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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325062/personal-experiences-of-the-criminal-justice-system-by-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Sissel Berge Helverschou, Kari Steindal, Jim Aage Nøttestad, Patricia Howlin
The processes of arrest, investigation, trial and imprisonment are often extremely difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, nine offenders with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed about the circumstance surrounding the criminal acts, their views of the arrest, the police interrogation, the trial and the defence and their experiences of being in prison and/or life following the offence. The nine individuals described a range of different and often negative experiences with the Criminal Justice System...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318461/the-event-chain-of-survival-in-the-context-of-music-festivals-a-framework-for-improving-outcomes-at-major-planned-events
#2
Adam Lund, Sheila Turris
Despite the best efforts of event producers and on-site medical teams, there are sometimes serious illnesses, life-threatening injuries, and fatalities related to music festival attendance. Producers, clinicians, and researchers are actively seeking ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with these events. After analyzing the available literature on music festival health and safety, several major themes emerged. Principally, stakeholder groups planning in isolation from one another (ie, in silos) create fragmentation, gaps, and overlap in plans for major planned events (MPEs)...
March 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314239/likelihood-ratio-and-posterior-odds-in-forensic-genetics-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#3
Amke Caliebe, Susan Walsh, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser, Michael Krawczak
It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302306/further-victimization-of-child-sexual-abuse-victims-a-latent-class-typology-of-re-victimization-trajectories
#4
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James R P Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen, Emily Mann
The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways...
March 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296466/road-accident-fatality-risks-for-vulnerable-versus-protected-road-users-in-northern-ghana
#5
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic which claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low and middle income countries. The unfavourable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in Northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289783/estimating-the-risk-of-crime-and-victimisation-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-data-linkage-study
#6
Margaret Nixon, Stuart D M Thomas, Michael Daffern, James R P Ogloff
PURPOSE: People with intellectual disability (PWID) appear more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime. However, extant evidence pertaining to these risks is limited by methodological weaknesses and the absence of consistent operational definitions. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of criminal histories and victimisation using a large, well-defined sample of PWID. METHODS: A case-linkage study was conducted comprising 2220 PWID registered with disability services in Victoria, Australia, whose personal details were linked with a state-wide police database...
March 13, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280059/a-medical-curriculum-in-transition-audit-and-student-perspective-of-undergraduate-teaching-of-ethics-and-professionalism
#7
Toni C Saad, Stephen Riley, Richard Hain
INTRODUCTION: The General Medical Council (GMC) stipulates that doctors must be competent professionals, not merely scholars and practitioners. Medical school curricula should enable students to develop professional values and competencies. Additionally, medical schools are moving towards integrated undergraduate curricula, Cardiff's C21 being one such example. METHODS: We carried out an audit to determine the extent to which C21 delivers GMC professionalism competencies, and a student questionnaire to explore student perspective on ethics and professionalism...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268186/lay-persons-alerted-by-mobile-application-system-initiate-earlier-cardio-pulmonary-resuscitation-a-comparison-with-sms-based-system-notification
#8
Maria Luce Caputo, Sandro Muschietti, Roman Burkart, Claudio Benvenuti, Giulio Conte, François Regoli, Romano Mauri, Catherine Klersy, Tiziano Moccetti, Angelo Auricchio
AIM: We compared the time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay responders and/or first responders alerted either via Short Message Service (SMS) or by using a mobile application-based alert system (APP). METHODS: The Ticino Registry of Cardiac Arrest collects all data about out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occurring in the Canton of Ticino. At the time of a bystander's call, the EMS dispatcher sends one ambulance and alerts the first-responders network made up of police officers or fire brigade equipped with an automatic external defibrillator, the so called "traditional" first responders, and - if the scene was considered safe - lay responders as well...
March 6, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263618/honesty-humility-under-threat-self-uncertainty-destroys-trust-among-the-nice-guys
#9
Stefan Pfattheicher, Robert Böhm
Recent research on humans' prosociality has highlighted the crucial role of Honesty-Humility, a basic trait in the HEXACO personality model. There is overwhelming evidence that Honesty-Humility predicts prosocial behavior across a vast variety of situations. In the present contribution, we cloud this rosy picture, examining a condition under which individuals high in Honesty-Humility reduce prosocial behavior. Specifically, we propose that under self-uncertainty, it is particularly those individuals high in Honesty-Humility who reduce trust in unknown others and become less prosocial...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245806/-hu-hong-bad-thing-parental-perceptions-of-teenagers-sexuality-in-urban-vietnam
#10
Lan Anh Thi Do, Pimpawun Boonmongkon, Seung Chun Paek, Thomas E Guadamuz
BACKGROUND: Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information...
