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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149906/forebrain-specific-conditional-silencing-of-staufen2-alters-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#1
Stefan M Berger, Iván Fernández-Lamo, Kai Schönig, Sandra M Fernández Moya, Janina Ehses, Rico Schieweck, Stefano Clementi, Thomas Enkel, Sascha Grothe, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Inmaculada Segura, José María Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart, Michael A Kiebler, Dusan Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Dendritic messenger RNA (mRNA) localization and subsequent local translation in dendrites critically contributes to synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Little is known, however, about the contribution of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to these processes in vivo. RESULTS: To delineate the role of the double-stranded RBP Staufen2 (Stau2), we generate a transgenic rat model, in which Stau2 expression is conditionally silenced by Cre-inducible expression of a microRNA (miRNA) targeting Stau2 mRNA in adult forebrain neurons...
November 17, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149533/monocyte-specific-knockout-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-results-in-osteopetrosis-phenotype-blocks-bone-loss-in-ovariectomized-mice-and-reveals-an-important-function-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-osteoclast-differentiation-and-function
#2
Wei Chen, Guochun Zhu, Joel Jules, Diep Nguyen, Yi-Ping Li
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) is critical for osteoclastogenesis by regulating osteoclast (OC) lineage commitment and is also important for OC differentiation and function in vitro. However, the role of C/ebpα in postnatal skeletal development has not been reported owing to lethality in C/ebpα(-/-) mice from hypoglycemia within 8 hours after birth. Herein, we generated conditional knockout mice by deleting the C/ebpα gene in monocyte via LysM-Cre to examine its role in OC differentiation and function...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127112/reduced-expression-of-glutathione-s-transferase-%C3%AE-4-promotes-vascular-neointimal-hyperplasia-in-ckd
#3
Jinlong Luo, Guang Chen, Ming Liang, Aini Xie, Qingtian Li, Qunying Guo, Rajendra Sharma, Jizhong Cheng
Neointima formation is the leading cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. We have shown that CKD accelerates this process by transforming the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) lining the AVF from a contractile to the synthetic phenotype. However, the underlying mechanisms affecting this transformation are not clear. Previous studies have shown that the α-class glutathione transferase isozymes have an important role in regulating 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-mediated proliferative signaling of cells. Here, using both the loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase α4 (GSTA4) in modulating cellular 4-HNE levels for the transformation and proliferation of SMCs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126187/med12-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-uterine-development-and-maternal-effects-in-the-mammalian-egg
#4
Xinye Wang, Priya Mittal, Carlos A Castro, Gabriel Rajkovic, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The transcriptional factor MED12 is part of the essential mediator transcriptional complex that acts as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. Missense gain of function mutations in human MED12 are associated with uterine leiomyomas, yet the role of MED12 deficiency in tumorigenesis and reproductive biology has not been fully explored. We generated a Med12 reproductive conditional knockout mouse model to evaluate its role in uterine mesenchyme, granulosa cells, and oocytes. Mice heterozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/+ Amhr2-Cre) were subfertile, while mice homozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/fl Amhr2-Cre) were infertile...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121947/interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-fenestrated-capillaries-is-sufficient-to-trigger-sickness-responses-in-mice
#5
J Gabriel Knoll, Stephanie M Krasnow, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: The physiological and behavioral symptoms of sickness, including fever, anorexia, behavioral depression, and weight loss can be both beneficial and detrimental. These sickness responses are triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on cells within the brain. Previous research demonstrates that the febrile response to peripheral insults depends upon prostaglandin production by vascular endothelial cells, but the mechanisms and specific cell type(s) responsible for other sickness responses remain unknown...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120948/parvalbumin-containing-gaba-cells-and-schizophrenia-experimental-model-based-on-targeted-gene-delivery-through-adeno-associated-viruses
#6
Marta U Woloszynowska-Fraser, Peer Wulff, Gernot Riedel
