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Sandra Claes, Thomas D'huys, Anneleen Van Hout, Dominique Schols, Tom Van Loy
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry as they are involved in many human diseases and include well-validated targets for therapeutic intervention. Discovery of lead compounds, including small synthetic molecules, that specifically inhibit the receptor's function, is an important initial step in drug development and relies on sensitive, specific, and robust cell-based assays. Here, we describe a kinetic cellular assay with a fluorescent readout primarily designed to identify receptor-specific antagonists that inhibit the intracellular Ca2+ release evoked upon the activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) by its endogenous ligand, the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Melanie Dawn Channon
CONTEXT: Son preference exerts a strong influence over contraceptive and fertility decisions in many South Asian countries. In Pakistan, where fertility remains high and contraceptive use low, research on son preference has been limited. METHODS: Data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1990-1991, 2006-2007 and 2012-2013 were used to examine potential indicators and outcomes of son preference. Descriptive analyses looked at sex composition preferences of men and women, as well as the sex ratio at last birth...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Tiziana Leone, Diego Alburez-Gutierrez, Rula Gandour, Ernestina Coast, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts can undermine a country's health-care capacity and disrupt the delivery of basic health services. Yet the public health consequences of war remain difficult to quantify, mainly because adequate data do not exist. We hypothesised that the ongoing conflict in the occupied Palestinian territory (including the restrictions on free movement and the strain on health-care services) have had detrimental effects on maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: We reconstructed data on delivery by caesarean section and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccination with pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 2000-14...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Holly P O'Rourke, David P MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Matthew J Harper, Christopher J Arthur, John Crosby, Edward J Emmett, Rosalyn L Falconer, Andrew J Fensham-Smith, Paul J Gates, Thomas Leman, John E McGrady, John F Bower, Christopher A Russell
Three-coordinate bipyridyl complexes of gold, [(κ2 -bipy)Au(η2 -C2 H4 )][NTf2 ], are readily accessed by direct reaction of 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), or its derivatives, with the homoleptic gold ethylene complex [Au(C2 H4 )3 ][NTf2 ]. The cheap and readily available bipyridyl ligands facilitate oxidative addition of aryl iodides to the Au(I) center to give [(κ2 -bipy)Au(Ar)I][NTf2 ], which undergo first aryl-zinc transmetalation and second C-C reductive elimination to produce biaryl products. The products of each distinct step have been characterized...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yvonne Tieu, Candace Konnert, Leanne Quigley
Research on underutilization patterns of mental health services among older Chinese immigrants is limited, partly due to the absence of translated, psychometrically sound measures for assessing attitudes towards seeking help. In this study we interviewed 200 older Chinese Canadian immigrants using a translated version of the Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services scale (IASMHS), and assessed mental health care utilization over the past 12 months and intentions to seek help. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to replicate the original three-factor structure; thus, we used exploratory factor analysis to create a 20-item Chinese version, the C-IASMHS...
March 19, 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Rong Biaoxue, Yang Shuanying
BACKGROUND: Many studies have evaluated the accuracy of EGFR mutation status in blood against that in tumor tissues as the reference. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether blood can be used as a substitute for tumor tissue in detecting EGFR mutations. METHODS: Investigations that provided data on EGFR mutation status in blood were searched in the databases of Medline, Embase, Ovid Technologies and Web of Science. The detect efficiency of EGFR mutations in paired blood and tissues was compared using a random-effects model of meta-analysis...
January 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
Pragya Agarwala, Ekta Gupta, Manish Chandra Choudhary, Viniyendra Pamecha
Most cases of chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients are attributable to genotype 3. Although India is hyperendemic for HEV genotype 1, chronic infection in transplant patients has not been reported. In this study, 30 liver transplant recipients were followed up by systematic testing for various markers of HEV (IgM, IgG, HEV-Ag, and RNA) on blood and stool samples obtained pre-transplant, and then at 3 and 6 months post-transplant to look for HEV exposure and persistence...
March 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Sumit Handa, Daniel R Dempsey, Divya Ramamoorthy, Nanci Cook, Wayne C Guida, Tyler J Spradling, Justin K White, H Lee Woodcock, David J Merkler
The non-mevalonate dependent (NMVA) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate is the sole source of these terpenoids for the production of isoprenoids in the apicomplexan parasites, in many eubacteria, and in plants. The absence of this pathway in higher organisms has opened a new platform for the development of novel antibiotics and anti-malarials. The enzyme catalyzing the first step of the NMVA pathway is 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXPS). DXPS catalyzes the thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg (II)-dependent conjugation of pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to form 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate and CO2 ...
