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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#1
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#2
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904004/delayed-diagnosis-of-blunt-carotid-trauma-in-a-seat-belt-syndrome-with-associated-abdominal-wall-injury-a-case-report
#3
Savino Occhionorelli, Dario Andreotti, Daniela Tartarini, Lorenzo Cappellari, Rocco Stano, Lucia Morganti, Giorgio Vasquez
: The aim of this case report is to be aware of occult carotid lesions in thoracic- abdominal trauma because, carotid artery injury consequent to blunt trauma is rare, affecting less than 1% of patients as reported in literature. A 45-years-old female, involved in a traffic accident, arrived to Emergency Room hemodynamically stable, with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 15, complaining abdominal pain, without any neurological signs. She underwent Computed Tomography (CT) scan that showed a complete disruption of left abdominal wall muscles, associated with massive bowel loops herniation...
November 28, 2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903839/the-effect-of-brain-tomography-findings-on-mortality-in-sniper-shot-head-injuries
#4
Çağdaş Can, M Bolatkale, A Sarıhan, Y Savran, A Ç Acara, M Bulut
OBJECTIVES: Penetrating gunshot head injuries have a poor prognosis and require prompt care. Brain CT is a routine component of the standard evaluation of head wounds and suspected brain injury. We aimed to investigate the effect of brain CT findings on mortality in gunshot head injury patients who were admitted to our emergency department (ED) from the Syrian Civil War. METHODS: The study group comprised patients who were admitted to the ED with gunshot brain injury...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903332/computerized-cognitive-tests-are-associated-with-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-cognitively-normal-individuals-10-years-prior
#5
Anja Soldan, Corinne Pettigrew, Abhay Moghekar, Marilyn Albert
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers become abnormal many years before the emergence of clinical symptoms of AD, raising the possibility that biomarker levels measured in cognitively normal individuals would be associated with cognitive performance many years later. This study examined whether performance on computerized cognitive tests is associated with levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of amyloid, tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) obtained approximately 10 years earlier, when individuals were cognitively normal and primarily middle-aged...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903328/cognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-childhood-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes
#6
Christine Till, Austin Noguera, Leonard H Verhey, Julia O'Mahony, E Ann Yeh, Jean K Mah, Katia J Sinopoli, Brian L Brooks, Berengere Aubert-Broche, D Louis Collins, Sridar Narayanan, Douglas L Arnold, Brenda L Banwell
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes after an incident demyelinating event (acquired demyelinating syndromes, ADS) in childhood and to investigate the contribution of brain lesions and confirmed MS diagnosis on outcome. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with ADS (mean age=12.2 years, SD=2.7, range: 7-16 years) underwent brain MRI scans at presentation and at 6-months follow-up. T2-weighted lesions on MRI were assessed using a binary classification...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902596/portable-disposable-ultrathin-endoscopy-tested-through-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy
#7
Myong Ki Baeg, Chul-Hyun Lim, Jin Su Kim, Yu Kyung Cho, Jae Myung Park, Bo-In Lee, In-Seok Lee, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND: A portable disposable ultrathin endoscope (DUE) with high visual quality and maneuverability would reduce the need for expensive facilities and emergency endoscopy could be available anywhere. It would increase patient satisfaction, prevent unnecessary sedation, and reduce infection. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of portable DUE in performing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients who underwent PEG under DUE guidance and compared them with historical controls who underwent PEG under conventional ultrathin endoscopy (CUE) guidance...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899889/anodal-tdcs-to-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-performance-for-novice-jazz-improvisers-but-hinders-experts
#8
David S Rosen, Brian Erickson, Youngmoo E Kim, Daniel Mirman, Roy H Hamilton, John Kounios
Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899882/tumor-metabolism-the-ketogenic-diet-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-novel-approaches-to-adjuvant-brain-tumor-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Eric C Woolf, Nelofer Syed, Adrienne C Scheck
Malignant brain tumors are devastating despite aggressive treatments such as surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The average life expectancy of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is approximately ~18 months. It is clear that increased survival of brain tumor patients requires the design of new therapeutic modalities, especially those that enhance currently available treatments and/or limit tumor growth. One novel therapeutic arena is the metabolic dysregulation that results in an increased need for glucose in tumor cells...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895557/a-framework-for-combining-rtms-with-behavioral-therapy
#10
K Zoe Tsagaris, Douglas R Labar, Dylan J Edwards
Upon its inception, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered at rest, without regard to the potential impact of activity occurring during or around the time of stimulation. rTMS was considered an experimental intervention imposed on the brain; therefore, the myriad features that might suppress or enhance its desired effects had not yet been explored. The field of rTMS has since grown substantially and therapeutic benefits have been reported, albeit with modest and inconsistent improvements...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894945/successful-treatment-of-refractory-status-epilepticus-using-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-deep-brain-stimulation
#11
Ching-Yi Lee, Siew-Na Lim, Tony Wu, Shih-Tseng Lee
BACKGROUND: Refractory status epilepticus(RSE) is considered a medical emergency in neurology and is related to a high mortality rate. We report a successfully treated case of RSE using deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). METHOD: Report concerning the resolution of RSE after DBS of the ATN in a 17-year-old woman RESULT: This patient developed RSE due to progressive seizure activity. RSE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures was noted two weeks prior to admission...
