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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803767/semantic-control-deficits-impair-understanding-of-thematic-relationships-more-than-object-identity
#1
Hannah Thompson, James Davey, Paul Hoffman, Glyn Hallam, Rebecca Kosinski, Sarah Howkins, Emma Wooffindin, Rebecca Gabbitas, Elizabeth Jefferies
Recent work has suggested a potential link between the neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the retrieval of events and thematic associations (i.e., knowledge about how concepts relate in a meaningful context) and semantic control processes that support the capacity to shape retrieval to suit the circumstances. Thematic associations and events are inherently flexible: the meaning of an item changes depending on the context (for example, lamp goes with reading, bicycle and police). Control processes might stabilise weak yet currently-relevant interpretations during event understanding...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793109/older-adults-abuse-in-three-brazilian-cities
#2
Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues, Edilene Araújo Monteiro, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos Santos, Maria de Lourdes de Farias Pontes, Jack Roberto Silva Fhon, Alisson Fernandes Bolina, Fernanda Laporti Seredynskyj, Vanessa Costa Almeida, Suelen Borelli Lima Giacomini, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso Defina, Luipa Michele Silva
Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765657/-knowledge-and-willingness-to-perform-basic-life-support-by-local-police-officers
#3
P Angulo-Menéndez, A Lana Pérez, J Morís de la Tassa
BACKGROUND: To determine the knowledge and willingness of local police officers (PO) to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), as well as to explore the association between CPR training and these variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 390 PO from Asturias (Spain). An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure nine basic aspects of CPR from the European Resuscitation Council and four indicators of attitude towards performing CPR in a real context...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758801/using-medico-legal-data-to-investigate-fatal-older-road-user-crash-circumstances-and-risk-factors
#4
Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Daisy Smith, Ashne Lamb, Jeremy Dwyer, Michael Fitzharris, Stuart Newstead, Angelo D'Elia, Judith Charlton
OBJECTIVE: This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. METHOD: The Coroners' Court of Victoria (CCOV)'s Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014...
July 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741133/african-and-caribbean-nurses-decisions-about-hiv-testing-a-mixed-methods-study
#5
Jean N Harrowing, Nancy Edwards, Solina Richter, Karin Minnie, Tania Rae
Nurses in Jamaica, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda are at risk for occupational exposure to HIV. Little is known about the experiences and policy supports related to nurses having themselves tested for the virus. This article reports a mixed-methods study about contextual influences on nurses' decision-making about HIV testing. Individual and focus group interviews, as well as a questionnaire on workplace polices and quality assurance and a human resource management assessment tool provided data. Fear of a positive diagnosis and stigma and lack of confidentiality along with gaps in the policy environment contributed to indecision about testing...
July 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#6
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
July 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729962/the-protective-effects-of-family-support-on-the-relationship-between-official-intervention-and-general-delinquency-across-the-life-course
#7
Beidi Dong, Marvin D Krohn
PURPOSE: Previous research on the labeling perspective has identified mediational processes and the long-term effects of official intervention in the life course. However, it is not yet clear what factors may moderate the relationship between labeling and subsequent offending. The current study integrates Cullen's (1994) social support theory to examine how family social support conditions the criminogenic, stigmatizing effects of official intervention on delinquency and whether such protective effects vary by developmental stage...
March 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715937/offense-processes-of-online-sexual-grooming-and-abuse-of-children-via-internet-communication-platforms
#8
Juliane A Kloess, Catherine E Hamilton-Giachritsis, Anthony R Beech
The aim of the present study was to provide an inclusive and realistic account of the offense processes of naturally occurring, sexually exploitative interactions between offenders and victims that took place via Internet communication platforms, and develop an offense process diagram of online sexual grooming and abuse. Five case series, comprising 29 transcripts of 22 interactions, were analyzed using the qualitative approach of thematic analysis. Police reports were reviewed for descriptive and case-specific information...
