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Brain, emergency

Joseph S Domino, Jonggyu Baek, William J Meurer, Nelda Garcia, Lewis B Morgenstern, Morgan Campbell, Lynda D Lisabeth
OBJECTIVE: To explore temporal trends in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a biethnic community without an academic medical center and variation in trends by age, sex, ethnicity, and stroke severity. METHODS: Cases of AIS were identified from 7 hospitals in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, a population-based surveillance study between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012. tPA, demographics, and stroke severity as assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were ascertained from medical records...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Adam R Ferguson, Nancy R Temkin, Murray B Stein, Jason Barber, Esther L Yuh, Sourabh Sharma, Gabriela G Satris, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Marco D Sorani, Hester F Lingsma, Phiroz E Tarapore, Esteban G Burchard, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Kevin K W Wang, Pratik Mukherjee, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey T Manley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Juliane Mundorf, Mirka Uhlirova
Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful experimental system for functional and mechanistic studies of tumor development and progression in the context of a whole organism. Sophisticated techniques to generate genetic mosaics facilitate induction of visually marked, genetically defined clones surrounded by normal tissue. The clones can be analyzed through diverse molecular, cellular and omics approaches. This study describes how to generate fluorescently labeled clonal tumors of varying malignancy in the eye/antennal imaginal discs (EAD) of Drosophila larvae using the Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker (MARCM) technique...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wasay M Shaikh Qureshi, Lianjie Miao, David Shieh, Jingjing Li, Yangyang Lu, Saiyang Hu, Margarida Barroso, Joseph Mazurkiewicz, Mingfu Wu
Single clonal tracing and analysis at the whole-heart level can determine cardiac progenitor cell behavior and differentiation during cardiac development, and allow for the study of the cellular and molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac morphogenesis. Recent emerging technologies of retrospective single clonal analyses make the study of cardiac morphogenesis at single cell resolution feasible. However, tissue opacity and light scattering of the heart as imaging depth is increased hinder whole-heart imaging at single cell resolution...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
David Feifel, Katherine Pappas
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging non-pharmacological approach to treating many brain-based disorders. rTMS uses electromagnetic coils to stimulate areas of the brain non-invasively. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) with the Brainsway H1-coil system specifically is a type of rTMS indicated for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are resistant to medication. The unique H1-coil design of this device is able to stimulate neuronal pathways that lie deeper in the targeted brain areas than those reached by conventional rTMS coils...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Katie M Parkins, Amanda M Hamilton, Ashley V Makela, Yuanxin Chen, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald
Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Javier Díez
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in early chronic heart failure (CHF), countering renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overstimulation. Despite dramatic increases in circulating NP concentrations as CHF progresses, their effects become blunted. Increases in diuresis, natriuresis, and vasodilation after administration of exogenous atrial (ANP) or brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides are attenuated in patients with advanced CHF compared with controls...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Eve Valera, Aaron Kucyi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in women experiencing intimate-partner violence (IPV) is common, and IPV afflicts 30 % of women worldwide. However, the neurobiology and related sequelae of these TBIs have never been systematically examined. Consequently, TBI treatments are typically absent and IPV interventions are inadequate. There has been a call for a comprehensive assessment of IPV-related TBIs and their relationship to aspects of women's cognitive and neural functioning. In response, we examined brain-network organization associated with TBI and its cognitive effects using clinical interviews and neuropsychological measures as well as structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in women experiencing IPV-related TBI...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Qiao-Li Lv, Yuan-Tao Huang, Gui-Hua Wang, Yan-Ling Liu, Jin Huang, Qiang Qu, Bao Sun, Lei Hu, Lin Cheng, Shu-Hui Chen, Hong-Hao Zhou
Emerging studies show that dysregulation of the receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of RACK1 in glioma remains poorly defined. Here, we found that RACK1 was significantly up-regulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, being closely related to clinical stage of glioma both in mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high RACK1 expression had a poor prognosis (p = 0...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, stroke, and certain types of cancer...
October 2016: Teaching of Psychology
Yukio Maezawa, Tsutomu Sato, Kazuki Kano, Kenki Segami, Tetsushi Nakajima, Taiichi Kawabe, Junya Shirai, Hiroto Fujikawa, Toru Aoyama, Tsutomu Hayashi, Kousuke Ikeda, Takanobu Yamada, Satoshi Tsuchida, Naoto Yamamoto, Takashi Ohshima, Yasushi Rino, Munetaka Masuda, Takashi Ogata, Haruhiko Cho, Takaki Yoshikawa
A30 -year-old woman underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection after being diagnosed with clinical T3, N2, M0, Stage III B gastric cancer. The postoperative pathological findings revealed a T3(SE), N2, M0, Stage III B tumor. Headache, dizziness, and vomiting occurred during chemotherapy for peritoneal recurrence, using weekly paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15. Head CT showed a solitary tumor with a diameter of 28mm in the cerebellum, as well as cerebellar swelling and hydrocephalus. She underwent an emergency craniotomy and tumor enucleation...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Sayantan Maji, Pankaj Chaudhary, Irina Akopova, Phung M Nguyen, Richard J Hare, Ignacy Gryczynski, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
: Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis and tissue-specific metastasis. Proteomic profiling has identified Annexin A2 as one of the most highly expressed proteins in exosomes; however, studies focused on the biological role of exosomal-AnnexinA2 (exo-AnxA2) are still lacking. In this study, mechanistic insight was sought regarding exo-AnxA2 and its function in angiogenesis and breast cancer metastasis. Multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques were used to study the role of exo-AnxA2 in angiogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Louise Dunphy, Prashanth Shetty, Rabinder Randhawa, Kharil Amir Rani, Yaw Duodu
A 39-year-old man, born in India but resident in the UK for 10 years, was travelling in America when he became feverish with an altered mentation. He reported a 10-day history of fever, photophobia, headache and fatigue. His medical history included hypothyroidism and migraine. He was a non-smoker, did not consume alcohol and denied a history of drug use. He was transferred to the emergency department. Laboratory investigations confirmed hyponatraemia (sodium 128 mmol/L). A chest radiograph confirmed no focal consolidation...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
J Pakpoor, D Saylor, I Izbudak, L Liu, E M Mowry, D M Yousem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The increasing use of the emergency department MR imaging scanner at our institution raises questions about its added value to certain patient groups. We hypothesized that the use of emergency department MR imaging for identifying active demyelination in MS patients presenting with new neurologic symptoms would be of low yield. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic medical records were reviewed for patients with MS who had emergency department MR imaging scans for a suspected MS exacerbation between March 1, 2014, and March 1, 2016...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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