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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045592/impact-of-public-safety-policies-on-hiv-transmission-dynamics-in-tijuana-mexico
#1
Sanjay R Mehta, Antoine Chaillon, Tommi L Gaines, Patricia E Gonzalez-Zuniga, Jamila K Stockman, Horatio Almanza-Reyes, Jose Roman Chavez, Alicia Vera, Karla D Wagner, Thomas L Patterson, Brianna Scott, Davey M Smith, Steffanie A Strathdee
Background: North Tijuana, Mexico, along the US border, is home to many individuals at high-risk for transmitting and acquiring HIV. Recently, policy shifts by local government impacted how these individuals were handled by authorities. Here we examined how this affected regional HIV transmission dynamics. Methods: HIV pol sequences and associated demographic information were collected from eight research studies enrolling persons in Tijuana, and were used to infer viral transmission patterns and transmission clusters...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044920/co-responding-police-mental-health-programmes-service-user-experiences-and-outcomes-in-a-large-urban-centre
#2
Denise Lamanna, Gilla K Shapiro, Maritt Kirst, Flora I Matheson, Arash Nakhost, Vicky Stergiopoulos
As police officers are often the first responders to mental health crises, a number of approaches have emerged to support skilled police crisis responses. One such approach is the police-mental health co-responding team model, whereby mental health nurses and police officers jointly respond to mental health crises in the community. In the present mixed-method study, we evaluated outcomes of co-responding team interactions at a large Canadian urban centre by analysing administrative data for 2743 such interactions, and where comparison data were available, compared them to 16 226 police-only team responses...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044506/a-retrospective-study-of-the-investigation-of-homicidal-childhood-asphyxial-deaths
#3
Theodore T Brown, Nick I Batalis, Joni L McClain, Tracey Corey, Kim A Collins, Jeffrey M Jentzen, Joseph A Prahlow
As one of the leading causes of traumatic deaths in newborns, infants, and young children, there is no anatomic or microscopic feature that is pathognomonic for asphyxial deaths. Instead, pathologists rely on investigation information, including confessions and/or witness statements, and potential evidence at the scene. Twenty cases of homicidal newborn, infant, and young children asphyxial deaths were reviewed, which included death and police investigation reports and autopsy reports, as well as histology slides of lung sections...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043482/assessing-the-role-of-gambling-on-problematic-alcohol-consumption-by-police-officers
#4
Egbert Zavala
While a number of studies have attributed critical incident stressors to alcohol abuse among police officers, no study has examined the role gambling, if any, plays on problematic alcohol consumption. Therefore, data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 are analyzed to test the influence of gambling on problematic alcohol consumption engaged by police officers. Results indicated that gambling is significant in predicting problematic alcohol consumption...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040841/-caught-with-a-body-yet-protected-by-law-calling-911-for-opioid-overdose-in-the-context-of-the-good-samaritan-law
#5
Amanda D Latimore, Rachel S Bergstein
BACKGROUND: To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024922/isolation-and-whole-genome-analysis-of-endospore-forming-bacteria-from-heroin
#6
Jörn Kalinowski, Björn Ahrens, Arwa Al-Dilaimi, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Uwe Schleenbecker, Christian Rückert, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B...
October 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021415/cerebrovascular-cardiovascular-diseases-and-mental-disorders-due-to-overwork-and-work-related-stress-among-local-public-employees-in-japan
#7
Takashi Yamauchi, Toru Yoshikawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Shun Matsumoto, Masaya Takahashi, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
In Japan, overwork-related disorders occur among local public employees as well as those in private businesses. However, to date, there are no studies reporting the state of compensation for cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork or work-related stress among local public employees in Japan over multiple years. This report examined the recent trend of overwork-related CCVD and mental disorders, including the incidence rates of these disorders, among local public employees in Japan from the perspective of compensation for public accidents, using data from the Japanese Government and relevant organizations...