2018: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
S Junaid S Qazi, Raymond J Turner
EmrE is a member of the small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein family in Escherichia coli . It confers resistance to a wide variety of quaternary cation compounds (QCCs) as an efflux transporter driven by the transmembrane proton motive force. We have expressed hexahistidinyl (His6 ) - myc epitope tagged EmrE, extracted it from membrane preparations using the detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), and purified it using nickel-affinity chromatography. The size of the EmrE protein, in DDM environment, was then examined in the presence and absence of a range of structurally different QCC ligands that varied in their chemical structure, charge and shape...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yuta Kasagi, Prasanna M Chandramouleeswaran, Kelly A Whelan, Koji Tanaka, Veronique Giroux, Medha Sharma, Joshua Wang, Alain J Benitez, Maureen DeMarshall, John W Tobias, Kathryn E Hamilton, Gary W Falk, Jonathan M Spergel, Andres J Klein-Szanto, Anil K Rustgi, Amanda B Muir, Hiroshi Nakagawa
Background & Aims: Aberrations in the esophageal proliferation-differentiation gradient are histologic hallmarks in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. A reliable protocol to grow 3-dimensional (3D) esophageal organoids is needed to study esophageal epithelial homeostasis under physiological and pathologic conditions. Methods: We modified keratinocyte-serum free medium to grow 3D organoids from endoscopic esophageal biopsies, immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, and murine esophagi...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
James W Dearing
The ability of non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and corporations to deliver and support the availability and use of interventions for improved global public health depends on their readiness to do so. Yet readiness has proven to be a rather fluid concept in global public health, perhaps due to its multidimensional nature and because scholars and practitioners have applied the concept at different levels such as the individual, organization, and community. This review concerns 30 publically available tools created for the purpose of organizational readiness assessment in order to carry out global public health objectives...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Michael A Zacchilli, Amos Z Dai, Eric J Strauss, Laith M Jazrawi, Robert J Meislin
The meniscus plays a vital role in knee biomechanics, and its physical absence or functional incompetence (e.g., irreparable root or radial tear) leads to unacceptably high rates of joint degeneration in affected populations. Meniscal allograft transplantation has been used successfully to treat patients with postmeniscectomy syndrome, and there is early laboratory and radiographic evidence hinting at a potential prophylactic role in preventing joint degeneration. We present a technique for lateral meniscal allograft transplantation using the CONMED Meniscal Allograft Transplantation system...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Luciano Tarantino, Aurelio Nasto, Giuseppina Busto, Vincenzo Iovino, Raffaele Fristachi, Sara Bortone
Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary Carcinoma (SPC) is a rare pancreatic Tumor with variable, usually low, malignancy potential. Howewer, several SPC are associated with aggressive behavior, local vascular infiltration, organ invasion, distant metastasis, and can be unresectable. Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) is an emerging non-thermal ablation technique for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. We report the results of four year disease-free follow-up in a case of locally advanced unresectable SPC treated with IRE...
April 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Tatiana Marcela Pérez, Sandra Milena García, Martha Lucía Velasco, Angela Paola Sánchez
Interrupted aortic arch is an extremely rare congenital malformation representing about 1% of congenital heart disease. Early symptoms usually occur early in the neonatal period and clinical deterioration is often rapid and long-term prognosis is limited. Nonetheless, this condition has been identified later in adult life in rare cases. We report a case in an adult male with absence of hypertension history and no further cardiac compromise, with a severe posterior chest pain alongside dyspnea and sweating. Computed tomography angiography revealed interrupted aortic arch type A, bivalve aorta, hemopericardium, aortic dissection Stanford A, and important collateral circulation...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Luigi Cavanna, Pietro Seghini, Camilla Di Nunzio, Elena Orlandi, Emanuele Michieletti, Elisa Maria Stroppa, Patrizia Mordenti, Chiara Citterio, Stefano Vecchia, Adriano Zangrandi
Central nervous system (CNS) metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are rare, and occur in 0.16-0.69% of patients with gastric or gastro-esophageal (GE) junction cancer. Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of HER-2-targeted therapy, and with an increased incidence of CNS metastases in patients with breast cancer. The role of HER-2 overexpression in CNS metastases is not well known in gastric adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the incidence of CNS metastases and to evaluate the associations between the CNS and HER-2 status in a series of consecutive patients with gastric or GE junction cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Camila S Souza, Guilherme J Costa-Silva, Fábio F Roxo, Fausto Foresti, Claudio Oliveira
Schizolecis is a monotypic genus of Siluriformes widely distributed throughout isolated coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil. Previous studies have shown that fish groups found in isolated river basins tend to differentiate over time in the absence of gene flow, resulting in allopatric speciation. In this study, we used partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene COI with the analysis of the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) for single locus species delimitation, and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of external morphology to test the hypothesis that Schizolecis guntheri is a complex of species...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sofia Ferrer, Antonio M Echavarren
Gold(I) acetylide and σ,π-digold(I) alkyne complexes derived from one prototypical 1,6-enyne and from 7-ethynyl-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene have been prepared and structurally characterized. Their possible role in gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerizations has been studied by experiment and by DFT calculations. Gold(I) acetylides are totally unproductive complexes in the absence of Brønsted acids. Similarly, no cyclizations were observed by heating σ,π-digold(I) alkyne digold(I) at least up to 130 °C. Theoretical studies provide a rationale for the much lower reactivity of digold species in reactions of enynes...
March 12, 2018: Organometallics
Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Michel W Bojanowski
OBJECTIVE: To our knowledge, there have not been any reported cases of a meningioma of the cranio-cervical region presenting solely with syncope as its initial symptom. Only one case of meningioma presenting with syncope has been published, but it was associated with hydrocephalus. We report two cases of syncope caused by a cranio-cervical junction meningioma, with syncope being the sole presenting symptom and without hydrocephalus. We discuss the possible pathophysiology as well as the clinical relevance of this type of presentation...
March 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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