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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211735/-lowering-the-threshold-of-effective-deterrence-testing-the-effect-of-private-security-agents-in-public-spaces-on-crime-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-mass-transit-system
#1
Barak Ariel, Matthew Bland, Alex Sutherland
Supplementing local police forces is a burgeoning multibillion-dollar private security industry. Millions of formal surveillance agents in public settings are tasked to act as preventative guardians, as their high visibility presence is hypothesized to create a deterrent threat to potential offenders. Yet, rigorous evidence is lacking. We randomly assigned all train stations in the South West of England that experienced crime into treatment and controls conditions over a six-month period. Treatment consisted of directed patrol by uniformed, unarmed security agents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191968/contextualising-safety-in-numbers-a-longitudinal-investigation-into-change-in-cycling-safety-in-britain-1991-2001-and-2001-2011
#2
Rachel Aldred, Rahul Goel, James Woodcock, Anna Goodman
Introduction The 'Safety in Numbers' (SiN) phenomenon refers to a decline of injury risk per time or distance exposed as use of a mode increases. It has been demonstrated for cycling using cross-sectional data, but little evidence exists as to whether the effect applies longitudinally -that is, whether changes in cycling levels correlate with changes in per-cyclist injury risks.Methods This paper examines cross-sectional and longitudinal SiN effects in 202 local authorities in Britain, using commuting data from 1991, 2001 and 2011 censuses plus police -recorded data on 'killed and seriously injured' (KSI) road traffic injuries...
November 30, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182955/individual-human-scent-as-a-forensic-identifier-using-mantrailing
#3
Leif Woidtke, Jan Dreßler, Carsten Babian
Specially trained dogs have long been used by law enforcement agencies to help in criminal investigations and in searching for missing persons. Still, it is unclear which components of human scent released into the environment contribute to successful searches of individuals. In this study, saliva and axillary sweat samples were taken from a total of 190 people. Additionally, DNA was extracted from whole blood of seven different people and used as an odour sample as well. Overall 675 tests (trails) were performed during a period of 18 months...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173083/between-butch-femme-on-the-performance-of-race-gender-and-sexuality-in-a-youtube-web-series
#4
Faithe Day
Drawing on a legacy of Black television and film production, Black web series remediate earlier media forms in order to usher in a twenty-first-century revival of indie Black cultural production. Specifically, video sharing and social media platforms operate as a sphere in which content creators and users are afforded unique opportunities to engage with video content and each other on a variety of levels. Focusing on the YouTube media sphere, one can also observe the myriad ways in which the performance of race, gender, and sexuality influences the types of discourse that circulate within these sites...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159847/more-or-less-likely-to-offend-young-adults-with-a-history-of-identified-developmental-language-disorders
#5
Maxine Winstanley, Roger T Webb, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining to criminality outcomes among those individuals with identified developmental language disorders (DLD) who have received such interventions. AIMS: To examine police-initiated contact and substance use outcomes of young adults with a history of identified DLD versus age-matched peers (AMP)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159822/everyday-police-work-during-mental-health-encounters-a-study-of-call-resolutions-in-chicago-and-their-implications-for-diversion
#6
Amy C Watson, Jennifer D Wood
In recent decades, there has been sustained focus on police responses to persons experiencing mental health crises. The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model has been a seminal effort to improve safety, reduce arrests and enhance the use of emergency psychiatric assessment. With CIT well established, new discussions have emerged around how to further enhance the police-public health interface, including diversion from hospital emergency departments. In this context, this article takes stock of current police practices, utilizing descriptive data on 428 mental health-related calls addressed by Chicago Police over 3 years triangulated with insights from 21 in-depth officer interviews...
November 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#7
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149684/combining-benford-s-law-and-machine-learning-to-detect-money-laundering-an-actual-spanish-court-case
#8
Elena Badal-Valero, José A Alvarez-Jareño, Jose M Pavía
OBJECTIVES: This paper is based on the analysis of the database of operations from a macro-case on money laundering orchestrated between a core company and a group of its suppliers, 26 of which had already been identified by the police as fraudulent companies. In the face of a well-founded suspicion that more companies have perpetrated criminal acts and in order to make better use of what are very limited police resources, we aim to construct a tool to detect money laundering criminals...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100538/prevalence-and-predictors-of-help-seeking-for-women-exposed-to-spousal-violence-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Malin Leonardsson, Miguel San Sebastian
BACKGROUND: Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006...
November 3, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073533/planned-and-unplanned-complex-suicides-casuistry-of-the-institute-of-legal-medicine-of-parma-italy
#10
Antonio Banchini, Maria Laura Schirripa, Luca Anzillotti, Rossana Cecchi
Complex suicide is performed using more harmful methods, simultaneously or consecutively. In these cases, the distinction between suicide and homicide represents a challenge for forensic pathologists. In literature, complex suicide is divided in two subgroups: "planned complex suicide" or "unplanned complex suicide" depending from forensic features and often related to psychiatric variables. Aim of this study was to show the casuistry of complex suicide in Parma's Forensic service analyzing, for each case, the forensic medical problems (type and site of lesions on the body), and the supplementary data [Police's inspection report, toxicological analysis and psychiatric anamnesis (when available)], trying, through a multidisciplinary approach, to determine a possible correlation between the victim's mood and suicide's method chosen, whether planned or unplanned...