October 11, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981313/work-related-trauma-alienation-and-posttraumatic-and-depressive-symptoms-in-medical-examiner-employees
#8
Elizabeth Brondolo, Pegah Eftekharzadeh, Christine Clifton, Joseph E Schwartz, Douglas Delahanty
OBJECTIVE: First-responder employees, including firefighters, police, and medical examiners, are at risk for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of exposure to workplace trauma. However, pathways linking workplace trauma exposure to mental health symptoms are not well understood. In the context of social-cognitive models of depression/PTSD, we examined the role of negative cognitions as mediators of the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of workplace trauma exposure to symptoms of depression/PTSD in medical examiner (ME) employees...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977413/identification-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-1-4-cyanobutyl-n-2-phenylpropan-2-yl-1h-indazole-3-carboxamide-cumyl-4cn-binaca-in-plant-material-and-quantification-in-post-mortem-blood-samples
#9
Oya Yeter
In May 2016, a new type of synthetic indazole-3-carboxamide cannabinoid (CUMYL-4CN-BINACA) was detected in seized plant material submitted to the Istanbul Council of Forensic Medicine by the National Police Office. The major ingredient in this material was purified using preparative liquid chromatography, and its structure was identified using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR/MS), gas chromatography-electron ionization/mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965493/-knowledge-for-better-health-revisited-the-increasing-significance-of-health-research-systems-a-review-by-departing-editors-in-chief
#10
EDITORIAL
Stephen R Hanney, Miguel A González-Block
How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963636/persistence-of-dna-on-clothes-after-exposure-to-water-for-different-time-periods-a-study-on-bathtub-pond-and-river
#11
Janine Helmus, Sarah Zorell, Thomas Bajanowski, Micaela Poetsch
DNA traces on clothes of drowned bodies can provide important evidence for police investigations, especially in cases of suspected suicides or homicides. However, it is generally assumed that the water "erodes" a large part of the DNA depending especially on the exposure time. In forensic casework, DNA of suspects could be found frequently on clothes of drowned bodies after hours, sometimes days of exposure to water. This study was conducted to attempt a general statement about the conditions under which sufficient DNA remains can be expected for molecular genetic analysis...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956803/infant-immunization-coverage-in-italy-2000-2016
#12
Carlo Signorelli, Anna Odone, Paola Cella, Stefania Iannazzo, Fortunato D'Ancona, Raniero Guerra
BACKGROUND: In Italy, national-level immunization polices are included in the National Immunization Prevention Plan (PNPV), whose latest edition - 2017-2019 PNPV - was finally approved in February 2017. Coverage rates are a key measure of immunization system performance; it can inform and support national and regional polices' implementation monitoring, as well as measure the impact of interventions aimed at increasing vaccine uptake. METHODS: We collected, analysed and critically interpreted 2000-2016 Italian national infant immunization coverage trends, by different vaccine, target population, and by Region...
