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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812367/the-usefulness-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-performed-in-the-acute-phase-as-an-early-predictor-of-delayed-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-in-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#1
Y S Kim, Y S Cha, M S Kim, H J Kim, Y S Lee, H Youk, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, H Kim, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). No previous study has determined whether early use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can predict which patients will develop DNS in the acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 17-month period. All included patients with acute CO poisoning underwent DWI to evaluate brain injury within 72 h after CO exposure...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#2
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812265/oxytocin-and-olfaction
#3
Lars-Lennart Oettl, Wolfgang Kelsch
Social signals are identified through processing in sensory systems to trigger appropriate behavioral responses. Social signals are received primarily in most mammals through the olfactory system. Individuals are recognized based on their unique blend of odorants. Such individual recognition is critical to distinguish familiar conspecifics from intruders and to recognize offspring. Social signals can also trigger stereotyped responses like mating behaviors. Specific sensory pathways for individual recognition and eliciting stereotyped responses have been identified both in the early olfactory system and its connected cortices...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812231/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-conditioned-medium-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-impaired-by-n-acetyl-cysteine-supplementation
#4
Teodoro Palomares, María Cordero, Cristina Bruzos-Cidon, María Torrecilla, Luisa Ugedo, Ana Alonso-Varona
Oxidative stress is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation, and therefore, has been proposed as a key target for novel therapies for these diseases. Recently, adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-based cell therapy has emerged as a novel strategy for neuroprotection. In this study, we evaluate the therapeutic role of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in a new in vitro model of ec23/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Yd)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811267/app-a%C3%AE-structural-diversity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Alex E Roher, Tyler A Kokjohn, Steven G Clarke, Michael R Sierks, Chera L Maarouf, Geidy E Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811212/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-delayed-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-emergency-department
#6
Byunghyun Kim, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Joonghee Kim, Tackeun Kim, Kyuseok Kim, Heeyoung Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Yoo Hwan Jo, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ji Eun Hwang
OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to identify the risk factors for delayed intracranial hemorrhage and develop a risk stratification system for disposition of head trauma patients with negative initial brain imaging. METHODS: The data source was National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort of Korea. We analyzed adult patients presenting to the ER from January 2004 to September 2012, who underwent brain imaging and discharged with or without short-term observation no longer than two days...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811143/nadph-oxidases-as-drug-targets-and-biomarkers-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-what-is-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Sorce, Roland Stocker, Tamara Seredenina, Rikard Holmdahl, Adriano Aguzzi, Adriano Chio, Antoine Depaulis, Freddy Heitz, Peter Olofsson, Tomas Olsson, Venceslas Duveau, Despina Sanoudou, Sara Skosgater, Antonia Vlahou, Dominique Wasquel, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincent Jaquet
Neurodegenerative disease are frequently characterized by microglia activation and/or leukocyte infiltration in the parenchyma of the central nervous system and at the molecular level by increased oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) emerged as a novel promising class of pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegeneration due to their role in oxidant generation and presumably in regulating microglia activation. The unique function of NOX is the generation of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
August 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811137/influence-of-guidelines-on-management-of-paediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-ct-assessment-and-admission-policy
#8
J J Lenstra, A R A Pikstra, J M Fock, Z Metting, J van der Naalt
BACKGROUND: The annual number of paediatric injury-related emergency visits and application of computed tomography (CT) has substantially increased, with associated higher risk of malignancies. In 2010, a guideline for CT-assessment based on risk factors for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) became effective in all Emergency Departments (ED) in the Netherlands. This study evaluated the influence of this guideline on the frequency of CT-assessments, hospital admissions and factors that are related to guideline adherence...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810965/the-benefits-and-risks-of-energy-drinks-in-young-adults-and-military-service-members
#9
Julianne Manchester, Inbal Eshel, Donald W Marion
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810588/chronic-disorders-of-consciousness
#10
Qiuyou Xie, Xiaoxiao Ni, Ronghao Yu, Yuanqing Li, Ruiwang Huang
Over the last 20 years, studies have provided greater insight into disorders of consciousness (DOC), also known as altered state of consciousness. Increased brain residual functions have been identified in patients with DOC due to the successful application of novel next-generation imaging technologies. Many unconscious patients have now been confirmed to retain considerable cognitive functions. It is hoped that greater insight regarding the psychological state of patients may be achieved through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain-computer interfaces...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810261/comparative-evaluation-of-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound-surgery-for-essential-tremor
#11
Minsoo Kim, Na Young Jung, Chang Kyu Park, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for patients with drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) are limited. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is an emerging technique to treat refractory ET. OBJECTIVES: To present MRgFUS as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) thalamotomy or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for ET treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 59 patients who underwent unilateral surgery for drug-resistant ET...
