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Police wellness

Huan He, Nino Paichadze, Adnan A Hyder, David Bishai
BACKGROUND: The relationship between economic development and road safety at sub-national level has not been well established. This study aims to assess the relationships between economic growth (measured by gross regional product (GRP)) and road traffic fatalities (RTFs) and crash fatality ratio (CFR) at sub-national level in Russia. METHODS: We used published secondary data on annual RTFs and CFR obtained from the traffic police and socioeconomic development indicators from the statistics department for each Russian federal region (referred to in Russia as "subject") for 2004-2011...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Linda L Hill, Jill Rybar, James Stowe, Jana Jahns
BACKGROUND: An estimated one in five drivers will be over 65 by 2030. Compared with their younger counterparts, older adults are more likely to experience health and functional impairments, including cognitive dysfunction, which may interfere with their ability to drive safely. Law enforcement officers, as part of the public safety community, need help in developing the necessary skills to identify and manage these medically affected drivers. METHODS: To address this need, in partnership with the California Highway Patrol (CHP), Training, Research and Education for Driving Safety (TREDS) at the University of California, San Diego, developed a certified two-hour training curriculum...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Allison E Curry, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott
INTRODUCTION: Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is the most effective strategy to reduce the burden of young driver crashes, but the extent to which young intermediate (newly licensed) drivers comply with, and police enforce, important GDL passenger and night-time restrictions is largely unknown. Population-level rates of intermediate drivers' compliance were estimated as well as police enforcement among crash-involved drivers who were noncompliant. METHODS: New Jersey's statewide driver licensing and crash databases were individually linked...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jeffrey H Wang, Melissa A Skeans, Ajay K Israni
Kidney transplantation is associated with improved survival compared with maintenance dialysis. In the United States, post-transplant outcomes have steadily improved over the last several decades, with current 1-year allograft and patient survival rates well over 90%. Although short-term outcomes are similar to those in the international community, long-term outcomes appear to be inferior to those reported by other countries. Differences in recipient case mix, allocation polices, and health care coverage contribute to the long-term outcome disparity...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, named the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Myrsini Katsikatsou, Irini Moustaki
Correlated multivariate ordinal data can be analysed with structural equation models. Parameter estimation has been tackled in the literature using limited-information methods including three-stage least squares and pseudo-likelihood estimation methods such as pairwise maximum likelihood estimation. In this paper, two likelihood ratio test statistics and their asymptotic distributions are derived for testing overall goodness-of-fit and nested models, respectively, under the estimation framework of pairwise maximum likelihood estimation...
October 12, 2016: Psychometrika
Fritz Günther, Marco Marelli
Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds...
2016: PloS One
Saba W Masho, Susan Cha, Derek A Chapman, David Chelmow
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Although major strides have been made in identifying risk factors for preterm birth, the complexities between social and individual risk factors are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association between neighborhood youth violence and preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: A ten-year live birth registry dataset (2004-2013) from Richmond, Virginia, a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N=27,519)...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Marta Roczniewska, Arnold B Bakker
Although job crafting has been linked repeatedly to positive employee and organizational outcomes, its detrimental side has not been well explored. To understand the way dark personality traits affect the type of crafting in which employees engage, this research focuses on two frameworks: the PEN (psychopathy, extraversion, and neuroticism) framework and the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). In Study 1, we collected data on the PEN traits and job crafting from 155 individuals in various occupations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Psychology
Jennifer Gongola, Nicholas Scurich, Jodi A Quas
Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Karishma Furtado, Kira Hudson Banks
The Ferguson Commission was an independent body of 16 commissioners in operation from November 2014 to December 2015 and appointed by Missouri governor Jay Nixon to examine the root causes underlying the death of Michael Brown Jr. Its report, "Forward Through Ferguson: A Path Toward Racial Equity," raises many issues on racial equity that public health is well suited to address, such as trends in police use of force, the health implications of the school-based discipline gap, and the health benefits of a coordinated housing strategy...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Fernanda Auciello Salvagni, Adriana de Siqueira, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima, Marina Frota de Albuquerque Landi, Heidi Ponge-Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Maiorka
Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Sidra Goldman-Mellor, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Kristina Allen, Magdalena Cerda
Prior research examining links between neighborhood violence and mental health has not been able to establish whether it is perceived levels of neighborhood violence, or actual levels of violent crime, that matter most for adolescents' psychological well-being. In this study, we ascertained both perceived neighborhood safety and objectively-measured neighborhood-level violent crime (using a novel geospatial index of police-reported crime incidents) for 4464 adolescent respondents from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2011-2014)...
October 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Erin K Martin, Peter H Silverstone
Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew Ritchie, Matthew Ash, Qingchao Chen, Kevin Chetty
The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor...
2016: Sensors
Tom Clemens, Chris Dibben
BACKGROUND: Patterns of adverse birth outcomes vary spatially and there is evidence that this may relate to features of the physical environment such as air pollution. However, other social characteristics of the environment such as levels of crime are relatively understudied. This study examines the association between crime rates and birth weight and prematurity. METHODS: Maternity inpatient data recorded at birth, including residential postcode, was linked to a representative 5% sample of Scottish Census data and small area crime rates from Scottish Police forces...
August 29, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Jelani Kerr, Trinidad Jackson
The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS...
July 30, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ezequiel Palmanovich, Michal Frankl, Iftach Hetsroni, Meir Nyska, Niv Maron, Naama Constantin, Leonardo Trejo, Ron Bechar, Gideon Novak, Zeev Lankovsky, Gideon Mann
INTRODUCTION: Overuse pain syndromes constitute a troublesome byproduct of military infantry training, particularly in female fighters. These injuries result in lost days of training, pain and discomfort and can affect fitness and fighting abilities. We hypothesized that a gender specific vest would reduce the incidence of overuse pain syndromes in a population of female recruits during basic training. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effect of a novel gender-specific combat vest on the incidence of lower back pain (LBP), anterior knee pain syndrome (AKPS), and plantar heel foot pain (PHFP) among female recruits...
June 2016: Harefuah
Igor Bodík, Tomáš Mackuľak, Milota Fáberová, Lucia Ivanová
We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda (479 mg/day/1000inh) and Trnava (354 mg/day/1000inh) are among the cities with the largest numbers of methamphetamine users in Europe. These results indicate an increase in the incidence of drugs in big cities and in the satellite cities (Trnava and Dunajská Streda) near Bratislava...
August 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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