July 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953073/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-fatigue-management-training-to-improve-police-sleep-health-and-wellness-a-pilot-study
#13
Lois James, Charles H Samuels, Fiona Vincent
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention for improving sleep health in a sample of employees from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). METHODS: Using a pre- and post-design we exposed 61 RCMP members to a fatigue-management training program. Pre- and post-intervention surveys included the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instrument, and the six item index of psychological distress (Symptom Checklist-90)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942287/the-costs-of-crime-associated-with-stimulant-use-in-a-canadian-setting
#14
Benjamin Enns, Emanuel Krebs, Kora DeBeck, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Lindsey Richardson, Evan Wood, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: Costs attributable to criminal activity are a major component of the economic burden of substance use disorders, yet there is a paucity of empirical evidence on this topic. Our aim was to estimate the costs of crime associated with different forms and intensities of stimulant use. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, including individuals from three prospective cohorts in Vancouver, Canada, measured biannually (2011-2015), reporting stimulant use at baseline assessment...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942032/post-mortem-review-of-fentanyl-related-overdose-deaths-among-identified-drug-users-in-southern-bavaria-germany-2005-2014
#15
Inga Sinicina, Hans Sachs, Wolfgang Keil
BACKGROUND: Two decades ago, there were only single case reports on deaths in Europe following the consumption of illicitly manufactured fentanyl by problem drug users. Today, lethal fentanyl intoxication is now no longer a rarity. Since 2005, a rapid increase of lethal fentanyl-related intoxications in the drug scene has been observed at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich. We hypothesized that this rise is the result of the launch of fentanyl matrix patches in Germany in 2004, their broad acceptance, their diversion from the regulated supply chain, and incautious prescription by medical care providers...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940465/police-officers-volunteering-for-rather-than-being-assigned-to-crisis-intervention-team-cit-training-evidence-for-a-beneficial-self-selection-effect
#16
Michael T Compton, Roger Bakeman, Beth Broussard, Barbara D'Orio, Amy C Watson
Officers' volunteering for Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training-rather than being assigned-is assumed to be an important, beneficial self-selection bias. This bias remains poorly characterized, though CIT officers are more likely to be female and to have had exposure to the mental health field. We determined whether or not self-selection is beneficial with regard to knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as level of force used (i.e., no or low force versus any form of physical force) and disposition of subjects, in actual encounters...
September 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929174/-operation-pangea-standing-together-in-combat-against-international-pharmaceutical-crime
#17
REVIEW
Kirstin Smolka, Klaus Gronwald
Crime on the internet has grown accordingly to the increased use of the internet in everyday life. This includes illegal trading of pharmaceuticals via the internet. Trading in pharmaceuticals as "special commodities" underlies certain legal regulations in Germany, as in most other countries worldwide.Mail order trade (colloquially also known as internet trade) in pharmaceuticals requires approval of the competent regulatory authority. However, numerous illegal internet vendors of medicines present their websites to customers, purporting to be legal pharmacies and trading good and genuine medicines...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881256/structural-brain-correlates-of-resilience-to-traumatic-stress-in-dutch-police-officers
#18
Steven J A van der Werff, Bernet M Elzinga, Annika S Smit, Nic J A van der Wee
OBJECTIVE: Neurobiological research has traditionally focused on vulnerability rather than on resilience to severe stress. So far, only a few neuroimaging studies examining resilience have used designs that allow disentangling of the neural correlates of resilience from those related to psychopathology or trauma-exposure. The aim of this study was to identify structural brain correlates of resilience, and their correlations with behavioral measures. METHOD: MRI scanning was performed in three groups of police officers: (1) a resilient group (N=29; trauma-exposed, no psychopathology), (2) a vulnerable group (N=33; trauma-exposed, psychopathology), and (3) a control group (N=19; no trauma, no psychopathology)...
August 26, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880109/how-adolescents-perceive-that-community-based-exercise-improves-their-well-being
#19
Kevin Rourke, Coralie J Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To determine if adolescents perceive community-based exercise as beneficial to their well-being and in what ways. METHODS: A New South Wales Police Citizens Youth Club ran a four-week fitness course. The classes involved: 1) sports including basketball and soccer, 2) non-contact boxing drills, and 3) games, both team games such as dodgeball and non-team games such as line tag. Parental consent to offer a survey at the completion of the course was requested during registration...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876965/analyzing-decision-logs-to-understand-decision-making-in-serious-crime-investigations
#20
Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
Objective To study decision making by detectives when investigating serious crime through the examination of decision logs to explore hypothesis generation and evidence selection. Background Decision logs are used to record and justify decisions made during serious crime investigations. The complexity of investigative decision making is well documented, as are the errors associated with miscarriages of justice and inquests. The use of decision logs has not been the subject of an empirical investigation, yet they offer an important window into the nature of investigative decision making in dynamic, time-critical environments...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
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