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Wilhelm H Flatz, Annika Henneberger, Maximilian F Reiser, Robert Gürkov, Birgit Ertl-Wagner
Analysis of neural structures in Menière's Disease (MD) is of importance, since a loss of such structures has previously been proposed for this patient group but has yet to be confirmed. This protocol describes a method of in vivo evaluation of neural changes especially well suitable for cranial nerve analysis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MD-patients and normal hearing persons were examined in a 3-T MR-scanner using a scan protocol including strongly T2-weighted 3D gradient-echo-sequence (3D-CISS)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dennis D Spencer, Jason L Gerrard, Hitten P Zaveri
Intracranial electrophysiological recording in patients with refractory focal epilepsy is the gold standard for defining epileptogenic tissue. Although the concordance of intracranial electrophysiology, structural MRI, and pathology can identify brain regions for resection, complete seizure control after surgery is not achieved in all patients with focal epilepsy. Repetitive identical behavioural seizures suggest one onset area, but epileptogenesis might be distributed and connected by functional and structural brain networks outside the seizure onset area, which could explain poor postsurgical outcomes in some patients...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Milena L Pachowsky, Arnd Kleyer, Lisa Wagner, Andreas Langenbach, David Simon, Rolf Janka, Matthias May, Goetz H Welsch
Objective A minimally invasive treatment of osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic thoracic and lumbar spine fractures is cement augmentation (kyphoplasty). Little is known about the impact on adjacent intervertebral discs. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach in addition to morphological MRI is desirable to evaluate changes in the intervertebral disc. Our study aims to evaluate the feasibility of T2 mapping for the detection of subtle changes in the intervertebral discs in spines after kyphoplasty...
March 1, 2018: Cartilage
Veeru Kasivisvanathan, Antti S Rannikko, Marcelo Borghi, Valeria Panebianco, Lance A Mynderse, Markku H Vaarala, Alberto Briganti, Lars Budäus, Giles Hellawell, Richard G Hindley, Monique J Roobol, Scott Eggener, Maneesh Ghei, Arnauld Villers, Franck Bladou, Geert M Villeirs, Jaspal Virdi, Silvan Boxler, Grégoire Robert, Paras B Singh, Wulphert Venderink, Boris A Hadaschik, Alain Ruffion, Jim C Hu, Daniel Margolis, Sébastien Crouzet, Laurence Klotz, Samir S Taneja, Peter Pinto, Inderbir Gill, Clare Allen, Francesco Giganti, Alex Freeman, Stephen Morris, Shonit Punwani, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, Jonathan Deeks, Yemisi Takwoingi, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore
Background Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy...
March 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Elias S Sotirchos, Shiv Saidha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian, Nermin Serbecic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Ari J Green
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Nishit Bhatnagar, Siddharth Sharma, Virender Kumar Gautam, Ajeet Kumar, Anurag Tiwari
PURPOSE: Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee affects the medial femoral condyle in patients above 55 years of age. Many reports and studies are available from western countries. But there is a gross paucity of literature on spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) in the Indian subcontinent, either it is under-reported or detected at a later stage. The aim of our study was to detect SPONK in Indian population and describe its characteristics, treatment, and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted over a period of three years...
March 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Hee Kyung Yang, Ki Won Moon, Min Jung Ji, Sang Beom Han, Jeong-Min Hwang
Purpose: To report a case of primary antiphospholipid syndrome presenting with isolated homonymous superior quadrantanopsia. Observations: A 50-year-old Korean man presented with subjective visual disturbance for 1 month. Visual field testing showed a right homonymous superior quadrantanopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an old infarct in his left occipital lobe and multiple lesions in other areas of the brain. Laboratory tests showed a marked increase in serum anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibody, which remained elevated after 12 weeks...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Abhilasha Siyag, Tej P Soni, Anil K Gupta, Lalit M Sharma, Naresh Jakhotia, Shantanu Sharma
Plasmacytoma of the skull-base is a rare entity. Differential diagnosis includes chordoma, osteosarcoma, carcinoma nasopharynx, meningioma, metastatic carcinoma, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Accurate and precise diagnosis is extremely important for plasmacytoma of the skull-base as its treatment and prognosis is different from other skull-base lesions. A 41-year-old man presented with concerns of headache, diplopia, and left eye strabismus. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of his brain showed a large expansile mass measuring 51 mm involving the clivus and central skull-base...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Muhammad Sohail Umerani, Hira Burhan, Salman Sharif, Tauqir Ul Islam, Mehak Hafiz Ghaziani
Orbital roof defects are rare congenital osseous abnormalities that cause protrusion of intracranial contents into the orbit, resulting in a condition known as the orbital meningoencephalocele, a rare cause of pulsatile proptosis. We present a case of a 25-year-old lady, presented to us with complaints of left frontal headache, left eye protrusion and double vision from the left eye for the past three months. Her higher mental functions were intact. Local examination revealed non-axial pulsatile proptosis and an outward depression of the left eyeball along with diplopia...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
John W Kakareka, Anthony Z Faranesh, Randall H Pursley, Adrienne Campbell-Washburn, Daniel A Herzka, Toby Rogers, Josh Kanter, Kanishka Ratnayaka, Robert J Lederman, Thomas J Pohida