November 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893680/the-value-of-ezis-analysis-of-tc-99m-ecd-spect-on-identifying-cerebellar-hypoperfusion-in-a-patient-with-superficial-siderosis-a-case-report
#12
Cheng-Yu Wei, Tai-Yi Chen, Ian Shih, Pai-Yi Chiu, Guang-Uei Hung, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Brain perfusion single photon computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional imaging modality and has been widely utilized in evaluation of various kinds of neurological disorders. Easy z-score imaging system (eZIS) is a computer-assisted statistical analysis, based on the comparison with age-classified ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) normal database, which provides objectively interpretation of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT.Here we presented a 64-year-old male with dizziness, spin sensation, nausea, and vomiting in the emergency room, and brain computed tomography scan showed only small hypodensity lesion in cerebellum...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893670/epidemiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-lebanon-a-systematic-review
#13
Hussein Abou-Abbass, Hisham Bahmad, Hiba Ghandour, Jawad Fares, Rayyan Wazzi-Mkahal, Basel Yacoub, Hala Darwish, Stefania Mondello, Hayat Harati, Mazen J El Sayed, Hani Tamim, Firas Kobeissy
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a debilitating medical and emerging public health problem that is affecting people worldwide due to a multitude of factors including both domestic and war-related acts. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the status of TBI in Lebanon - a Middle Eastern country with a weak health system that was chartered by several wars and intermittent outbursts of violence - in order to identify the present gaps in knowledge, direct future research initiatives and to assist policy makers in planning progressive and rehabilitative policies...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893645/preperitoneal-pelvic-packing-reduces-mortality-in-patients-with-life-threatening-hemorrhage-due-to-unstable-pelvic-fractures
#14
Clay Cothren Burlew, Ernest E Moore, Philip F Stahel, Andrea E Geddes, Amy E Wagenaar, Fredric M Pieracci, Charles J Fox, Eric M Campion, Jeffrey L Johnson, Cyril Mauffrey
BACKGROUND: A 2015 AAST trial reported a 32% mortality for pelvic fracture patients in shock. Angioembolization (AE) is the most common intervention; the Maryland group revealed time to AE averaged 5 hours. The goal of this study was to evaluate the time to intervention and outcomes of an alternative approach for pelvic hemorrhage. We hypothesized preperitoneal pelvic packing (PPP) results in a shorter time to intervention and lower mortality. METHODS: In 2004 we initiated a PPP protocol for pelvic fracture hemorrhage...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893285/recent-advances-in-subtyping-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-using-molecular-data
#15
Jens Schittenhelm
Primary brain tumors account for substantial morbidity and mortality. They often infiltrate the brain diffusely, continue growing, and cause adverse events, such as headaches, seizures, and neurological deficits. The classification of primary brain tumors, based for decades on histology, has been fundamentally changed by the World Health Organization in 2016 by incorporation of molecular data. Areas covered: Literature from glioblastomas, high- and low-grade astrocytic, oligodendroglial, glioneuronal and ependymal tumors from the last five years were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891112/deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-the-case-for-targeting-the-thalamic-centromedian-parafascicular-complex
#16
REVIEW
Paola Testini, Hoon-Ki Min, Asif Bashir, Kendall H Lee
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurologic condition characterized by both motor and phonic tics and is typically associated with psychiatric comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder/behavior and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can be psychologically and socially debilitating. It is considered a disorder of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, as suggested by pathophysiology studies and therapeutic options. Among these, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian-parafascicular nucleus (CM-Pf) of the thalamus is emerging as a valuable treatment modality for patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant TS...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891087/a-monte-carlo-evaluation-of-weighted-community-detection-algorithms
#17
Kathleen M Gates, Teague Henry, Doug Steinley, Damien A Fair
The past decade has been marked with a proliferation of community detection algorithms that aim to organize nodes (e.g., individuals, brain regions, variables) into modular structures that indicate subgroups, clusters, or communities. Motivated by the emergence of big data across many fields of inquiry, these methodological developments have primarily focused on the detection of communities of nodes from matrices that are very large. However, it remains unknown if the algorithms can reliably detect communities in smaller graph sizes (i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891081/the-brain-of-the-archerfish-toxotes-chatareus-a-nissl-based-neuroanatomical-atlas-and-catecholaminergic-cholinergic-systems
#18
Naomi Karoubi, Ronen Segev, Mario F Wullimann
Over recent years, the seven-spot archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) has emerged as a new model for studies in visual and behavioral neuroscience thanks to its unique hunting strategy. Its natural ability to spit at insects outside of water can be used in the laboratory for well controlled behavioral experiments where the fish is trained to aim at targets on a screen. The need for a documentation of the neuroanatomy of this animal became critical as more research groups use it as a model. Here we present an atlas of adult T...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891024/palliative-care-and-the-indian-neurologist
#19
REVIEW
Roop Gursahani
End-of-life care is an integral part of neurology practice, and neuropalliative medicine is an emerging neurology subspeciality. This begins with serious illness communication as a protocol-based process that depends on an evaluation of patient autonomy and accurate prognostication. Communication needs vary between chronic, life-limiting neurologic illnesses and acute brain injury. In an ideal situation, the patient's wishes are spelled out in advance care plans and living wills, and surrogates have only limited choices for implementation...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890805/predicting-brain-age-from-multimodal-imaging-data-captures-cognitive-impairment
#20
Franziskus Liem, Gaël Varoquaux, Jana Kynast, Frauke Beyer, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Mehdi Rahim, Alexandre Abraham, R Cameron Craddock, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Tobias Luck, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Anja Veronica Witte, Daniel S Margulies
The disparity between the chronological age of an individual and their brain-age measured based on biological information has the potential to offer clinically-relevant biomarkers of neurological syndromes that emerge late in the lifespan. While prior brain-age prediction studies have relied exclusively on either structural or functional brain data, here we investigate how multimodal brain-imaging data improves age prediction. Using cortical anatomy and whole-brain functional connectivity on a large adult lifespan sample (N=2354, age 19-82), we found that multimodal data improves brain-based age prediction, resulting in a mean absolute prediction error of 4...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
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