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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722181/historical-biome-distribution-and-recent-human-disturbance-shape-the-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#1
Meelis Pärtel, Maarja Öpik, Mari Moora, Leho Tedersoo, Robert Szava-Kovats, Søren Rosendahl, Matthias C Rillig, Ylva Lekberg, Holger Kreft, Thorunn Helgason, Ove Eriksson, John Davison, Francesco de Bello, Tancredi Caruso, Martin Zobel
The availability of global microbial diversity data, collected using standardized metabarcoding techniques, makes microorganisms promising models for investigating the role of regional and local factors in driving biodiversity. Here we modelled the global diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi using currently available data on AM fungal molecular diversity (small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences) in field samples. To differentiate between regional and local effects, we estimated species pools (sets of potentially suitable taxa) for each site, which are expected to reflect regional processes...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717594/effect-of-freshwater-mussels-on-the-vertical-distribution-of-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidizers-and-other-nitrogen-transforming-microorganisms-in-upper-mississippi-river-sediment
#2
Ellen M Black, Michael S Chimenti, Craig L Just
Targeted qPCR and non-targeted amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes within sediment layers identified the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) niche and characterized microbial community changes attributable to freshwater mussels. Anammox bacteria were normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk normality test, W-statistic =0.954, p = 0.773) between 1 and 15 cm depth and were increased by a factor of 2.2 (p < 0.001) at 3 cm below the water-sediment interface when mussels were present. Amplicon sequencing of sediment at depths relevant to mussel burrowing (3 and 5 cm) showed that mussel presence reduced observed species richness (p = 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717156/patterned-arrangements-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-expression-in-zebrafish-are-established-by-radial-movement-of-specified-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#3
Xalid Bayramli, Yiğit Kocagöz, Uğurcan Sakizli, Stefan H Fuss
Spatial restriction of olfactory receptor (OR) gene expression in peripheral sense organs is a common phenomenon across species, suggesting that zonal OR expression somehow contributes to olfactory function. In zebrafish OR expression patterns reminiscent of zones occur as concentric domains with preferred diameters for different ORs. However, the function and the developmental origin of the pattern are unknown. Here we investigate olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish olfactory epithelium (OE) to understand how the zonally organized OR pattern is established and maintained during the lifetime of the animal...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716741/inferring-the-shallow-phylogeny-of-true-salamanders-salamandra-by-multiple-phylogenomic-approaches
#4
Ariel Rodríguez, James D Burgon, Mariana Lyra, Iker Irisarri, Denis Baurain, Leon Blaustein, Bayram Göcmen, Sven Künzel, Barbara Mable, Arne W Nolte, Michael Veith, Sebastian Steinfartz, Kathryn R Elmer, Hervé Philippe, Miguel Vences
The rise of high-throughput sequencing techniques provides the unprecedented opportunity to analyse controversial phylogenetic relationships in great depth, but also introduce the risk of being misinterpreted by high node support values influenced by unevenly distributed missing data or unrealistic model assumptions. Here, we use three largely independent phylogenomic data sets to reconstruct the controversial phylogeny of true salamanders of the genus Salamandra. a group of amphibians providing an intriguing model to study the evolution of aposematism and viviparity...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716304/three-dimensional-computational-model-of-a-blood-oxygenator-reconstructed-from-micro-ct-scans
#5
C D'Onofrio, R van Loon, S Rolland, R Johnston, L North, S Brown, R Phillips, J Sienz
Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures are one of the most common operations and blood oxygenators are the centre piece for the heart-lung machines. Blood oxygenators have been tested as entire devices but intricate details on the flow field inside the oxygenators remain unknown. In this study, a novel method is presented to analyse the flow field inside oxygenators based on micro Computed Tomography (μCT) scans. Two Hollow Fibre Membrane (HFM) oxygenator prototypes were scanned and three-dimensional full scale models that capture the device-specific fibre distributions are set up for computational fluid dynamics analysis...
