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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534658/dynamic-brain-glucose-metabolism-identifies-anti-correlated-cortical-cerebellar-networks-at-rest
#1
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Corinde E Wiers, Sunny W Kim, Şukru B Demiral, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534459/differences-in-neural-response-to-extinction-recall-in-young-adults-with-or-without-history-of-behavioral-inhibition
#2
Tomer Shechner, Nathan A Fox, Jamie A Mash, Johanna M Jarcho, Gang Chen, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is associated with risk for anxiety disorders, yet only about half of behaviorally inhibited children manifest anxiety later in life. We compared brain function and behavior during extinction recall in a sample of nonanxious young adults characterized in childhood with BI (n = 22) or with no BI (n = 28). Three weeks after undergoing fear conditioning and extinction, participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging extinction recall task assessing memory and threat differentiation for conditioned stimuli...
May 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534084/the-emerging-link-between-o-glcnacylation-and-neurological-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Xiaofeng Ma, He Li, Yating He, Junwei Hao
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in the regulation of many cellular cascades and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. In the brain, the expression of O-GlcNAcylation is notably heightened, as is that of O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT) and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA), the presence of which is prominent in many regions of neurological importance. Most importantly, O-GlcNAcylation is believed to contribute to the normal functioning of neurons; conversely, its dysregulation participates in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533826/a-novel-triage-tool-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-correlation-to-rotterdam-computed-tomography-ct-scoring
#4
Sudha Kiran Das, Sachin P Shetty, Kamal Kumar Sen
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) evaluated in CT imaging as well as Rotterdam CT Score (RCTS) are proven independent predictors of outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, no study has correlated ONSD on admission CT scan with RCTS. MATERIAL/METHODS: Retrospective cohort study comprised of consecutive patients undergoing CT imaging for traumatic brain injury recruited between January and October 2015. Bilateral ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the eyeball in axial and sagittal planes and mean value was calculated...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533557/the-developmental-emergence-of-differential-brainstem-serotonergic-control-of-the-sensory-spinal-cord
#5
F Schwaller, A H Kanellopoulos, M Fitzgerald
Descending connections from brainstem nuclei are known to exert powerful control of spinal nociception and pain behaviours in adult mammals. Here we present evidence that descending serotonergic fibres not only inhibit nociceptive activity, but also facilitate non-noxious tactile activity in the healthy adult rat spinal dorsal horn via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs). We further show that this differential serotonergic control in the adult emerges from a non-modality selective system in young rats...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#6
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532348/perceptual-learning-use-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#7
Wu Li
Our perceptual abilities significantly improve with practice. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, offers an ideal window for understanding use-dependent changes in the adult brain. Different experimental approaches have revealed a diversity of behavioral and cortical changes associated with perceptual learning, and different interpretations have been given with respect to the cortical loci and neural processes responsible for the learning. Accumulated evidence has begun to put together a coherent picture of the neural substrates underlying perceptual learning...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#8
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530234/n-alkylated-analogs-of-4-methylamphetamine-4-ma-differentially-affect-monoamine-transporters-and-abuse-liability
#9
Ernesto Solis, John S Partilla, Farhana Sakloth, Iwona Ruchala, Kathryn L Schwienteck, Louis J De Felice, Jose M Eltit, Richard A Glennon, S Stevens Negus, Michael H Baumann
Clandestine chemists synthesize novel stimulant drugs by exploiting structural templates known to target monoamine transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively). 4-Methylamphetamine (4-MA) is an emerging drug of abuse that interacts with transporters, but limited structure-activity data are available for its analogs. Here we employed uptake and release assays in rat brain synaptosomes, voltage-clamp current measurements in cells expressing transporters, and calcium flux assays in cells co-expressing transporters and calcium channels to study the effects of increasing N-alkyl chain length of 4-MA on interactions at DAT, NET and SERT...
May 22, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529976/de-novo-generation-and-characterization-of-new-zika-virus-isolate-using-sequence-data-from-a-microcephaly-case
#10
Yin Xiang Setoh, Natalie A Prow, Nias Peng, Leon E Hugo, Gregor Devine, Jessamine E Hazlewood, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged and is the etiological agent of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), a spectrum of congenital abnormalities arising from neural tissue infections in utero. Herein, we describe the de novo generation of a new ZIKV isolate, ZIKVNatal, using a modified circular polymerase extension reaction protocol and sequence data obtained from a ZIKV-infected fetus with microcephaly. ZIKVNatal thus has no laboratory passage history and is unequivocally associated with CZS. ZIKVNatal could be used to establish a fetal brain infection model in IFNAR(-/-) mice (including intrauterine growth restriction) without causing symptomatic infections in dams...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#11
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528493/clinical-investigation-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-with-impending-brain-herniation-on-arrival
#12
Hiroaki Matsumoto, Hiroaki Hanayama, Takashi Okada, Yasuo Sakurai, Hiroaki Minami, Atsushi Masuda, Shogo Tominaga, Katsuya Miyaji, Ikuya Yamaura, Yasuhisa Yoshida
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with brain herniation signs is rarely seen in the emergent department. As such, there are few cumulative data to analyze such cases. In this study, we evaluated the clinical features, risk factors, and rates of completion with impending brain herniation on arrival in a cohort study. We analyzed 492 consecutive patients with CSDH between January 2010 and October 2015. First, we analyzed the clinical factors and compared them between patients with or without brain herniation signs on admission...
