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species distribution model

Kaitlin C Maguire, Douglas J Shinneman, Kevin M Potter, Valerie D Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America...
March 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
David Vernez, Sandrine Fraize-Frontier, Raymond Vincent, Stéphane Binet, Christophe Rousselle
OBJECTIVES: Assessment factors (AFs) are commonly used for deriving reference concentrations for chemicals. These factors take into account variabilities as well as uncertainties in the dataset, such as inter-species and intra-species variabilities or exposure duration extrapolation or extrapolation from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to the noobserved- adverse-effect level (NOAEL). In a deterministic approach, the value of an AF is the result of a debate among experts and, often a conservative value is used as a default choice...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Simone Franceschini, Emanuele Gandola, Marco Martinoli, Lorenzo Tancioni, Michele Scardi
Species distribution is the result of complex interactions that involve environmental parameters as well as biotic factors. However, methodological approaches that consider the use of biotic variables during the prediction process are still largely lacking. Here, a cascaded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach is proposed in order to increase the accuracy of fish species occurrence estimates and a case study for Leucos aula in NE Italy is presented as a demonstration case. Potentially useful biotic information (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah Caughlin, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Aaron J Harris, Kristina Jurcic, Ken K-C Yeung, David F Cechetto, Shawn N Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Andrew Best, Jason M Kamilar
Sweating is an unusual thermoregulatory strategy for most mammals, yet is critical for humans. This trait is commonly hypothesized to result from human ancestors moving from a forest to a warmer and drier open environment. As soft tissue traits do not typically fossilize, this idea has been difficult to test. Therefore, we used a comparative approach to examine 15 eccrine gland traits from 35 primate species. For each trait we measured phylogenetic signal, tested three evolutionary models to explain trait variation, and used phylogenetic models to examine how traits varied in response to climate variables...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
E Curotto, M Mella
We have computed ground state energies and analyzed radial distributions for several gas phase and adsorbed D2 (H2 )n and HD(H2 )n clusters. An external model potential designed to mimic ionic adsorption sites inside porous materials is used [M. Mella and E. Curotto, J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 5005 (2017)]. The isotopic substitution lowers the ground state energies by the expected amount based on the mass differences when these are compared with the energies of the pure clusters in the gas phase. A similar impact is found for adsorbed aggregates...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qianyi Zhang, Evan G R Davies, James R Bolton, Yang Liu
Monochloramine (NH2 Cl) is widely used for secondary disinfection by water utilities. However, Edmonton field stormwater sampling results have shown that NH2 Cl, because of its long-lasting property, can cause stormwater contamination through outdoor potable water uses during the summer season. To protect water sources, it is important to understand NH2 Cl dissipation mechanisms in stormwater. Natural organic matter (NOM) is the dominant species that contributes to NH2 Cl decay in stormwater. In this research, it is proposed that NOM reacted with both NH2 Cl and free chlorine through rapid and long-term reactions during NH2 Cl dissipation...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eugeniya I Bekker, Dmitry P Karabanov, Yan R Galimov, Christoph R Haag, Tatiana V Neretina, Alexey A Kotov
Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia...
2018: PloS One
Zachary H Marion, James A Fordyce, Benjamin M Fitzpatrick
Recently there have been major theoretical advances in the quantification and partitioning of diversity within and among communities, regions, and ecosystems. However, applying those advances to real data remains a challenge. Ecologists often end up describing their samples rather than estimating the diversity components of an underlying study system, and existing approaches do not easily provide statistical frameworks for testing ecological questions. Here we offer one avenue to do all of the above using a hierarchical Bayesian approach...
March 15, 2018: Ecology
Marjorie da Silva, Fernando Barbosa Noll, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P...
2018: PloS One
Yunsong Mu, Zhen Wang, Fengchang Wu, Buqing Zhong, Mingru Yang, Fuhong Sun, Chenglian Feng, Xiaowei Jin, Kenneth M Y Leung, John P Giesy
Metals can pose hazards to marine species and can adversely affect structures and functions of communities of marine species. However, little is known about how structural properties of metal atoms combined with current geographical and climatic conditions affect their toxic potencies. A mathematical model, based on quantitative structure-activity relationships and species sensitivity distributions (QSAR-SSD) was developed by use of acute toxicities of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn) to eight marine species and accessory environmental conditions...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Petri Kemppainen, Arild Husby
Genome wide association studies have contributed immensely to our understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits. One major conclusion arising from these studies is that most traits are controlled by many loci of small effect, confirming the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. A popular approach to test for polygenic architecture involves so called 'chromosome partitioning' where phenotypic variance explained by each chromosome is regressed on the size of the chromosome. First developed for humans, this has now been repeatedly used in other species, but there has been no evaluation of the suitability of this method in species that can differ in their genome characteristics such as number and size of chromosomes...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
A G V Salvanes, M J Gibbons
The oceans of the world are slowly losing oxygen, in part because of climate change and in part because of anthropogenic eutrophication. This deoxygenation affects marine organisms in species-specific ways. This paper reviews what is known on how hypoxia tolerant species respond to low dissolved oxygen, using the bearded goby Sufflogobius bibarbatus as a model system. This species is endemic to the Benguela upwelling ecosystem, where, off Namibia, 9000 km2 of the shelf is hypoxic. Here, the species is now considered central to ecosystem functioning and in recent decades it has sustained commercial fisheries...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Laxman Khanal, Mukesh K Chalise, Kai He, Bipin K Acharya, Yoshi Kawamoto, Xuelong Jiang
Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Raffaele Rani, Konrad Abramowicz, Daniel S Falster, Frank Sterck, Åke Brännström
Allocation of carbohydrates between competing organs is fundamental to plant development, growth and productivity. Carbohydrates are synthesized in mature leaves and distributed via the phloem vasculature to developing buds where they are consumed to produce new biomass. The distribution and mass-allocation processes within the plant remain poorly understood and may involve complex feedbacks between different plant functions, with implications for the emergent structure of the plant. Here, we investigate how the order in which dormant buds are flushed affects the development of tree size and reproductive output during the first 20 years of growth in full light and shaded canopy environments...
March 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Merly Escalona, Sara Rocha, David Posada
Motivation: Advances in sequencing technologies have made it feasible to obtain massive datasets for phylogenomic inference, often consisting of large numbers of loci from multiple species and individuals. The phylogenomic analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data requires a complex computational pipeline where multiple technical and methodological decisions are necessary that can influence the final tree obtained, like those related to coverage, assembly, mapping, variant calling and/or phasing...
March 9, 2018: Bioinformatics
Joanne M Bennett, Piero Calosi, Susana Clusella-Trullas, Brezo Martínez, Jennifer Sunday, Adam C Algar, Miguel B Araújo, Bradford A Hawkins, Sally Keith, Ingolf Kühn, Carsten Rahbek, Laura Rodríguez, Alexander Singer, Fabricio Villalobos, Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga, Ignacio Morales-Castilla
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic factors such as biotic interactions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Anushree Sanyal, Jonathan Lenoir, Carmel O'Neill, Frederic Dubois, Guillaume Decocq
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Nearly all seed plants rely on stored seed reserves before photosynthesis can commence. Natural selection for seed oil traits must have occurred over 319 million years of evolution since the first seed plant ancestor. Accounting for the biogeographic distribution of seed oil traits is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in seed plants. However, the evolution of seed oils is poorly understood. We provide evidence of the adaptive nature of seed oil traits at the intraspecific and interspecific levels in Brassicaceae-an oilseed-rich and economically important plant family...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
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