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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324174/combining-climatic-and-soil-properties-better-predicts-covers-of-brazilian-biomes
#1
Daniel M Arruda, Elpídio I Fernandes-Filho, Ricardo R C Solar, Carlos E G R Schaefer
Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km(2) for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004)...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323903/global-potential-distribution-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#2
Luana A Dos Santos, Mayara F Mendes, Alexandra P Krüger, Monica L Blauth, Marco S Gottschalk, Flávio R M Garcia
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a species native to Western Asia that is able to pierce intact fruit during egg laying, causing it to be considered a fruit crop pest in many countries. Drosophila suzukii have a rapid expansion worldwide; occurrences were recorded in North America and Europe in 2008, and South America in 2013. Due to this rapid expansion, we modeled the potential distribution of this species using the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production (GARP) using 407 sites with known occurrences worldwide and 11 predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318232/histology-compatible-maldi-mass-spectrometry-based-imaging-of-neuronal-lipids-for-subsequent-immunofluorescent-staining
#3
Ibrahim Kaya, Wojciech Michno, Dimitri Brinet, Yasmine Iacone, Giulia Zanni, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Jörg Hanrieder
Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) enables acquisition of spatial distribution maps for molecular species in situ. This can provide comprehensive insights on the pathophysiology of different diseases. However, current sample preparation and MALDI-IMS acquisition methods have limitations in preserving molecular and histological tissue morphology, resulting in interfered correspondence of MALDI-IMS data with subsequently acquired immunofluorescent staining results...
March 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318224/defects-mediated-corrosion-in-graphene-coating-layer
#4
Jincheng Lei, Yaowu Hu, Zishun Liu, Gary J Cheng, Kejie Zhao
Mixed results were reported on the anticorrosion of graphene coated metal surfaces - while graphene serves as an effective short-term barrier against corrosion and oxidation due to its low permeability to gases, the galvanic cell between graphene and metal substrate facilitates extensive corrosion in the long run. Defects in the graphene layer provide pathways for the permeation of oxidizing species. We study the role of defects in graphene in the anticorrosion using first-principles theoretical modeling. Experiments in the highly reactive environment indicate that the oxidized products primarily distribute along the grain boundaries of graphene...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317296/how-to-make-more-out-of-community-data-a-conceptual-framework-and-its-implementation-as-models-and-software
#5
Otso Ovaskainen, Gleb Tikhonov, Anna Norberg, F Guillaume Blanchet, Leo Duan, David Dunson, Tomas Roslin, Nerea Abrego
Community ecology aims to understand what factors determine the assembly and dynamics of species assemblages at different spatiotemporal scales. To facilitate the integration between conceptual and statistical approaches in community ecology, we propose Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) as a general, flexible framework for modern analysis of community data. While non-manipulative data allow for only correlative and not causal inference, this framework facilitates the formulation of data-driven hypotheses regarding the processes that structure communities...
March 20, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316894/maxent-s-parameter-configuration-and-small-samples-are-we-paying-attention-to-recommendations-a-systematic-review
#6
Narkis S Morales, Ignacio C Fernández, Victoria Baca-González
Environmental niche modeling (ENM) is commonly used to develop probabilistic maps of species distribution. Among available ENM techniques, MaxEnt has become one of the most popular tools for modeling species distribution, with hundreds of peer-reviewed articles published each year. MaxEnt's popularity is mainly due to the use of a graphical interface and automatic parameter configuration capabilities. However, recent studies have shown that using the default automatic configuration may not be always appropriate because it can produce non-optimal models; particularly when dealing with a small number of species presence points...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316094/predicting-herbicide-mixture-effects-on-multiple-algal-species-using-mixture-toxicity-models
#7
Takashi Nagai
The validity of the application of mixture toxicity models, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), to species sensitivity distribution (SSD) for calculation of multi-substance potentially affected fraction (msPAF) was examined in laboratory experiments. Toxicity assays of herbicide mixtures using 5 species of periphytic algae were conducted. Two mixture experiments were designed: a mixture of 5 herbicides with similar mode of action (MoA) and a mixture of 5 herbicides with dissimilar MoA, corresponding to the assumptions of the CA and IA models, respectively...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306235/gcib-tof-sims-high-resolution-imaging-of-cardiolipin-speciation-in-the-brain-identification-of-molecular-losses-after-traumatic-injury
#8
Hua Tian, Louis J Sparvero, Andrew A Amoscato, Anna Bloom, Hulya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Nicholas Winograd
Gas cluster ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-SIMS) has shown the full potential of mapping intact lipids in biological systems with better than 10 µm lateral resolution. This study investigated further the capability of GCIB-SIMS in imaging high-mass signals from intact cardiolipin (CL) and gangliosides in normal brain and the effect of a controlled cortical impact model (CCI) of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on their distribution. A combination of enzymatic and chemical treatments was employed to suppress the signals from the most abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) and enhance the signals from the low abundance CLs and gangliosides to allow their GCIB-SIMS detection at 8 and 16 µm spatial resolution...