July 14, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715773/developmental-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#6
Song Zhu, Ming-Yang Xue, Fei Luo, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) as experimental models, the potential effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Data showed that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 24 and 36 h...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715501/diversity-and-distribution-of-nuclease-bacteriocins-in-bacterial-genomes-revealed-using-hidden-markov-models
#7
Connor Sharp, James Bray, Nicholas G Housden, Martin C J Maiden, Colin Kleanthous
Bacteria exploit an arsenal of antimicrobial peptides and proteins to compete with each other. Three main competition systems have been described: type six secretion systems (T6SS); contact dependent inhibition (CDI); and bacteriocins. Unlike T6SS and CDI systems, bacteriocins do not require contact between bacteria but are diffusible toxins released into the environment. Identified almost a century ago, our understanding of bacteriocin distribution and prevalence in bacterial populations remains poor. In the case of protein bacteriocins, this is because of high levels of sequence diversity and difficulties in distinguishing their killing domains from those of other competition systems...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715452/including-irrigation-in-niche-modelling-of-the-invasive-wasp-vespula-germanica-fabricius-improves-model-fit-to-predict-potential-for-further-spread
#8
Marelize de Villiers, Darren J Kriticos, Ruan Veldtman
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714776/tissue-localization-of-glycosphingolipid-accumulation-in-a-gaucher-disease-mouse-brain-by-lc-esi-ms-ms-and-high-resolution-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#9
E Ellen Jones, Wujuan Zhang, Xueheng Zhao, Cristine Quiason, Stephanie Dale, Sheerin Shahidi-Latham, Gregory A Grabowski, Kenneth D R Setchell, Richard R Drake, Ying Sun
To better understand regional brain glycosphingolipid (GSL) accumulation in Gaucher disease (GD) and its relationship to neuropathology, a feasibility study using mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry was conducted using brains derived from a GD mouse model (4L/PS/NA) homozygous for a mutant GCase (V394L [4L]) and expressing a prosaposin hypomorphic (PS-NA) transgene. Whole brains from GD and control animals were collected using one hemisphere for MALDI FTICR IMS analysis and the other for quantitation by LC-ESI-MS/MS...
July 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712824/full-coverage-spatial-distribution-of-epibenthic-communities-in-the-south-eastern-north-sea-in-relation-to-habitat-characteristics-and-fishing-effort
#10
Hermann Neumann, Rabea Diekmann, Kay-Christian Emeis, Ulrike Kleeberg, Andreas Moll, Ingrid Kröncke
Full-coverage spatial data of occurrence and a detailed description of habitat requirements of epibenthic communities are needed in many conservation and management contexts. In the North Sea the focus has so far been on small benthic infauna, whereas structure and ecosystem functions of larger epifaunal communities have been largely ignored. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of epibenthic community structure in the south-eastern North Sea, including a detailed inventory of species, diversity and spatially contiguous distribution of communities...
July 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712139/warming-drives-a-front-of-white-spruce-establishment-near-western-treeline-alaska
#11
Amy E Miller, Tammy L Wilson, Rosemary L Sherriff, James Walton
Regional warming has led to increased productivity near the boreal forest margin in Alaska. To date, the effects of warming on seedling recruitment have received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from ninety-five white spruce (Picea glauca) plots sampled across a longitudinal gradient in southwest Alaska to explore factors influencing spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings, and trees, representing five life stages, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance, using current abundance distributions as a surrogate for climate conditions in the past...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711566/developmental-toxicity-of-oxidized-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-artemia-salina-cysts-and-larvae-uptake-accumulation-excretion-and-toxic-responses
#12
Song Zhu, Fei Luo, Xiao Tu, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina (A. salina) cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae [instar I (0-24 h), II (24-48 h) and III (48-72 h)] as experimental models, developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was evaluated. Results revealed that hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 36 h. Mortality rates were 33.8, 55.7 and 40.7% for instar I, II and III larvae in 600 mg/L. The EC50 values for swimming inhibition of instar I, II and III were 535, 385 and 472 mg/L, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710898/projected-climate-changes-threaten-ancient-refugia-of-kelp-forests-in-the-north-atlantic
#13
Jorge Assis, Miguel B Araújo, Ester A Serrão
Intra-specific genetic variability is critical for species adaptation and evolution and yet it is generally overlooked in projections of the biological consequences of climate change. We ask whether ongoing climate changes can cause the loss of important gene pools from North Atlantic relict kelp forests that persisted over glacial-interglacial cycles. We use ecological niche modeling to predict genetic diversity hotspots for eight species of large brown algae with different thermal tolerances (Arctic to warm-temperate), estimated as regions of persistence throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (20,000 YBP), the warmer Mid-Holocene (6,000 YBP) and the present...