Understanding the contribution of transmitter systems in behavioural pharmacology has a long tradition. Multiple techniques such as transmitter-specific lesions, and also localized administration of pharmacological toxins including agonists and antagonists of selected receptors have been applied. More recently, modern genetic tools have permitted cell-type selective interferences, for example by expression of light-sensitive channels followed by optogenetic stimulation in behaviourally meaningful settings or by engineered channels termed DREADDS that respond to peripherally administered drugs...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119000/comparing-the-physiochemical-parameters-of-three-celluloses-reveals-new-insights-into-substrate-suitability-for-fungal-enzyme-production
#7
Lara Hassan, Manfred J Reppke, Nils Thieme, Steffen A Schweizer, Carsten W Mueller, J Philipp Benz
Background: The industrial applications of cellulases are mostly limited by the costs associated with their production. Optimized production pathways are therefore desirable. Based on their enzyme inducing capacity, celluloses are commonly used in fermentation media. However, the influence of their physiochemical characteristics on the production process is not well understood. In this study, we examined how physical, structural and chemical properties of celluloses influence cellulase and hemicellulase production in an industrially-optimized and a non-engineered filamentous fungus: Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Neurospora crassa...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117559/an-eye-organoid-approach-identifies-six3-suppression-of-r-spondin-2-as-a-critical-step-in-mouse-neuroretina-differentiation
#8
Nozomu Takata, Deepti Abbey, Luciano Fiore, Sandra Acosta, Ruopeng Feng, Hyea Jin Gil, Alfonso Lavado, Xin Geng, Ashley Interiano, Geoffrey Neale, Mototsugu Eiraku, Yoshiki Sasai, Guillermo Oliver
Recent advances in self-organizing, 3-dimensional tissue cultures of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provided an in vitro model that recapitulates many aspects of the in vivo developmental steps. Using Rax-GFP-expressing ESCs, newly generated Six3(-/-) iPSCs, and conditional null Six3(delta/f);Rax-Cre ESCs, we identified Six3 repression of R-spondin 2 (Rspo2) as a required step during optic vesicle morphogenesis and neuroretina differentiation. We validated these results in vivo by showing that transient ectopic expression of Rspo2 in the anterior neural plate of transgenic mouse embryos was sufficient to inhibit neuroretina differentiation...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117535/rescuing-infusion-of-mirna-1-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-heart-selective-mirna-deficient-mouse
#9
Shuilian Luo, Yuhang Chen, Rui He, Yujun Shi, Li Su
OBJECTIVE: The decreased expression of muscle-specific microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been found in many cardiovascular diseases and is considered to contribute to heart failure (HF). Here we investigated the role of miR-1 in myocardium protection by infusion of miR-1 in a cardiac global miRNA-deficient mouse. METHODS: We generated a cardiac-selective miRNA-deficient mouse by crossing Dicer(flox/flox) mice with mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a mouse αMHC promoter...
November 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116141/constitutive-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-in-regulatory-t-cells-impairs-suppressive-function-and-promotes-instability-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#10
Fanny Polesso, Minhazur Sarker, Arian Anderson, David C Parker, Susan E Murray
CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are indispensable negative regulators of immune responses. To understand Treg biology in health and disease, it is critical to elucidate factors that affect Treg homeostasis and suppressive function. Tregs express several costimulatory TNF receptor family members that activate non-canonical NF-κB via accumulation of NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK). We previously showed that constitutive NIK expression in all T cells causes fatal multi-organ autoimmunity associated with hyperactive conventional T cell responses and poor Treg-mediated suppression...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104956/deletion-of-the-arp2-3-complex-in-megakaryocytes-leads-to-microthrombocytopenia-in-mice
#11
David S Paul, Caterina Casari, Congying Wu, Raymond Piatt, Swetha Pasala, Robert A Campbell, Kathryn O Poe, Dorsaf Ghalloussi, Robert H Lee, Jeremy D Rotty, Brian C Cooley, Kellie R Machlus, Joseph E Italiano, Andrew S Weyrich, James E Bear, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Actin reorganization regulates key processes in platelet activation. Here we examined the role of the Arp2/3 complex, an essential component in actin filament branching, in platelet function. The Arpc2 gene, encoding the p34 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, was deleted in the megakaryocyte lineage (Arpc2(fl/fl)PF4-Cre). Deletion of the Arp2/3 complex resulted in marked microthrombocytopenia in mice, caused by premature platelet release into the bone marrow compartment and impaired platelet survival in circulation...