March 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306137/empirical-phylogenies-and-species-abundance-distributions-are-consistent-with-pre-equilibrium-dynamics-of-neutral-community-models-with-gene-flow
#9
Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Andrea Manica, Anders Eriksson, Ana S L Rodrigues
Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities - i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities - from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by gene flow...
March 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303182/determining-the-factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-muscari-latifolium-an-endemic-plant-of-turkey-and-a-mapping-species-distribution-model
#10
Hatice Yilmaz, Osman Yalçın Yilmaz, Yaşar Feyza Akyüz
Species distribution modeling was used to determine factors among the large predictor candidate data set that affect the distribution of Muscari latifolium, an endemic bulbous plant species of Turkey, to quantify the relative importance of each factor and make a potential spatial distribution map of M. latifolium. Models were built using the Boosted Regression Trees method based on 35 presence and 70 absence records obtained through field sampling in the Gönen Dam watershed area of the Kazdağı Mountains in West Anatolia...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303176/abundance-distributions-for-tree-species-in-great-britain-a%C3%A2-two-stage-approach-to-modeling-abundance-using-species-distribution-modeling-and-random-forest
#11
Louise Hill, Andy Hector, Gabriel Hemery, Simon Smart, Matteo Tanadini, Nick Brown
High-quality abundance data are expensive and time-consuming to collect and often highly limited in availability. Nonetheless, accurate, high-resolution abundance distributions are essential for many ecological applications ranging from species conservation to epidemiology. Producing models that can predict abundance well, with good resolution over large areas, has therefore been an important aim in ecology, but poses considerable challenges. We present a two-stage approach to modeling abundance, combining two established techniques...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303175/responses-of-holocyclic-and-anholocyclic-rhopalosiphum-padi-populations-to-low-temperature-and-short-photoperiod-induction
#12
Xiong Peng, Xianfeng Qiao, Maohua Chen
The different life cycles of aphid species make these organisms good models for studying the short-term consequences of sex. The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi has a wide geographic distribution and correspondingly different life cycles. In this study, the life cycles of R. padi collected from six different regions in China were characterized experimentally by comparing the responses of holocyclic and anholocyclic populations to low-temperature and short-photoperiod induction. Clones collected from Chuzhou, Taian, and Taigu consistently reproduced via obligate parthenogenesis, whereas clones from Hami and Baicheng were holocyclic in their response, and those from Lanzhou were both holocyclic and anholocyclic...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303015/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-a-planktonic-system-and-chlorophyll-distribution-in-a-2d-spatial-domain-matching-model-and-data
#13
Davide Valenti, Giovanni Denaro, Rosalia Ferreri, Simona Genovese, Salvatore Aronica, Salvatore Mazzola, Angelo Bonanno, Gualtiero Basilone, Bernardo Spagnolo
Field data on chlorophyll distribution are investigated in a two-dimensional spatial domain of the Mediterranean Sea by using for phytoplankton abundances an advection-diffusion-reaction model, which includes real values for physical and biological variables. The study exploits indeed hydrological and nutrients data acquired in situ, and includes intraspecific competition for limiting factors, i.e. light intensity and phosphate concentration. As a result, the model allows to analyze how both the velocity field of marine currents and the two components of turbulent diffusivity affect the spatial distributions of phytoplankton abundances in the Modified Atlantic Water, the upper layer of the water column of the Mediterranean Sea...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302156/mapping-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-japanese-encephalitis-vector-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-giles-1901-diptera-culicidae-within-areas-of-japanese-encephalitis-risk
#14
Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, David M Pigott, Marianne E Sinka, Nick Golding, Simon I Hay, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most significant aetiological agents of viral encephalitis in Asia. This medically important arbovirus is primarily spread from vertebrate hosts to humans by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of this vector species is lacking, and efforts to define areas of disease risk greatly depend on a thorough understanding of the variation in this mosquito's geographical distribution. RESULTS: We assembled a contemporary database of Cx...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301877/using-landscape-habitat-associations-to-prioritize-areas-of-conservation-action-for-terrestrial-birds
#15
Tyler M Harms, Kevin T Murphy, Xiaodan Lyu, Shane S Patterson, Karen E Kinkead, Stephen J Dinsmore, Paul W Frese
Predicting species distributions has long been a valuable tool to plan and focus efforts for biodiversity conservation, particularly because such an approach allows researchers and managers to evaluate species distribution changes in response to various threats. Utilizing data from a long-term monitoring program and land cover data sets, we modeled the probability of occupancy and colonization for 38 bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the robust design occupancy modeling framework, and used results from the best models to predict occupancy and colonization on the Iowa landscape...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301589/water-availability-not-fruitfall-modulates-the-dry-season-distribution-of-frugivorous-terrestrial-vertebrates-in-a-lowland-amazon-forest
#16
Omar Stalin Landázuri Paredes, Darren Norris, Tadeu Gomes de Oliveira, Fernanda Michalski
Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301488/species-free-species-distribution-models-describe-macroecological-properties-of-protected-area-networks
#17
Jason L Robinson, James A Fordyce
Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301470/pleistocene-refugia-and-genetic-diversity-patterns-in-west-africa-insights-from-the-liana-chasmanthera-dependens-menispermaceae
#18
Andrew Chibuzor Iloh, Marco Schmidt, Alexandra Nora Muellner-Riehl, Oluwatoyin Temitayo Ogundipe, Juraj Paule
Processes shaping the African Guineo-Congolian rain forest, especially in the West African part, are not well understood. Recent molecular studies, based mainly on forest tree species, confirmed the previously proposed division of the western African Guineo-Congolian rain forest into Upper Guinea (UG) and Lower Guinea (LG) separated by the Dahomey Gap (DG). Here we studied nine populations in the area of the DG and the borders of LG and UG of the widespread liana species, Chasmanthera dependens (Menispermaceae) by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), a chloroplast DNA sequence marker, and modelled the distribution based on current as well as paleoclimatic data (Holocene Climate Optimum, ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300838/membrane-association-and-release-of-wild-type-and-pathological-tau-from-organotypic-brain-slice-cultures
#19
Cara L Croft, Matthew A Wade, Ksenia Kurbatskaya, Pavlina Mastrandreas, Martina M Hughes, Emma C Phillips, Amy M Pooler, Michael S Perkinton, Diane P Hanger, Wendy Noble
The spatiotemporal transmission of pathological tau in the brain is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Release of both soluble and abnormal tau species from healthy neurons is increased upon stimulation of neuronal activity. It is not yet understood whether the mechanisms controlling soluble tau release from healthy neurons is the same as those involved in the spread of pathological tau species. To begin to understand these events, we have studied tau distribution and release using organotypic brain slice cultures...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297694/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-the-gray-goose-anser-anser
#20
Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
Studies on mammals demonstrate wide interspecific variation in the number and distribution of recombination events along chromosomes. Birds represent an interesting model group for comparative analysis of cytological and ecological drivers of recombination rate evolution. Yet, data on variation in recombination rates in birds are limited to a dozen of species. In this study, we used immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein marking mature recombination nodules, to estimate the overall recombination rate and distribution of crossovers along macrochromosomes in female and male meiosis of the gray goose (Anser anser)...
March 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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