keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Loxodonta

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600558/when-elephants-fall-asleep-a-literature-review-on-elephant-rest-with-case-studies-on-elephant-falling-bouts-and-practical-solutions-for-zoo-elephants
#1
Christian Schiffmann, Stefan Hoby, Christian Wenker, Therese Hård, Robert Scholz, Marcus Clauss, Jean-Michel Hatt
Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes. Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days...
March 30, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538387/poaching-and-human-encroachment-reverse-recovery-of-african-savannah-elephants-in-south-east-angola-despite-14-years-of-peace
#2
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470712/diversity-of-mammomonogamus-nematoda-syngamidae-in-large-african-herbivores
#3
Barbora Červená, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Peter Vallo, Barbora Pafčo, Tereza Fenyková, Klára Judita Petrželková, Angelique Todd, Nikki Tagg, Nadege Wangue, Estevam G Lux Hoppe, Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes, Ivan Moura Lapera, Andressa de Souza Pollo, Ana Cláudia Alexandre de Albuquerque, David Modrý
Four species of Mammomonogamus are known from large African herbivores. A recent study demonstrated that a single Mammomonogamus species was shared by both western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) in Central African Republic, suggesting lower species diversity than previously described in literature. We examined more than 500 fecal samples collected from sympatric African forest elephants, western lowland gorillas, and African forest buffaloes (Syncerus caffer nanus) at four study sites across Central Africa and examined them by coproscopic methods to detect Mammomonogamus eggs, which were found at three of the study sites...
February 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468037/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-discovery-and-panel-characterization-in-the-african-forest-elephant
#4
Stéphanie Bourgeois, Helen Senn, Jenny Kaden, John B Taggart, Rob Ogden, Kathryn J Jeffery, Nils Bunnefeld, Katharine Abernethy, Ross McEwing
The continuing decline in forest elephant ( Loxodonta cyclotis ) numbers due to poaching and habitat reduction is driving the search for new tools to inform management and conservation. For dense rainforest species, basic ecological data on populations and threats can be challenging and expensive to collect, impeding conservation action in the field. As such, genetic monitoring is being increasingly implemented to complement or replace more burdensome field techniques. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are particularly cost-effective and informative markers that can be used for a range of practical applications, including population census, assessment of human impact on social and genetic structure, and investigation of the illegal wildlife trade...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460451/muscles-and-fascial-elements-of-the-antebrachium-and-manus-of-the-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana-blumenbach-1797-starring-comparative-and-functional-considerations
#5
R M Nagel, G Forstenpointner, J T Soley, G E Weissengruber
The structure of the limbs of elephants is unusual among mammals. In African elephants (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach 1797), the front limbs serve to support the greatest part of the body mass of the largest land animal. In this study, we present new and detailed anatomical data regarding muscular and specific fascial structures of the lower front limb which were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques. The muscles and tendons of the forearm (antebrachium) and hand (manus) are tightly surrounded by thick, highly elastic fascial layers which fuse with the lacertus (lac...
February 19, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420867/applying-network-theory-to-animal-movements-to-identify-properties-of-landscape-space-use
#6
Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, Stephen Blake, Joseph M Northrup, George Wittemyer
Network (graph) theory is a popular analytical framework to characterize the structure and dynamics among discrete objects, particularly effective at identifying critical hubs and patterns of connectivity. The identification of such attributes is a fundamental objective of animal movement research, yet network theory has rarely been applied directly to animal relocation data. We develop an approach that allows the analysis of movement data using network theory by defining occupied pixels as nodes and connection among these pixels as edges...
February 8, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384530/erratum-being-stressed-outside-the-park-conservation-of-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-namibia
#7
Louis Hunninck, Iris H Ringstad, Craig R Jackson, Roel May, Frode Fossøy, Kenneth Uiseb, Werner Killian, Rupert Palme, Eivin Røskaft
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cox067.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cox067.].
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287954/monitoring-and-controlling-ovarian-activity-in-elephants
#8
Chatchote Thitaram, Janine L Brown
Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ...
March 15, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186207/metabolic-health-assessment-of-zoo-elephants-management-factors-predicting-leptin-levels-and-the-glucose-to-insulin-ratio-and-their-associations-with-health-parameters
#9
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#10
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098403/nuclear-organization-of-the-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana-amygdaloid-complex-an-unusual-mammalian-amygdala
#11
Aude'Marie Limacher-Burrell, Adhil Bhagwandin, Busisiwe C Maseko, Paul R Manger
Here we describe the nuclear organization of the African elephant amygdaloid complex using Nissl, myelin, and a range of immunohistochemical stains. The African elephant is thought to exhibit many affect-laden and social-empathic behaviours; however, to date the amygdaloid complex, which is the generator of emotional states of the brain is yet to be fully explored in the elephants. For the most part, the amygdaloid complex of the African elephant is similar to that observed in other mammals in terms of the presence of nuclei and their topological relationships; however, we did observe several specific differences in amygdaloid organization...
