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Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
M Kadihasanoglu, M Kilciler, O Atahan
A 44-year-old woman, who had had left flank pain for the previous 3 months, was treated successfully for renal hydatid cyst disease by using an endoscopic technique with percutaneous access through an all seeing needle. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a Gharbi type III cyst in the lower pole of the left kidney. Computerised tomography of the abdomen revealed a bulky solid-cystic mass with calcified and well-defined wall and daughter cyst without contrast enhancement. The patient, who refused any renal operation, underwent a percutaneous intervention with access through an all seeing needle access...
October 24, 2016: Aktuelle Urologie
Mei Chung, Alice M Tang, Zhuxuan Fu, Ding Ding Wang, Sydne Jennifer Newberry
Background: Conflicting evidence exists regarding potential cardiovascular risks associated with high levels of calcium intake. Purpose: To update and reanalyze 2 systematic reviews to examine the effects of calcium intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among generally healthy adults. Data Sources: MEDLINE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Scopus, including EMBASE; and previous evidence reports from English-language publications from 1966 to July 2016...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Arun Kanmanthareddy, Patricia J Erwin, Dennis J Esterbrooks, Lee E Morrow
BACKGROUND: The data evaluating the role of statins in delirium prevention in the intensive care unit are conflicting and limited. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature from 1975 to 2015. All English-language adult studies evaluating delirium incidence in statin and statin nonusers were included and studies without a control group were excluded. Mantel-Haenszel model was used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Atsushi Takano, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Kou Ikegame, Atsushi Yamamoto, Hideki Watanabe, Haruka Nakada, Masayuki Inoue, Hidemitsu Sugai, Michiya Yasutome, Kazushige Furuya, Masao Hada, Yoshiaki Miyasaka, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
INTRODUCTION: The over-expression of P53 protein in gallbladder carcinoma is a biomarker correlating with a poor survival. However, the significance of P53 expression in peritumor tissues is unknown. We experienced a case of gallbladder carcinoma where the operative specimen showed over-expression of P53 on the peritumor epithelium, and early recurrence developed at the biliary tract. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 74-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital due to wall thickening of the gallbladder on ultrasonography...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Shaw D Bamber, Stig Westerlund
Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Nelly Rahkonen, Aki Stubb, Maia Malonzo, Sanna Edelman, Maheswara Reddy Emani, Elisa Närvä, Harri Lähdesmäki, Hannele Ruohola-Baker, Riitta Lahesmaa, Riikka Lund
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are central regulators of diverse biological processes and are important in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal. One of the widely studied miRNA-protein regulators is the Lin28-Let-7 pair. In this study, we demonstrate that contrary to the well-established models of mouse ES cells (mESC) and transformed human cancer cells, the pluripotent state of human ES cells (hESC) involves expression of mature Let-7 family miRNAs with concurrent expression of all LIN28 proteins. We show that mature Let-7 miRNAs are regulated during hESC differentiation and have opposite expression profile with LIN28B...
September 24, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Eric Morel, Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Frédéric Assal, Patrice H Lalive, Stéphane Armand
BACKGROUND: Gait abnormalities are subtle in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with low disability and need to be better determined. As a biomechanical approach, the Gait Profile Score (GPS) is used to assess gait quality by combining nine gait kinematic variables in one single value. This study aims i) to establish if the GPS can detect gait impairments and ii) to compare GPS with discrete spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters in low-disabled MS patients. METHOD: Thirty-four relapsing-remitting MS patients with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤2 (mean age 36...
October 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
Paulina R Davis, Ginevra Giannini, Karin Rudolph, Nathaniel Calloway, Christopher M Royer, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy, Frederick Bresch, Dieter Pagani, Thomas Platt, Xiaohong Wang, Amy Skinner Donovan, Tiffany L Sudduth, Wenjie Lou, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Donna M Wilcock, Edward G Barrett, Elizabeth Head
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy is a promising intervention to slow Alzheimer's disease. Aging dogs naturally accumulate Aβ and show cognitive decline. An active vaccine against fibrillar Aβ 1-42 (VAC) in aged beagles resulted in maintenance but not improvement of cognition along with reduced brain Aβ. Behavioral enrichment (ENR) led to cognitive benefits but no reduction in Aβ. We hypothesized cognitive outcomes could be improved by combining VAC with ENR in aged dogs. Aged dogs (11-12 years) were placed into 4 groups: (1) control/control (C/C); (2) control/VAC (C/V); (3) ENR/control (E/C); and (4) ENR/VAC (E/V) and treated for 20 months...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Milad Asgarpour Khansary, Mostafa Mellat, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Mehdi Kamali, Ramezan Ali Taheri
To analyze polymeric nanosorbents and nanofiltration/ultrafiltration membranes for hormone micropollutants removal from water effluents, here an in-through investigation on the suitability and compatibility of various polymers has been carried out. For this work, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, progesterone, estriol, mestranol, and ethinylestradiol were considered. A total number of 452 polymers were analyzed and initially screened using Hansen solubility parameters. The identified good pairs of hormones and polymers then were examined to obtain the equilibrium capacity of hormones removal from water effluents using a modified Flory-Huggins model...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Sally Cudmore, Andrea Doolan, Seán Lacey, Fergus Shanahan
The study objective was to evaluate the safety and effects of Lepicol® (pysllium fibre, inulin and 5 probiotic strains) in adults with chronic, functional constipation during a 4 week intervention. 69 subjects with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria were randomised to receive Lepicol (n = 35) or placebo (n = 34) daily. Both groups had improved frequency of bowel movements, with an increase of 1.082 bowel movements in the Lepicol group over placebo after one week, and 1.079 more than placebo after week 2, but with no significant difference at week 4...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Huiting Zhao, Yali Du, Pengfei Gao, Shujie Wang, Jianfang Pan, Yusuo Jiang
Chemosensory genes play a central role in sensing chemical signals and guiding insect behavior. The Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, is one of the most important insect species in China in terms of resource production, and providing high-quality products for human consumption, and also serves as an important pollinator. Communication and foraging behavior of worker bees is likely linked to a complex chemosensory system. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing on adult A. c. cerana workers of different ages to identify the major chemosensory gene families and the differentially expressed genes(DEGs), and to investigate their expression profiles...