February 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#11
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198931/police-anthropometry-and-fingerprinting-the-transnational-history-of-identification-systems-from-rio-de-la-plata-to-brazil
#12
Mercedes García Ferrari, Diego Galeano
The article explores the transnational circulation of methods for identifying people in South America. It analyzes both the implementation of the anthropometric system at police departments in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil starting in the 1890s, as well as the criticisms that were aimed at this method when fingerprinting took hold in the region in the early twentieth century. In a context of a heavy worldwide flow of ideas, experts, and technologies in policing, "bertillonage" was discussed and underwent hybridization in Latin America...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190670/assessing-the-concordance-between-illicit-drug-laws-on-the-books-and-drug-law-enforcement-comparison-of-three-states-on-the-continuum-from-decriminalised-to-punitive
#13
Vendula Belackova, Alison Ritter, Marian Shanahan, Caitlin E Hughes
BACKGROUND: Variations in drug laws, as well as variations in enforcement practice, exist across jurisdictions. This study explored the feasibility of categorising drug laws "on the books" in terms of their punitiveness, and the extent of their concordance with "laws in practice" in a cross-national comparison. METHODS: "Laws on the books", classified with respect to both cannabis and other drug offences in the Czech Republic, NSW (AU) and Florida (USA) were analysed in order to establish an ordinal relationship between the three states...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179069/development-and-evaluation-of-a-web-based-software-for-crash-data-collection-processing-and-analysis
#14
Alfonso Montella, Salvatore Chiaradonna, Giorgio Criscuolo, Salvatore De Martino
First step of the development of an effective safety management system is to create reliable crash databases since the quality of decision making in road safety depends on the quality of the data on which decisions are based. Improving crash data is a worldwide priority, as highlighted in the Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety adopted by the United Nations, which recognizes that the overall goal of the plan will be attained improving the quality of data collection at the national, regional and global levels...
February 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173921/gunshot-wounds-resulting-in-hospitalization-in-the-united-states-2004-2013
#15
Alan Cook, Turner Osler, David Hosmer, Laurent Glance, Frederick Rogers, Brian Gross, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Ajai Malhotra
INTRODUCTION: The United States (US) leads all high income countries in gunshot wound (GSW) deaths. However, as a result of two decades of reduced federal support, study of GSW has been largely neglected. In this paper we describe the current state of GSW hospitalizations in the US using population-based data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational study of patients hospitalized for GSW in the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2004 -2013...
January 30, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173849/rigour-and-rapport-a-qualitative-study-of-parents-and-professionals-experiences-of-joint-agency-infant-death-investigation
#16
Joanna Garstang, Frances Griffiths, Peter Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: In many countries there are now detailed Child Death Review (CDR) processes following unexpected child deaths. CDR can lead to a fuller understanding of the causes for each child's death but this potentially intrusive process may increase the distress of bereaved families. In England, a joint agency approach (JAA) is used where police, healthcare and social services investigate sudden child deaths together and a key part of this is the joint home visit (JHV) where specialist police and paediatricians visit the home with the parents to view the scene of death...
February 7, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167421/self-reported-vs-state-recorded-motor-vehicle-collisions-among-older-community-dwelling-individuals
#17
B A Singletary, A N Do, J P Donnelly, C Huisingh, M T Mefford, R Modi, F L Mondesir, Y Ye, C Owsley, G McGwin
INTRODUCTION: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to place an increased burden on both individuals and health care systems. Self-reported and state-recorded police reports are the most common methods for MVC evaluation in epidemiologic studies, with varying degrees of agreement of information when compared in previous studies. The objective of the current study is to address the differences in MVC reporting and provide a more robust measure of the agreement between self-reported and state-recorded MVCs in a community dwelling population of older adults...
April 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160813/fatigue-and-on-duty-injury-among-police-officers-the-bcops-study
#18
Desta Fekedulegn, Cecil M Burchfiel, Claudia C Ma, Michael E Andrew, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, Ja K Gu, John M Violanti
INTRODUCTION: Policing involves inherent physical and psychological dangers as well as occupational stressors that could lead to chronic fatigue. Although accounts of adverse events associated with police fatigue are not scarce, literature on the association between chronic fatigue and on-duty injury are limited. METHODS: Participants were officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study. A 10-item questionnaire was administered to assess how tired or energetic the officers generally felt irrespective of sleep hours or workload...
February 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138388/mental-illness-and-violent-behavior-the-role-of-dissociation
#19
Aliya R Webermann, Bethany L Brand
BACKGROUND: The role of mental illness in violent crime is elusive, and there are harmful stereotypes that mentally ill people are frequently violent criminals. Studies find greater psychopathology among violent offenders, especially convicted homicide offenders, and higher rates of violence perpetration and victimization among those with mental illness. Emotion dysregulation may be one way in which mental illness contributes to violent and/or criminal behavior. Although there are many stereotyped portrayals of individuals with dissociative disorders (DDs) being violent, the link between DDs and crime is rarely researched...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126690/tio2-based-photocatalytic-disinfection-of-microbes-in-aqueous-media-a-review
#20
REVIEW
P Venkata Laxma Reddy, Beluri Kavitha, Police Anil Kumar Reddy, Ki-Hyun Kim
The TiO2 based photocatalyst has great potential for the disinfection/inactivation of harmful pathogens (such as E.coli in aqueous media) along with its well-known usefulness on various chemical pollutants. The disinfection property of TiO2 is primarily attributed to surface generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as free metal ions formation. Furthermore, its disinfection capacity and overall performance can be significantly improved through modifications of the TiO2 material. In this review, we provide a brief survey on the effect of various TiO2 materials in the disinfection of a wide range of environmentally harmful microbial pathogens (e...
April 2017: Environmental Research
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