Hemodynamic recording during interventional cardiovascular procedures is essential for procedural guidance, monitoring patient status, and collection of diagnostic information. Recent advances have made interventions guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible and attractive in certain clinical scenarios. However, in the MRI environment, electromagnetic interference (EMI) can cause severe distortions and artifacts in acquired hemodynamic waveforms. The primary aim of this paper was to develop and validate a system to minimize EMI on electrocardiogram (ECG) and invasive blood pressure (IBP) signals...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Yankai Meng, Chongda Zhang, Shuangmei Zou, Xinming Zhao, Kai Xu, Hongmei Zhang, Chunwu Zhou
To evaluate the importance of MRI texture analysis in prediction and early assessment of treatment response before and early neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). This retrospective study comprised of 59 patients. The tumoral texture parameters were compared between pre- and early nCRT. Area Under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curves [AUCs] were used to compare the diagnostic performance of statistically significant difference parameters and logistic regression analysis predicted probabilities for discriminating responders and nonresponders...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Jun Yang, Chengde Liao, Yifan Liu, Guangjun Yang, Tengfei Ke, Yingying Ding, Qinqing Li
The beginning and the end of the vascular normalization window are not clear in response to anti-angiogenic therapies. We used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI (IVIM-MRI) to noninvasively evaluate the vascular normalization window. MRI was performed five times: before treatment and on the second, fourth, sixth and eighth days of treatment. Quantitative perfusion parameters were calculated at each time point, including the volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans), reverse transfer constant (Kep), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D* ) and perfusion fraction (f)...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Sabine Franckenberg, Florian Berger, Sarah Schaerli, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Michael Thali
We present the rare case of a fatal anaphylactic reaction to gadobutrol, a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent, in a 42-year-old man. The patient underwent elective magnetic resonance imaging for diagnostic clarification of a suspicious finding in the abdomen. The patient had undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography previously without the occurrence of any adverse effects. Adverse drug reactions in gadobutrol have a very low prevalence of 0.32%-3.5%, with serious adverse drug reactions in <0...
February 2018: Radiology case reports
Si-Cong Zhang, Shui-Hong Zhou, De-Sheng Shang, Yang-Yang Bao, Ling-Xiang Ruan, Ting-Ting Wu
The aim of the present study was to assess the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 40 hypopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and 15 benign lesion tissues were retrospectively analyzed. DWI, and T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of conventional MRI were 97.5, 66.7, and 89.1%, respectively. The mean ADC value [diffusion sensitive factor (b)=1,000× sec/mm2 ) for hypopharyngeal carcinomas was (1...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Liangping Ni, Ying Liu
The present study aimed to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0 T. A total of 44 patients newly diagnosed with NPC were included in the present study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T using DCE-MRI and DWI. The volume transfer constant ( Ktrans ), flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma ( Kep ), the volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue ( Ve ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumours were investigated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Zhenshan Shi, Yiqiong Deng, Xiumei Li, Yueming Li, Dairong Cao, Vikash Sahadeo Coossa
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor-mixed connective tissue (PMT-MCT) is rare and usually benign and slow-growing. The majority of these tumors is associated with sporadic tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) or rickets, affect middle-aged individuals and are located in the extremities. Previous imaging studies often focused on seeking the causative tumors of TIO, not on the radiological features of these tumors, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. PMT-MCT remains a largely misdiagnosed, ignored or unknown entity by most radiologists and clinicians...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
L Vidyaratne, M Alam, Z Shboul, K M Iftekharuddin
Brain tumor segmentation is a fundamental step in surgical treatment and therapy. Many hand-crafted and learning based methods have been proposed for automatic brain tumor segmentation from MRI. Studies have shown that these approaches have their inherent advantages and limitations. This work proposes a semantic label fusion algorithm by combining two representative state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms: texture based hand-crafted, and deep learning based methods to obtain robust tumor segmentation. We evaluate the proposed method using publicly available BRATS 2017 brain tumor segmentation challenge dataset...
2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Ali A Alattar, Kate Carroll, Brian R Hirshman, Rushikesh S Joshi, Parag Sanghvi, Clark C Chen
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the natural history and etiology of cystic formation after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis (BM). We aimed to characterize the natural history of cyst formation after SRS of BM and analyze potential risk factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 214 consecutive patients who underwent 1,106 SRS for BM. Demographic, clinical, dosimetric, and MRI data were reviewed. Statistical analysis was accomplished with Student's t-test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression...
March 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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