2016: PloS One
Fang Miao, Ying Shi, Zhi-Feng Fan, Shan Jiang, Shi-Zheng Xu, Tie-Chi Lei
Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) oxy] phenol, D-Arb) is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes) and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol, HQ). At first, we examined the ultrastructural changes of melanosomes in hyperpigmented guinea pig skin induced by 308-nm monochromatic excimer lightand/or treated with HQ and D-Arb using transmission electron microscopy...
2016: PloS One
Adrian D Vickers, Claire Ainsworth, Reema Mody, Annika Bergman, Caroline S Ling, Jasmina Medjedovic, Michael Smyth
BACKGROUND: Biological therapies are increasingly used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To compare the efficacy of biologics in adults with moderately-to-severely active UC, stratified by prior exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify studies of biologics approved for UC. Network meta-analysis was conducted for endpoints at induction and maintenance...
2016: PloS One
Andrea Szentesi, Emese Tóth, Emese Bálint, Júlia Fanczal, Tamara Madácsy, Dorottya Laczkó, Imre Ignáth, Anita Balázs, Petra Pallagi, József Maléth, Zoltán Rakonczay, Balázs Kui, Dóra Illés, Katalin Márta, Ágnes Blaskó, Alexandra Demcsák, Andrea Párniczky, Gabriella Pár, Szilárd Gódi, Dóra Mosztbacher, Ákos Szücs, Adrienn Halász, Ferenc Izbéki, Nelli Farkas, Péter Hegyi
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical investment trends in 2015 show a huge decrease of investment in gastroenterology. Since academic research usually provides the basis for industrial research and development (R&D), our aim was to understand research trends in the field of gastroenterology over the last 50 years and identify the most endangered areas. METHODS: We searched for PubMed hits for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases for the 1965-2015 period. Overall, 1,554,325 articles were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Sabrina J Merat, Richard Molenkamp, Koen Wagner, Sylvie M Koekkoek, Dorien van de Berg, Etsuko Yasuda, Martino Böhne, Yvonne B Claassen, Bart P Grady, Maria Prins, Arjen Q Bakker, Menno D de Jong, Hergen Spits, Janke Schinkel, Tim Beaumont
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is world-wide a major cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. No vaccine is available to prevent HCV infection. To design an effective vaccine, understanding immunity against HCV is necessary. The memory B cell repertoire was characterized from an intravenous drug user who spontaneously cleared HCV infection 25 years ago. CD27+IgG+ memory B cells were immortalized using BCL6 and Bcl-xL. These immortalized B cells were used to study antibody-mediated immunity against the HCV E1E2 glycoproteins...
2016: PloS One
R Barrois, Th Gregory, L Oudre, Th Moreau, Ch Truong, A Aram Pulini, A Vienne, Ch Labourdette, N Vayatis, S Buffat, A Yelnik, C de Waele, S Laporte, P P Vidal, D Ricard
For diagnosis and follow up, it is important to be able to quantify limp in an objective, and precise way adapted to daily clinical consultation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if an inertial sensor-based method could provide simple features that correlate with the severity of lower limb osteoarthritis evaluated by the WOMAC index without the use of step detection in the signal processing. Forty-eight patients with lower limb osteoarthritis formed two severity groups separated by the median of the WOMAC index (G1, G2)...
2016: PloS One
Sunil K George, Mehran Abolbashari, John D Jackson, Tamer Aboushwareb, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics...
2016: PloS One
Xiaobing Zhou, Hilda Smith, Ana Giraldo Silva, Jayne Belnap, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and AO rates to temperature (T, -5°C to 35°C) in BSC of different successional stages along the BSC ecological succession and geographic origin (hot Chihuahuan and cooler Great Basin deserts). ARA in all BSCs increased with T until saturation occurred between 15 and 20°C, and declined at 30-35°C...
2016: PloS One
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