October 13, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052275/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-a-systematic-review
#11
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: There are three commonly used mental health interventions associated with policing: liaison and diversion, street triage and having specialist staff embedded in police contact control rooms. Crisis intervention teams (CITs), already used in the USA, are now attracting wider interest, including in the UK. Investment in these interventions is growing, so it is important to have evidence of their effectiveness. AIM: To conduct a systematic literature review to answer questions about effectiveness of police-mental health service models for responding to people with mental disorder and suspected offending or public safety problems...
October 19, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048954/the-cumulative-probability-of-arrest-by-age-28-years-in-the-united-states-by-disability-status-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#12
Erin J McCauley
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative probability (c) of arrest by age 28 years in the United States by disability status, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS: I estimated cumulative probabilities through birth cohort life tables with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. RESULTS: Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest (c = 42.65) than those without (c = 29...
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047364/mapping-child-maltreatment-risk-a-12-year-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-neighborhood-influences
#13
Enrique Gracia, Antonio López-Quílez, Miriam Marco, Marisol Lila
BACKGROUND: 'Place' matters in understanding prevalence variations and inequalities in child maltreatment risk. However, most studies examining ecological variations in child maltreatment risk fail to take into account the implications of the spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhoods. In this study, we conduct a high-resolution small-area study to analyze the influence of neighborhood characteristics on the spatio-temporal epidemiology of child maltreatment risk. METHODS: We conducted a 12-year (2004-2015) small-area Bayesian spatio-temporal epidemiological study with all families with child maltreatment protection measures in the city of Valencia, Spain...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045592/impact-of-public-safety-policies-on-hiv-transmission-dynamics-in-tijuana-mexico
#14
Sanjay R Mehta, Antoine Chaillon, Tommi L Gaines, Patricia E Gonzalez-Zuniga, Jamila K Stockman, Horatio Almanza-Reyes, Jose Roman Chavez, Alicia Vera, Karla D Wagner, Thomas L Patterson, Brianna Scott, Davey M Smith, Steffanie A Strathdee
Background: North Tijuana, Mexico, along the US border, is home to many individuals at high-risk for transmitting and acquiring HIV. Recently, policy shifts by local government impacted how these individuals were handled by authorities. Here we examined how this affected regional HIV transmission dynamics. Methods: HIV pol sequences and associated demographic information were collected from eight research studies enrolling persons in Tijuana, and were used to infer viral transmission patterns and transmission clusters...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044920/co-responding-police-mental-health-programmes-service-user-experiences-and-outcomes-in-a-large-urban-centre
#15
Denise Lamanna, Gilla K Shapiro, Maritt Kirst, Flora I Matheson, Arash Nakhost, Vicky Stergiopoulos
As police officers are often the first responders to mental health crises, a number of approaches have emerged to support skilled police crisis responses. One such approach is the police-mental health co-responding team model, whereby mental health nurses and police officers jointly respond to mental health crises in the community. In the present mixed-method study, we evaluated outcomes of co-responding team interactions at a large Canadian urban centre by analysing administrative data for 2743 such interactions, and where comparison data were available, compared them to 16 226 police-only team responses...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044506/a-retrospective-study-of-the-investigation-of-homicidal-childhood-asphyxial-deaths
#16
Theodore T Brown, Nick I Batalis, Joni L McClain, Tracey Corey, Kim A Collins, Jeffrey M Jentzen, Joseph A Prahlow
As one of the leading causes of traumatic deaths in newborns, infants, and young children, there is no anatomic or microscopic feature that is pathognomonic for asphyxial deaths. Instead, pathologists rely on investigation information, including confessions and/or witness statements, and potential evidence at the scene. Twenty cases of homicidal newborn, infant, and young children asphyxial deaths were reviewed, which included death and police investigation reports and autopsy reports, as well as histology slides of lung sections...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043482/assessing-the-role-of-gambling-on-problematic-alcohol-consumption-by-police-officers
#17
Egbert Zavala
While a number of studies have attributed critical incident stressors to alcohol abuse among police officers, no study has examined the role gambling, if any, plays on problematic alcohol consumption. Therefore, data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 are analyzed to test the influence of gambling on problematic alcohol consumption engaged by police officers. Results indicated that gambling is significant in predicting problematic alcohol consumption...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040841/-caught-with-a-body-yet-protected-by-law-calling-911-for-opioid-overdose-in-the-context-of-the-good-samaritan-law
#18
Amanda D Latimore, Rachel S Bergstein
BACKGROUND: To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024922/isolation-and-whole-genome-analysis-of-endospore-forming-bacteria-from-heroin
#19
Jörn Kalinowski, Björn Ahrens, Arwa Al-Dilaimi, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Uwe Schleenbecker, Christian Rückert, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B...
October 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021415/cerebrovascular-cardiovascular-diseases-and-mental-disorders-due-to-overwork-and-work-related-stress-among-local-public-employees-in-japan
#20
Takashi Yamauchi, Toru Yoshikawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Shun Matsumoto, Masaya Takahashi, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
In Japan, overwork-related disorders occur among local public employees as well as those in private businesses. However, to date, there are no studies reporting the state of compensation for cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork or work-related stress among local public employees in Japan over multiple years. This report examined the recent trend of overwork-related CCVD and mental disorders, including the incidence rates of these disorders, among local public employees in Japan from the perspective of compensation for public accidents, using data from the Japanese Government and relevant organizations...
October 11, 2017: Industrial Health
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