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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447295/progress-toward-national-estimates-of-police-use-of-force
#1
Joel H Garner, Matthew J Hickman, Ronald W Malega, Christopher D Maxwell
This research builds on three decades of effort to produce national estimates of the amount and rate of force used by law enforcement officers in the United States. Prior efforts to produce national estimates have suffered from poor and inconsistent measurements of force, small and unrepresentative samples, low survey and/or item response rates, and disparate reporting of rates of force. The present study employs data from a nationally representative survey of state and local law enforcement agencies that has a high survey response rate as well as a relatively high rate of reporting uses of force...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444626/experiences-of-intimate-partner-violence-victims-with-police-and-the-justice-system-in-canada
#2
Michael D Saxton, Laura Olszowy, Jennifer C D MacGregor, Barbara J MacQuarrie, C Nadine Wathen
Legal responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) can determine whether and how those exposed to IPV seek help. Understanding the victim's perspective is essential to developing policy and practice standards, as well as informing professionals working in policing and the justice system. In this survey study, we utilized a subset of 2,831 people who reported experiencing IPV to examine (a) rates of reporting to the police; (b) experiences with, and perceived helpfulness of, police; (c) rates of involvement with the criminal and family law systems, including protection orders; and (d) experiences with, and perceived helpfulness of, the justice system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427263/park-use-in-low-income-urban-neighborhoods-who-uses-the-parks-and-why
#3
Christine A Vaughan, Natalie Colabianchi, Gerald P Hunter, Robin Beckman, Tamara Dubowitz
We examined individual and environmental influences on park use among residents of two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods to identify determinants of park use in lower-income urban neighborhoods. We analyzed data from interviews of 1003 individuals randomly selected from the neighborhoods, systematic observations of neighborhood parks, and police-recorded crime incidence within a .5-mi buffer around each park. Most participants (82.4%) had previously visited a neighborhood park, and nearly half (46...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414484/post-opioid-overdose-outreach-by-public-health-and-public-safety-agencies-exploration-of-emerging-programs-in-massachusetts
#4
Scott W Formica, Robert Apsler, Lindsay Wilkins, Sarah Ruiz, Brittni Reilly, Alexander Y Walley
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a significant public health problem. Collaborative programs between local public health and public safety agencies have emerged to connect overdose survivors and their personal networks with harm reduction and addiction treatment services following a non-fatal overdose event. This study explored the prevalence of these programs in Massachusetts and the different ways they have been structured and function. METHODS: We sent an online screening questionnaire to police and fire departments in all 351 communities in Massachusetts to find instances in which they collaborated with a community-based public health agency to implement a post-overdose outreach and support program...
January 23, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414483/police-crackdowns-structural-violence-and-impact-on-the-well-being-of-street-cannabis-users-in-a-nigerian-city
#5
Ediomo-Ubong Nelson
BACKGROUND: There is abundant literature on the impact of law enforcement on cannabis markets, but scant literature on the effects of law enforcement on cannabis users. This study undertook a qualitative exploration of police crackdowns as a form of structural violence and examined their impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city. METHODS: The study was qualitative and descriptive. It was carried out in Uyo, southern Nigeria. Ninety-seven (97) frequent cannabis users (78 males and 19 females) took part...
January 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411113/multi-site-musculoskeletal-pain-in-swedish-police-associations-with-discomfort-from-wearing-mandatory-equipment-and-prolonged-sitting
#6
Louise Bæk Larsen, Elisabeth Elgmark Andersson, Roy Tranberg, Nerrolyn Ramstrand
PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as a major issue affecting the health and well-being of active duty police. Discomfort from wearing mandatory equipment and sitting for long periods of time in fleet vehicles are workload factors linked to musculoskeletal disorders in police. This study aims to determine the prevalence of multi-site musculoskeletal pain among Swedish police and to explore the possible association to discomfort experience when wearing mandatory equipment and sitting for long periods in fleet vehicles...
February 7, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409635/identifying-and-characterising-the-physical-demands-for-an-australian-specialist-policing-unit
#7
Aaron Silk, Robbie Savage, Brianna Larsen, Brad Aisbett
Many police organisations incorporate specialist policing roles where incumbents are tasked with providing operational response capabilities above and beyond the general duties policing role. The current research utilised subjective job task analysis methods to identify and characterise the physically demanding, frequently occurring, and operationally important tasks, as well as the dominant fitness component for each task, inherent to specialist policing roles in an Australian policing organisation. This was achieved through engagement with subject matter experts and online survey responses from specialist police incumbents...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378027/phosphine-analysis-in-postmortem-specimens-following-inhalation-of-phosphine-fatal-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-in-children
#8
Hui Yan, Hang Chen, Zhengdong Li, Min Shen, Xianyi Zhuo, Hejian Wu, Ping Xiang
Phosphine is an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed, and leaf-stored tobacco, and it was used as a rodenticide in bulk grain stores. Phosphine poisoning may occur after accidental inhalation of phosphine, sometimes leading to death. Analysis of phosphine and its metabolites in postmortem specimens from seven fatal cases was conducted in this study, as well as postmortem specimens collected from rabbits exposed to phosphine. The total phosphine in postmortem specimens was analyzed by headspace gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370779/hiv-aids-workplace-policy-addressing-epidemic-drivers-through-workplace-programs
#9
Bridget Chatora, Harrington Chibanda, Linda Kampata, Mutale Wilbroad
BACKGROUND: HIV workplace policies have become an important tool in addressing the HIV Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Zambia, the National AIDS Council has been advocating for establishing of HIV/AIDS workplace policies to interested companies, however no formal evaluation has been done to assess uptake and implementation. The study aimed to establish the existence of HIV/AIDS policies and programs in the private sector and to understand implementation factors and experiences in addressing HIV epidemic drivers through these programs...