August 16, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810189/hydroxy-substituted-trans-cinnamoyl-derivatives-as-multifunctional-tools-in-the-context-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Angela De Simone, Manuela Bartolini, Andrea Baschieri, Kim Y P Apperley, Huan Huan Chen, Melissa Guardigni, Serena Montanari, Tereza Kobrlova, Ondrej Soukup, Luca Valgimigli, Vincenza Andrisano, Jeffrey W Keillor, Manuela Basso, Andrea Milelli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial pathology that requires multifaceted agents able to address its peculiar nature. In recent years, a plethora of proteins and biochemical pathways has been proposed as possible targets to counteract neurotoxicity. Although the complex scenario is not completely elucidated, close relationships are emerging among some of these actors. In particular, increasing evidence has shown that aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and oxidative stress are strictly interconnected and their concomitant modulation may have a positive and synergic effect in contrasting AD-related impairments...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809668/tractography-based-score-for-learning-effective-connectivity-from-multimodal-imaging-data-using-dynamic-bayesian-networks
#13
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun K Roy
OBJECTIVE: Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally-active segregated regions of the brain. By definition [1] EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modelling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809032/a-sensitive-and-versatile-in-situ-hybridization-protocol-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-developing-amniote-brains
#14
Pei-Shan Hou, Takuma Kumamoto, Carina Hanashima
The detection of specific RNA molecules in embryonic tissues has wide research applications including studying gene expression dynamics in brain development and evolution. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have introduced new animal models to explore the molecular principles underlying the assembly and diversification of brain circuits between different amniote species. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for a versatile in situ hybridization method that is immediately applicable to a range of amniote embryos including zebra finch and Madagascar ground gecko, two new model organisms that have rapidly emerged for comparative brain studies over recent years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808998/microfluidics-mass-spectrometry-of-protein-carbohydrate-interactions-applications-to-the-development-of-therapeutics-and-biomarker-discovery
#15
Alina D Zamfir
The functional interactions of carbohydrates and their protein receptors are the basis of biological events critical to the evolution of pathological states. Hence, for the past years, such interactions have become the focus of research for the development of therapeutics and discovery of novel glycan biomarkers based on their binding affinity. Due to the high sensitivity, throughput, reproducibility, and capability to ionize minor species in heterogeneous mixtures, microfluidics-mass spectrometry (MS) has recently emerged as a method of choice in protein-glycan interactomics...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808901/the-utility-of-routine-intensive-care-admission-for-patients-undergoing-intracranial-neurosurgical-procedures-a-systematic-review
#16
Cesar Cimonari de Almeida, M Dustin Boone, Yosef Laviv, Burkhard S Kasper, Clark C Chen, Ekkehard M Kasper
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. METHODS: We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission...
August 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808794/thiol-disulfide-homeostasis-as-a-novel-indicator-of-oxidative-stress-in-children-with-simple-febrile-seizures
#17
Bahri Elmas, Özcan Erel, Dilek Ersavaş, Yusuf Yürümez
Simple febrile seizures are generally benign, but during the seizure, elevated levels of glutamate and high levels of oxygen use due to the high metabolic brain activity result in oxidative stress. However, the relationship between febrile seizures and oxidative stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a new oxidative stress parameter in patients with simple febrile seizures. This study was performed between February 2016 and May 2016 at the Pediatric Emergency Unit...
August 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808787/malignant-transformation-of-a-conservatively-managed-incidental-childhood-cerebral-mass-lesion-controversy-regarding-management-paradigm
#18
Jehuda Soleman, Jonathan Roth, Zvi Ram, Michal Yalon, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on neuroimaging in the pediatric population are an emerging treatment challenge. Treatment options for these incidental childhood brain mass lesions, which radiologically may be assumed to be low-grade gliomas (LGG), vary, ranging from careful conservative "wait and scan" treatment to surgical biopsy, gross total resection, and upfront radiation and/or chemotherapy. As malignant transformation of LGG in children is extremely rare, some series advocate careful conservative management of these lesions; however, universal treatment protocols are not totally agreed upon...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808605/fatal-cerebral-swelling-immediately-after-cranioplasty-a-case-report
#19
Yuta Kaneshiro, Keiji Murata, Shigeru Yamauchi, Yumiko Urano
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty is a standard neurosurgical procedure which is performed after decompressive craniotomy. Fatal complications associated with this procedure are not well documented. Here, we report a case of fatal cerebral swelling after cranioplasty and discuss the possible mechanism of this complication. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 64-year-old man was admitted with the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage, and emergency surgery for hemorrhage removal and decompressive craniotomy were performed...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808139/differential-expression-of-sirtuin-2-and-adipocyte-maturation-restriction-an-adaptation-process-during-hypoxia-in-fish
#20
Ekambaram Padmini, Parasuraman Parimala
Sirtuins have received wide spread attention due to their diverse physiological role in metabolism. Among sirtuins, SIRT2 is more abundant in adipocytes; exerts effect on adipocyte differentiation, a process involves conversion of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes orchestrated by adipokines and adipogenic transcription factors. Grey mullets (Scientific name: Mugil cephalus) were chosen as study organism due to its excellent serve as a biomonitor. Adipocytes isolated from natural field condition were termed as field hypoxic (Ennore) and normoxic (Kovalam) based on DO level in the estuary...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
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