July 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710735/geochemical-characteristics-of-dissolved-rare-earth-elements-in-acid-mine-drainage-from-abandoned-high-as-coal-mining-area-southwestern-china
#14
Xuexian Li, Pan Wu
Acid mine drainage (AMD) represents a major source of water pollution in the small watershed of Xingren coalfield in southwestern Guizhou Province. A detailed geochemical study was performed to investigate the origin, distribution, and migration of REEs by determining the concentrations of REEs and major solutes in AMD samples, concentrations of REEs in coal, bedrocks, and sediment samples, and modeling REEs aqueous species. The results highlighted that all water samples collected in the mining area are identified as low pH, high concentrations of Fe, Al, SO4(2-) and distinctive As and REEs...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710389/continuation-of-the-genetic-divergence-of-ecological-speciation-by-spatial-environmental-heterogeneity-in-island-endemic-plants
#15
Bing-Hong Huang, Chih-Wei Huang, Chia-Lung Huang, Pei-Chun Liao
Divergent selection plays a critical role not only as a speciation driver but also in maintaining post-speciation divergence. In the absence of direct evidence, ancestral interspecific gene flow between incipient species can reflect ancient selective pressure for ecological speciation. In the present study, two late-Pleistocene diverged species endemic to Taiwan, Scutellaria playfairii and S. tashiroi, were spatially and ecologically partitioned with partial overlap. Multilocus genome-scan analyses and in silico evaluation revealed ancestral interspecific gene flow but distinct genetic compositions, implying that adaptive divergence contributed to their speciation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709377/combining-graphical-and-analytical-methods-with-molecular-simulations-to-analyze-time-resolved-fret-measurements-of-labeled-macromolecules-accurately
#16
Thomas-Otavio Peulen, Oleg Opanasyuk, Claus A M Seidel
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements from a donor, D, to an acceptor, A, fluorophore are frequently used in vitro and in live cells to reveal information on the structure and dynamics of DA-labeled macromolecules. Accurate descriptions of FRET-measurements by molecular models are complicated because the fluorophores are usually coupled to the macromolecule via flexible long linkers allowing for diffusional exchange between multiple states with different fluorescence properties caused by distinct environmental quenching, dye mobilities, and variable DA-distances...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709090/the-presence-of-non-native-species-is-not-associated-with-native-fish-sensitivity-to-water-pollution-in-greatly-hydrologically-altered-rivers
#17
Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Ralph Mac Nally, Adolfo de Sostoa
There is a risk of 'ecological surprises' if multiple potentially interacting stressors are managed individually, which is a question attracting significant current interest. Habitat degradation and species introductions are major threats to global biodiversity, and riverine fish are among the most threatened taxa in the world. Our interest was whether the presence of non-native species can affect native fish sensitivity to water quality deterioration in a large region in northeastern Spain (99,700km(2), 15 catchments, 530 sites)...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708881/large-anthropogenic-impacts-on-a-charismatic-small-carnivore-insights-from-distribution-surveys-of-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-in-nepal
#18
Saroj Panthi, Gopal Khanal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Achyut Aryal, Arjun Srivathsa
Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708854/missing-in-action-species-competition-is-a-neglected-predictor-variable-in-species-distribution-modelling
#19
Kudzai Shaun Mpakairi, Henry Ndaimani, Paradzayi Tagwireyi, Tawanda Winmore Gara, Mark Zvidzai, Daphine Madhlamoto
The central role of species competition in shaping community structure in ecosystems is well appreciated amongst ecologists. However species competition is a consistently missing variable in Species Distribution Modelling (SDM). This study presents results of our attempt to incorporate species competition in SDMs. We used a suit of predictor variables including Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), as well as distance from roads, settlements and water, fire frequency and distance from the nearest herbivore sighting (of selected herbivores) to model individual habitat preferences of five grazer species (buffalo, warthog, waterbuck, wildebeest and zebra) with the Ensemble SDM algorithm for Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706228/analysing-the-natural-population-growth-of-a-large-marine-mammal-after-a-depletive-harvest
#20
M A Romero, M F Grandi, M Koen-Alonso, G Svendsen, M Ocampo Reinaldo, N A García, S L Dans, R González, E A Crespo
An understanding of the underlying processes and comprehensive history of population growth after a harvest-driven depletion is necessary when assessing the long-term effectiveness of management and conservation strategies. The South American sea lion (SASL), Otaria flavescens, is the most conspicuous marine mammal along the South American coasts, where it has been heavily exploited. As a consequence of this exploitation, many of its populations were decimated during the early 20th century but currently show a clear recovery...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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