearly as long as that of the rhesus macaque, whose brain is 100 times larger...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136042/effects-of-small-scale-clustering-of-flowers-on-pollinator-foraging-behaviour-and-flower-visitation-rate
#16
Asma Akter, Paolo Biella, Jan Klecka
Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135043/a-framework-for-ecological-risk-assessment-of-metal-mixtures-in-aquatic-systems
#17
Charlotte Nys, Tina Van Regenmortel, Colin R Janssen, Koen Oorts, Erik Smolders, Karel A C DE Schamphelaere
Although metal mixture toxicity has been studied relatively intensely, there is no general consensus yet on how to incorporate metal mixture toxicity into aquatic risk assessment. Here, we combined existing data on chronic metal mixture toxicity at the species level with species-sensitivity-distribution (SSD)-based in-silico metal mixture risk predictions at the community-level for mixtures of Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb, in order to develop a tiered risk assessment scheme for metal mixtures in freshwater. Generally, independent action (IA) predicts chronic metal mixture toxicity at the species level most accurately, while concentration addition (CA) is the most conservative model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134790/soybean-mosaic-virus-a-successful-potyvirus-with-a-wide-distribution-but-restricted-natural-host-range
#18
M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134709/light-sensing-by-opsins-and-fungal-ecology-nop-1-modulates-entry-into-sexual-reproduction-in-response-to-environmental-cues
#19
Zheng Wang, Junrui Wang, Ning Li, Jigang Li, Frances Trail, Jay C Dunlap, Jeffrey P Townsend
Understanding the genetic basis of the switch from asexual to sexual lifestyles in response to sometimes rapid environmental changes is one of the major challenges in fungal ecology. Light appears to play a critical role in the switch-but fungal genomes harbor diverse light sensors. Fungal opsins are homologous to bacterial green-light sensory rhodopsins, and their organismal functions in fungi have not been well understood. Three of these opsin-like proteins were widely distributed across fungal genomes, but homologs of the Fusarium opsin-like protein CarO were present only in plant-associated fungi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133911/species-pool-distributions-along-functional-trade-offs-shape-plant-productivity-diversity-relationships
#20
Loïc Chalmandrier, Camille Albouy, Loïc Pellissier
Grasslands deliver the resources for food production and are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems. These characteristics are often in conflict as increasing yield through fertilization can lead to biodiversity loss. Thus, the challenge in grassland management is to sustain both yield and diversity. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments typically reveal a positive relationship between manipulated species diversity and productivity. In contrast, observations of the effect of increasing productivity via fertilization suggest a negative association with biodiversity...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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