April 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076179/the-ecological-consequences-of-forest-elephant-declines-for-afrotropical-forests
#12
John R Poulsen, Cooper Rosin, Amelia Meier, Emily Mills, Chase Nunez, Sally E Koerner, Emily Blanchard, Jennifer Callejas, Sarah Moore, Mark Sowers
Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat, thus their loss will have strong consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. We evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053428/dust-bathing-behaviors-of-african-herbivores-and-the-potential-risk-of-inhalational-anthrax
#13
Zoe R Barandongo, John K E Mfune, Wendy C Turner
:  Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks...
January 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942338/distances-between-individuals-in-an-artificial-herd-of-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-africana-during-resource-utilisation-in-a-semi-captive-environment
#14
Elena Stagni, Simona Normando, Barbara de Mori
Space allowance and resource dispersion is recognised as an important factor affecting the welfare of elephants in captivity. In the present pilot study, we investigated distances kept among individuals in an artificially created semi-captive mixed-sex group of African elephants, when individuals were free to disperse. The study involved a herd of six elephants, three females (aged 11 to 16years), and three males (aged 15 to 23years). They were observed through instantaneous scan sampling in order to assess distances between individuals and body orientation in space and through continuous focal animal sampling to assess inter-specific social behaviour and general activity...
September 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934325/first-report-of-changes-in-leukocyte-morphology-in-response-to-inflammatory-conditions-in-asian-and-african-elephants-elephas-maximus-and-loxodonta-africana
#15
Nicole I Stacy, Ramiro Isaza, Ellen Wiedner
Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions. Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Morphological changes included heterophil left-shifting with or without concurrent dysgranulopoiesis, toxicity, or hypersegmentation, reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or vacuolated monocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#16
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915245/effects-of-gnrh-vaccination-in-wild-and-captive-african-elephant-bulls-loxodonta-africana-on-reproductive-organs-and-semen-quality
#17
Imke Lueders, Debbie Young, Liana Maree, Gerhard van der Horst, Ilse Luther, Stephan Botha, Brendan Tindall, Geoffrey Fosgate, André Ganswindt, Henk J Bertschinger
OBJECTIVES: Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls. METHODS: In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749306/successful-treatment-of-digital-osteitis-by-intravenous-regional-perfusion-of-ceftiofur-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#18
Christopher J Dutton, Pauline G Delnatte, Simon R Hollamby, Graham J Crawshaw
A 41-yr-old African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) presented with a swollen third digit of the left forelimb and a 2-cm hole in the pad. Corrective trimming, topical treatments, and an oral antibiotic resulted in apparent resolution; however, it reoccurred after 4 mo. Radiographs suggested bone lysis in the third phalanx, with the primary differential diagnosis being septic osteitis. Flushing with metronidazole solution and intravenous regional perfusion (IVRP) of the foot were commenced. A tourniquet was applied just above the carpus, an interdigital vein was identified by ultrasound, and into this vein 2 g (20 ml) of ceftiofur sodium solution, followed by 60 ml of heparinized saline, was administered...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749266/epidemiologic-evaluation-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-3b-infection-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#19
Ellen Bronson, Michael McClure, Jennifer Sohl, Ellen Wiedner, Sherry Cox, Erin M Latimer, Virginia R Pearson, Gary S Hayward, Angela Fuery, Paul D Ling
This epidemiologic study follows a 5-yr-old male African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) during an episode of hemorrhagic disease (HD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 3B (EEHV3B) utilizing data from complete blood counts, electrophoresis and acute phase protein analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple body fluids during and after the clinical episode. The elephant presented with sudden onset of marked lethargy and inappetence followed by hypersalivation, hyperemia of the conjunctivae and focally on the tongue, and swellings on the head and ventrum...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691383/different-origins-of-two-corpora-lutea-recovered-from-a-pregnant-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#20
Y Yamamoto, K Nagaoka, Y Kamite, G Watanabe, T Allen, F Stansfield, K Taya
Elephant ovaries contain multiple corpora lutea (CLs) throughout pregnancy. Two CLs (P-1 and P-2) collected from a pregnant African elephant were used to investigate their origin and physiological state in this study. The mRNA expressions of prolactin receptor, CYP11A and inhibin betaB subunit were higher in P-2 than in P-1, while LHCGR and inhibin betaA subunit mRNA were higher in P-1 than in P-2. Protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 was detected in P-1 but not in P-2. These results suggest different origins for the two CLs in this one pregnant elephant, and we also demonstrated the production of bioactive prolactin by the elephant placenta...
July 9, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
keyword
keyword
86372
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"