May 20, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527643/parental-knowledge-and-recall-of-concussion-discharge-instructions
#13
Danny George Thomas, Lia Bradley, Ashley Servi, Suzanne Reilly, Jennifer Niskala Apps, Michael McCrea, Thomas Hammeke
INTRODUCTION: Children increasingly are being seen in the emergency department for a concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). A key aim of the ED visit is to provide discharge advice that can help parents to identify an evolving neurosurgical crisis, facilitate recovery, and prevent reinjury. The present study examined parents' knowledge of symptoms and recall of discharge instructions after their adolescent's mTBI and the effect of supplementing written discharge instructions with verbal instruction and reinforcement...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527261/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-report-of-a-fatal-case-and-analysis-of-predictive-factors-of-a-poor-prognosis
#14
Moisés Ulises Torres, Ligia Victoria Delgado, Natalia Giraldo, Piedad Urueña, Sergio Franco, Olga Helena Hernández
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is an illness with multiple causes and distinctive clinicalradiological characteristics that should be known by intensivists and emergency room physicians for a timely diagnosis and treatment. A fatal case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is presented, and the risk factors related to the outcome are identified.A 60-year-old man without a relevant medical history arrived at the emergency room presenting with depressed consciousness, seizures, and high blood pressure...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527208/neuronal-expression-of-truncated-tau-efficiently-promotes-neurodegeneration-in-animal-models-pitfalls-of-toxic-oligomer-analysis
#15
Rostislav Skrabana, Branislav Kovacech, Peter Filipcik, Norbert Zilka, Santosh Jadhav, Tomas Smolek, Eva Kontsekova, Michal Novak
Animal models of neurodegeneration induced by neuronal expression of truncated tau protein emerge as an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of human tauopathies and for therapy development. Here we highlight common features of truncated tau models and make a critical assessment of possible pitfalls in their analysis. Particularly, the amount of soluble tau oligomers, which are suspected to be neurotoxic agents participating on the spreading of pathology inside the brain, may be overestimated due to a post-lysis oxidative tau oligomerization...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527045/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-like-superoxide-dismutase-1-proteinopathy-is-associated-with-neuronal-loss-in-parkinson-s-disease-brain
#16
Benjamin G Trist, Katherine M Davies, Veronica Cottam, Sian Genoud, Richard Ortega, Stéphane Roudeau, Asuncion Carmona, Kasun De Silva, Valerie Wasinger, Simon J G Lewis, Perminder Sachdev, Bradley Smith, Claire Troakes, Caroline Vance, Christopher Shaw, Safa Al-Sarraj, Helen J Ball, Glenda M Halliday, Dominic J Hare, Kay L Double
Neuronal loss in numerous neurodegenerative disorders has been linked to protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Emerging data regarding overlapping proteinopathy in traditionally distinct neurodegenerative diseases suggest that disease-modifying treatments targeting these pathological features may exhibit efficacy across multiple disorders. Here, we describe proteinopathy distinct from classic synucleinopathy, predominantly comprised of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), in the Parkinson's disease brain...
May 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526667/patient-centered-decision-support-formative-usability-evaluation-of-integrated-clinical-decision-support-with-a-patient-decision-aid-for-minor-head-injury-in-the-emergency-department
#17
Edward R Melnick, Erik P Hess, George Guo, Maggie Breslin, Kevin Lopez, Anthony J Pavlo, Fuad Abujarad, Seth M Powsner, Lori A Post
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Computed Tomography (CT) Head Rule, a clinical decision rule designed to safely reduce imaging in minor head injury, has been rigorously validated and implemented, and yet expected decreases in CT were unsuccessful. Recent work has identified empathic care as a key component in decreasing CT overuse. Health information technology can hinder the clinician-patient relationship. Patient-centered decision tools to support the clinician-patient relationship are needed to promote evidence-based decisions...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526599/the-impact-of-an-electronic-best-practice-advisory-on-brain-computed-tomography-ordering-in-an-academic-emergency-department
#18
Donald Szlosek, Samir A Haydar, Rachel J Williams, Ryan C Jackson, Christine L Hein, Nathan Mick, Tania D Strout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#19
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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