July 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693711/comparison-of-methods-for-dealing-with-missing-values-in-the-epv-r
#9
David Paniagua, Pedro J Amor, Enrique Echeburúa, Francisco J Abad
BACKGROUND: The development of an effective instrument to assess the risk of partner violence is a topic of great social relevance. This study evaluates the scale of “Predicción del Riesgo de Violencia Grave Contra la Pareja” –Revisada– (EPV-R - Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale-Revised), a tool developed in Spain, which is facing the problem of how to treat the high rate of missing values, as is usual in this type of scale. METHOD: First, responses to the EPV-R in a sample of 1215 male abusers who were reported to the police were used to analyze the patterns of occurrence of missing values, as well as the factor structure...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688314/a-study-of-transfer-and-prevalence-of-organic-gunshot-residues
#10
Carmen Hofstetter, Matthieu Maitre, Alison Beavis, Claude P Roux, Céline Weyermann, Anne-Laure Gassner
The main goal of the present study was to determine the amounts and distribution of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) on the shooter's upper body and clothing after discharging a pistol. A preliminary study was also performed to evaluate the prevalence of OGSR in the general population as well as in a police laboratory environment. In the transfer study, results indicated that OGSR are not only transferred to the hand of the shooter, but also to other parts of the upper body. Thus, wrists and forearms also represent interesting targets as they are washed less frequently than hands...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686631/a-new-approach-for-the-analysis-of-facial-growth-and-age-estimation-iris-ratio
#11
Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Marta Regina Pinheiro Flores, Laíse Nascimento Correia Lima, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Ademir Franco, Ana Cristina Barreto Bezerra, Martin Paul Evison, Marco Aurélio Guimarães
The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face-specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio)-for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675092/introducing-experiment-in-pedestrian-behaviour-and-risk-perception-study-at-urban-level-crossing
#12
Danijela Barić, Hrvoje Pilko, Martin Starčević
Given the high risk of severe accidents at level crossings (LCs), this study examined legal and illegal crossings by pedestrians and cyclists at a high-traffic LC in Zagreb, Croatia. Survey data and field observations were collected to identify reasons for risky behaviour. Behaviour was observed under normal conditions and in the presence of various safety measures in order to identify measures that can reduce risky behaviour. Results show that the presence of police officer at the LC was most effective at reducing illegal crossings, while the presence of cameras contributes significantly as well, especially after safety educational campaign when illegal crossing decreases for 59...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673125/reasons-for-using-workplace-wellness-services-cross-sectional-study-among-6000-employees
#13
Roger Persson, Bryan Cleal, Mette Øllgaard Jakobsen, Ebbe Villadsen, Lars Louis Andersen
AIMS: While workplace wellness services are proactively established to improve well-being and reduce sickness absence, knowledge of reasons for using these services remains sparse. This study investigates which factors determine use of an in-house wellness service at a large organization (the Danish Police) with several departments in different geographical locations. METHODS: All potential users of the Wellness service ( n = 15,284) were invited to respond to a cross-sectional questionnaire...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657501/profiles-of-law-enforcement-agency-body-armor-policies-a-latent-class-analysis-of-the-lemas-2013-data
#14
Weiwei Liu, Bruce Taylor
The life-saving benefits of body armor have been well-documented, and law enforcement agency (LEA) body armor wear requirements have been cited by police officers as one of the most important reasons for them to wear body armor. However, research on LEAs' policies and practices regarding body armor is scarce. This study examined whether there are different agency-level profiles of various body armor related policies, and related these body armor policy profiles to agency characteristics, size, location, etc...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639631/an-update-on-maldi-mass-spectrometry-based-technology-for-the-analysis-of-fingermarks-stepping-into-operational-deployment
#15
REVIEW
S Francese, R Bradshaw, N Denison
Since 2009, when Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) was firstly reported for the molecular mapping of latent fingermarks, the range of information and operational capabilities have steadily increased. Pioneering work from our Fingermark Research Group exploited different modalities, including Profiling (MALDI MSP), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and Ion Mobility MS/MS; a number of methodologies were also developed to conquer a main challenge, namely profiling the suspect and their actions prior to or whilst committing the crime...
July 10, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629463/how-understanding-and-application-of-drug-related-legal-instruments-affects-harm-reduction-interventions-in-cambodia-a-qualitative-study
#16
Sovannary Tuot, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Sochenda Sou, Ghazal Sawez, Phylicia Morgan, Mony Srey, Tola Chan, Pheak Chhoun, Olga Golichenko, Sok Chamreun Choub, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders...
June 19, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#17
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
July 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612245/correlates-of-police-involvement-among-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Ami Tint, Anna M Palucka, Elspeth Bradley, Jonathan A Weiss, Yona Lunsky
This study aimed to describe police interactions, satisfaction with police engagement, as well as examine correlates of police involvement among 284 adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed over a 12- to 18-month period. Approximately 16% of individuals were reported to have some form of police involvement during the study period. Aggressive behaviors were the primary concern necessitating police involvement. Individuals with police involvement were more likely to be older, have a history of aggression, live outside the family home, and have parents with higher rates of caregiver strain and financial difficulty at baseline...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607229/recognition-and-treatment-of-law-enforcement-violence-against-detainees-and-prisoners-a-survey-among-israeli-physicians-and-medical-students
#19
Zvi Benninga, Bettina Steiner-Birmanns, Revital Arbel, Firas Abu Akar, Mushira Aboo Dia
INTRODUCTION: Physicians regularly encounter victims of violence. Although some at-risk groups are increasingly recognized as such, the risks faced by prisoners and detainees are often overlooked. The scope of violence against them is unknown and their treatment is often hampered by unique social and institutional impediments. This article reviews the need for improved recognition and protection of such patients and the associated obstacles, while presenting information on the experience, knowledge and attitudes of physicians in Israel regarding the maltreatment of prisoners and detainees...
2017: Torture: Quarterly Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585156/sex-work-criminalization-is-barking-up-the-wrong-tree
#20
Ine Vanwesenbeeck
There is a notable shift toward more repression and criminalization in sex work policies, in Europe and elsewhere. So-called neo-abolitionism reduces sex work to trafficking, with increased policing and persecution as a result. Punitive "demand reduction" strategies are progressively more popular. These developments call for a review of what we know about the effects of punishing and repressive regimes vis-à-vis sex work. From the evidence presented, sex work repression and criminalization are branded as "waterbed politics" that push and shove sex workers around with an overload of controls and regulations that in the end only make things worse...
August 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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