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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691383/different-origins-of-two-corpora-lutea-recovered-from-a-pregnant-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#1
Y Yamamoto, K Nagaoka, Y Kamite, G Watanabe, T Allen, F Stansfield, K Taya
Elephant ovaries contain multiple corpora lutea (CLs) throughout pregnancy. Two CLs (P-1 and P-2) collected from a pregnant African elephant were used to investigate their origin and physiological state in this study. The mRNA expressions of prolactin receptor, CYP11A and inhibin betaB subunit were higher in P-2 than in P-1, while LHCGR and inhibin betaA subunit mRNA were higher in P-1 than in P-2. Protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 was detected in P-1 but not in P-2. These results suggest different origins for the two CLs in this one pregnant elephant, and we also demonstrated the production of bioactive prolactin by the elephant placenta...
July 9, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649470/determinants-of-seasonal-changes-in-availability-of-food-patches-for-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-a-semi-arid-african-savanna
#2
Bruce W Clegg, Timothy G O'Connor
Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana) on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616175/seasonal-habitat-use-by-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-mole-national-park-of-ghana
#3
George Ashiagbor, Emmanuel Danquah
To avoid unnecessary waste of limited resources and to help prioritize areas for conservation efforts, this study aimed to provide information on habitat use by elephants between the wet and dry seasons in the Mole National Park (MNP) of Ghana. We compiled coordinates of 516 locations of elephants' encounters, 256 for dry season and 260 for wet season. Using nine predictor variables, we modeled the probability of elephant's distribution in MNP. We threshold the models to "suitable" and "nonsuitable" regions of habitat use using the equal training sensitivity and specificity values of 0...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585920/palaeogenomes-of-eurasian-straight-tusked-elephants-challenge-the-current-view-of-elephant-evolution
#4
Matthias Meyer, Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Sina Baleka, Mathias Stiller, Kirsty E H Penkman, Kurt W Alt, Yasuko Ishida, Dietrich Mania, Swapan Mallick, Tom Meijer, Harald Meller, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Sven Ostritz, Nadin Rohland, Karol Schauer, Tim Schüler, Alfred L Roca, David Reich, Beth Shapiro, Michael Hofreiter
The straight-tusked elephants Palaeoloxodon spp. were widespread across Eurasia during the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions using morphological traits have grouped them with Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and many paleontologists place Palaeoloxodon within Elephas. Here, we report the recovery of full mitochondrial genomes from four and partial nuclear genomes from two P. antiquus fossils. These fossils were collected at two sites in Germany, Neumark-Nord and Weimar-Ehringsdorf, and likely date to interglacial periods ~120 and ~244 thousand years ago, respectively...
June 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503553/elephant-initiated-interactions-with-humans-individual-differences-and-specific-preferences-in-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#5
Zoë T Rossman, Clare Padfield, Debbie Young, Lynette A Hart
South Africa has seen a recent increase in the number of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained in reserves and parks and managed in free contact, where they may spend a significant amount of time in close proximity to humans. This study investigates how individual elephants choose to initiate interactions with humans by examining whether interaction types and frequencies vary both between elephants and with regards to the category of human involved in the interaction. Observations were made on a herd of seven captive African elephants frequently exposed to elephant handlers (guides), volunteers (who carry out general observations for the park's research unit), and tourists...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489908/sexual-dimorphism-in-african-elephant-social-rumbles
#6
Anton Baotic, Angela S Stoeger
This study used the source and filter theory approach to analyse sex differences in the acoustic features of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) low-frequency rumbles produced in social contexts ('social rumbles'). Permuted discriminant function analysis revealed that rumbles contain sufficient acoustic information to predict the sex of a vocalizing individual. Features primarily related to the vocalizer's size, i.e. fundamental frequency variables and vocal tract resonant frequencies, differed significantly between the sexes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464628/automated-detection-of-low-frequency-rumbles-of-forest-elephants-a-critical-tool-for-their-conservation
#7
Sara C Keen, Yu Shiu, Peter H Wrege, Elizabeth D Rowland
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) occupy large ranges in dense tropical forests and often use far-reaching vocal signals to coordinate social behavior. Elephant populations in Central Africa are in crisis, having declined by more than 60% in the last decade. Methods currently used to monitor these populations are expensive and time-intensive, though acoustic monitoring technology may offer an effective alternative if signals of interest can be efficiently extracted from the sound stream. This paper proposes an automated elephant call detection algorithm that was tested on nearly 4000 h of field recordings collected from five forest clearings in Central Africa, including sites both inside protected areas and in logging concessions...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422091/male-african-elephants-discriminate-and-prefer-vocalizations-of-unfamiliar-females
#8
Angela S Stoeger, Anton Baotic
Gaining information about conspecifics via long-distance vocalizations is crucial for social and spatially flexible species such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Female elephants are known to discriminate individuals and kin based on acoustic cues. Specifically, females approached the loudspeaker exclusively with playbacks of familiar individuals with high association indexes, intentionally fusing with their affiliates. For males, which are less bonded, gathering social information via vocalizations could still have important implications, but little is known about their vocal discrimination skills...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293560/when-yawning-occurs-in-elephants