January 25, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370543/driving-under-the-influence-of-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-eastern-part-of-denmark-in-2015-and-2016-abuse-patterns-and-trends
#10
Kirsten Wiese Simonsen, Kristian Linnet, Brian Schou Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of psychoactive drugs and alcohol in drivers under suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol in 2015 and 2016 in the eastern part of Denmark. The trends in the number of traffic cases sent for drug analysis since 2000 and alcohol analysis since 2011 are also discussed. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers suspected of being under the influence of alcohol and/or medication and/or illicit drugs in 2015 and 2016 were investigated as requested by the police...
January 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367171/the-uk-national-dna-database-implementation-of-the-protection-of-freedoms-act-2012
#11
REVIEW
Aaron Opoku Amankwaa, Carole McCartney
In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights, in S and Marper v the United Kingdom, ruled that a retention regime that permits the indefinite retention of DNA records of both convicted and non-convicted ("innocent") individuals is disproportionate. The court noted that there was inadequate evidence to justify the retention of DNA records of the innocent. Since the Marper ruling, the laws governing the taking, use, and retention of forensic DNA in England and Wales have changed with the enactment of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 (PoFA)...
January 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356670/impact-of-the-decision-making-environment-on-policy-responses-to-road-worker-fatality-in-manitoba-and-saskatchewan
#12
Curt J Pankratz
OBJECTIVES: Fatal accidents often lead to policy changes. However, the existing decision-making environment is critical to policy responses. This study compares the policy responses to similar events in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The key question explores the extent to which the policy decisions in each province differ despite the similarity of the events. METHODS: Key documents were examined. Provincial court rulings, workplace health & safety incident investigation reports, court transcripts and police reports were used to compare resulting policy changes as well as the socio-political and economic decision-making context...
January 22, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331713/repeated-attempted-homicide-by-administration-of-drugs-documented-by-hair-analysis
#13
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298727/mandatory-vaccination-understanding-the-common-good-in-the-midst-of-the-global-polio-eradication-campaign
#14
Lawrence O Gostin
BACKGROUND: The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination...
January 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295002/men-s-reflections-on-their-experiences-of-gender-based-violence
#15
Ada L Sinacore, Samir Durrani, Sarah Khayutin
Using Multicultural and Gender Case Conceptualization (MGCC) epistemology, the aim of this phenomenological study was to explore adult male victims' perceptions of gender and reflections on their experiences of gender-based violence (GBV). Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results indicated that, regardless of sexual orientation, participants experienced verbal and physical abuse due to their feminine gender expression, beginning in primary school and continuing through university and into the workplace...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294903/intimate-partner-violence-and-women-s-mental-health-the-mediating-role-of-coping-strategies-among-women-seeking-help-from-the-police
#16
Cecilia Mengo, Eusebius Small, Beverly Black
Many variables explain the link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and its impact on women's mental health. This proposition is mostly from samples drawn from battered women's shelters, batterer intervention programs (BIPs), emergency rooms, and medical clinics. We know little about the psychological well-being of women who report abuse to police departments. This study used data from case records of women who experience IPV and sought help from a city police station located in the southwest United States...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294876/sexual-assault-sexual-orientation-and-reporting-among-college-students
#17
Marla E Eisenberg, Katherine Lust, Michelle A Mathiason, Carolyn M Porta
Research has demonstrated significantly higher rates of sexual assault victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual and queer (LGBQ) students than heterosexual students, and the overwhelming majority of assaults are not reported to any official system. Given the potential for support services to provide valuable assistance and promote well-being after an assault, the present study explores whether LGBQ students report assaults at similar rates to heterosexual students. As part of the 2015 College Student Health Survey, 10,646 male and female college students at 2- and 4-year colleges in Minnesota provided data regarding sexual assault victimization; reporting to a health care provider, campus authority, police, or social contact; and sexual orientation (two items, including write-in)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294789/illegal-firearm-availability-and-violence-neighborhood-level-analysis
#18
Sung-Suk Violet Yu, Daiwon Lee, Jesenia M Pizarro
Violence involving firearms poses a serious threat to public safety in urban areas. The present study examines how illegal firearm availability (IFA) is related to firearm violence at the neighborhood level. We analyzed 3 years (from 2005 to 2007) of recovered firearm and violent index crime data from Newark, New Jersey. Violent index crime is separated into three categories by level of firearm use: shootings, display of firearm violence (DFV), and no-firearm violence (NFV). Negative binominal regression was conducted to examine the relationship between IFA and firearm violence at the neighborhood level while controlling for neighborhood conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294764/when-the-cop-is-the-victim-a-test-of-target-congruence-theory-on-intimate-partner-violence-victimization-experienced-by-police-officers
#19
Egbert Zavala
This study analyzed data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 ( N = 753) to examine propositions derived from target congruence theory in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experienced by police officers. Specifically, this study tested the influence of target vulnerability, target gratifiability, and target antagonism on IPV victimization. Results from logistic regression models showed that all three theoretical constructs positively and significantly predicted IPV victimization...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294719/biological-evidence-in-adult-and-adolescent-sexual-assault-cases-timing-and-relationship-to-arrest
#20
Theodore P Cross, Megan Alderden, Alex Wagner, Lisa Sampson, Brittany Peters, Kaitlin Lounsbury
This study examined the timing of the crime laboratory report relative to arrests in sexual assault cases and explored the relationship between biological evidence and arrest in those cases in which the crime laboratory report came first and thus could have influenced the arrest decision. A random sample ( N = 528) of cases that occurred between 2008 and 2010 and included a report to police was drawn from a Massachusetts statewide database of medical reports on sexual assault cases. Data from medical providers were merged with data abstracted from crime laboratory reports and with data requested from police departments...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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