August 8, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100132/removal-and-recovery-of-critical-rare-elements-from-contaminated-waters-by-living-gracilaria-gracilis
#12
Jéssica Jacinto, Bruno Henriques, A C Duarte, Carlos Vale, E Pereira
The experiments performed in this work proved the ability of Gracilaria gracilis to concentrate and recover Critical Rare Elements (CRE) from contaminated waters. The importance of recycling these elements is related to their very limited sources in Nature and progressive use in technologies. Moreover, their mining exploitation has negative environmental impact, and recent studies point them as new emerging pollutants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of living macroalgae for the removal and recovery of CRE...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083488/c-ebp%C3%AE-controls-osteoclast-terminal-differentiation-activation-function-and-postnatal-bone-homeostasis-through-direct-regulation-of-nfatc1
#13
Wei Chen, Guochun Zhu, Jun Tang, Hou-De Zhou, Yi-Ping Li
Osteoclast lineage commitment and differentiation have been studied extensively, although the mechanism by which transcription factor(s) control osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation and function remains unclear. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) has been reported to be a key regulator of osteoclast cell lineage commitment, yet C/ebpα's roles in osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation and function and bone homeostasis, under physiological or pathological conditions, have not been studied because newborn C/ebpα null mice die within several hours after birth...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077813/death-or-near-death-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-a-compendium-of-case-reports-of-critical-complications
#14
Y Subramani, M Nagappa, J Wong, J Patra, F Chung
The care of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) invokes concerns with safety and liability because of the risk that exists for perioperative death or near-death. The purpose of this review is to analyse the available literature to identify risk factors for perioperative critical complications in patients with OSA. Literature reports were screened for life threatening complications and deaths in surgical patients with OSA. The critical complications were sub-grouped as death/near-death events (death and anoxic brain damage) vs critical respiratory events (CRE)/other events and analysed for various risk factors...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074702/respiratory-consequences-of-targeted-losses-of-hoxa5-gene-function-in-mice
#15
Kim Landry-Truchon, Stéphanie Fournier, Nicolas Houde, Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Lucie Jeannotte, Richard Kinkead
Fetal development of the respiratory tract and diaphragm requires strict coordination between genetically controlled signals and mechanical forces produced by the neural network that generates breathing. Being expressed in the mesenchyme of trachea, lung and diaphragm, and in phrenic motoneurons HOXA5 is a key transcription factor regulating lung development and function. Consequently, most Hoxa5(-/-) mutants die at birth from respiratory failure. However, the extensive effect of the null mutation makes it difficult to identify the origins of respiratory dysfunction in newborns...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054881/ablation-of-tfr1-in-purkinje-cells-inhibits-mglu1-trafficking-and-impairs-motor-coordination-but-not-autistic-like-behaviors
#16
Jia-Huan Zhou, Xin-Tai Wang, Liang Zhou, Lin Zhou, Fang-Xiao Xu, Li-Da Su, Hao Wang, Fan Jia, Fu-Qiang Xu, Gui-Quan Chen, Chris De Zeeuw, Ying Shen
Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) are critical to synapse formation and participate in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the brain. mGlu1/5 signaling alterations have been documented in cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychiatric diseases, but underlying mechanisms for its modulation are not clear. Here, we report that transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), a trans-membrane protein of clathrin complex, modulates the trafficking of mGlu1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) from male mice...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045046/a-novel-mouse-cre-driver-line-targeting-perilipin-2-expressing-cells-in-the-neonatal-lung
#17
Aglaia Ntokou, Marten Szibor, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Jennifer Quantius, Susanne Herold, Elie El Agha, Saverio Bellusci, Isabelle Salwig, Thomas Braun, Robert Voswinckel, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty, Katrin Ahlbrecht
Pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are characterized by the destruction or malformation of the alveolar regions of the lung. The underlying pathomechanisms at play are an area of intense interest since these mechanisms may reveal pathways suitable for interventions to drive reparative processes. Lipid-laden fibroblasts (lipofibroblasts) express the Perilipin 2 (Plin2) gene-product, PLIN2, commonly called adipose-differentiation related protein (ADRP)...
October 16, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038309/deletion-of-protein-kinase-d1-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-impairs-insulin-secretion-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#18
Valérie Bergeron, Julien Ghislain, Kevin Vivot, Natalia Tamarina, Louis H Philipson, Jens Fielitz, Vincent Poitout
Beta-cell adaptation to insulin resistance is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in obesity. Failure of this mechanism is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hence, factors controlling functional beta-cell compensation are potentially important targets for the treatment of T2D. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) integrates diverse signals in the beta cell and plays a critical role in the control of insulin secretion. However, the role of beta-cell PKD1 in glucose homeostasis in vivo is essentially unknown. Using beta-cell specific, inducible PKD1 knock-out mice (βPKD1KO), we examined the role of beta-cell PKD1 under basal conditions and during high-fat feeding...
October 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029620/tgf%C3%AE-superfamily-signaling-and-uterine-decidualization
#19
REVIEW
Nan Ni, Qinglei Li
Decidualization is an intricate biological process where extensive morphological, functional, and genetic changes take place in endometrial stromal cells to support the development of an implanting blastocyst. Deficiencies in decidualization are associated with pregnancy complications and reproductive diseases. Decidualization is coordinately regulated by steroid hormones, growth factors, and molecular and epigenetic mechanisms. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily signaling regulates multifaceted reproductive processes...
October 13, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025732/rack1-maintains-intestinal-homeostasis-by-protecting-the-integrity-of-the-epithelial-barrier
#20
Zhuan-Fen Cheng, Christine A Cartwright
Previously we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to identify key functions for Rack1 in regulating growth of intestinal epithelia: suppressing crypt cell proliferation and regeneration, promoting differentiation and apoptosis, and repressing development of neoplasia. However, other than low body weight, we did not detect an overt phenotype in mice constitutively deleted of Rack1 in intestinal epithelia (vil-Cre:Rack1(fl/fl) mice), presumably because Rack1 was deleted in < 10% of the total surface area of the epithelia...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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