#9
Zoë T Rossman, Benjamin L Hart, Brian J Greco, Debbie Young, Clare Padfield, Lisa Weidner, Jennifer Gates, Lynette A Hart
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274296/host-specificity-and-basic-ecology-of-mammomonogamus-nematoda-syngamidae-from-lowland-gorillas-and-forest-elephants-in-central-african-republic
#10
Barbora Červená, Peter Vallo, Barbora Pafčo, Kateřina Jirků, Miloslav Jirků, Klára Judita Petrželková, Angelique Todd, Andrea K Turkalo, David Modrý
Syngamid strongylids of the genus Mammomonogamus undoubtedly belong among the least known nematodes with apparent zoonotic potential and the real diversity of the genus remains hard to evaluate without extensive molecular data. Eggs of Mammomonogamus sp. are frequently found in feces of African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas. Using sedimentation-based coproscopic techniques, we found the eggs of Mammomonogamus in 19·7% elephant and 54·1% gorilla fecal samples with 8-55 and 1-24 eggs per gram of fecal sediment for elephants and gorillas, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221699/beehive-fences-as-a-multidimensional-conflict-mitigation-tool-for-farmers-coexisting-with-elephants
#11
Lucy E King, Fredrick Lala, Hesron Nzumu, Emmanuel Mwambingu, Iain Douglas-Hamilton
Increasing habitat fragmentation and human population growth in Africa has resulted in an escalation in human-elephant conflict between small-scale farmers and free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). In 2012 Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) implemented the national 10-year Conservation and Management Strategy for the Elephant in Kenya, which includes an action aimed at testing whether beehive fences can be used to mitigate human-elephant conflict. From 2012 to 2015, we field-tested the efficacy of beehive fences to protect 10 0...
August 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123909/skeletal-pathology-and-variable-anatomy-in-elephant-feet-assessed-using-computed-tomography
#12
Sophie Regnault, Jonathon J I Dixon, Chris Warren-Smith, John R Hutchinson, Renate Weller
Foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. Here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (CT) scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana and 14 Asian Elephas maximus), describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones) that could be mistaken for disease. We found all the elephants in our study to have pathology of some type in at least one foot...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853539/foot-pressure-distributions-during-walking-in-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#13
Olga Panagiotopoulou, Todd C Pataky, Madeleine Day, Michael C Hensman, Sean Hensman, John R Hutchinson, Christofer J Clemente
Elephants, the largest living land mammals, have evolved a specialized foot morphology to help reduce locomotor pressures while supporting their large body mass. Peak pressures that could cause tissue damage are mitigated passively by the anatomy of elephants' feet, yet this mechanism does not seem to work well for some captive animals. This study tests how foot pressures vary among African and Asian elephants from habitats where natural substrates predominate but where foot care protocols differ. Variations in pressure patterns might be related to differences in husbandry, including but not limited to trimming and the substrates that elephants typically stand and move on...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812404/the-influence-of-socioeconomic-factors-on-the-densities-of-high-value-cross-border-species-the-african-elephant
#14
Sarah-Anne Jeanetta Selier, Rob Slotow, Enrico Di Minin
Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781165/systematic-review-on-the-conservation-genetics-of-african-savannah-elephants
#15
Daniel Zacarias, Luis Mauricio Bini, Rafael Loyola
BACKGROUND: In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757237/coping-with-heat-behavioural-and-physiological-responses-of-savanna-elephants-in-their-natural-habitat
#16
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755570/testing-the-accuracy-of-aerial-surveys-for-large-mammals-an-experiment-with-african-savanna-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#17
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
Accurate counts of animals are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. Past research, however, suggests that observers on aerial surveys may fail to detect all individuals of the target species present in the survey area. Such errors could bias population estimates low and confound trend estimation. We used two approaches to assess the accuracy of aerial surveys for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana. First, we used double-observer sampling, in which two observers make observations on the same herds, to estimate detectability of elephants and determine what variables affect it...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754560/ivory-species-identification-using-electrophoresis-based-techniques
#18
Thitika Kitpipit, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Chutamas Satasook, Adrian Linacre
Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test...
December 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736930/trophy-hunting-and-sustainability-temporal-dynamics-in-trophy-quality-and-harvesting-patterns-of-wild-herbivores-in-a-tropical-semi-arid-savanna-ecosystem
#19
Victor K Muposhi, Edson Gandiwa, Paul Bartels, Stanley M Makuza, Tinaapi H Madiri
The selective nature of trophy hunting may cause changes in desirable phenotypic traits in harvested species. A decline in trophy size of preferred species may reduce hunting destination competitiveness thus compromising the sustainability of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. We explored the trophy quality and trends in harvesting patterns (i.e., 2004-2015) of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (Hippotragus niger) in Matetsi Safari Area, northwest Zimbabwe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688971/harvesting-and-chewing-as-constraints-to-forage-consumption-by-the-african-savanna-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#20
Bruce W Clegg, Timothy G O'Connor
As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana), adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt ), chewing (Ct ) and handling times (Ht ) differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food). Bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals), with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across 32 vegetation types...
2016: PeerJ
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