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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853539/foot-pressure-distributions-during-walking-in-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#1
Olga Panagiotopoulou, Todd C Pataky, Madeleine Day, Michael C Hensman, Sean Hensman, John R Hutchinson, Christofer J Clemente
Elephants, the largest living land mammals, have evolved a specialized foot morphology to help reduce locomotor pressures while supporting their large body mass. Peak pressures that could cause tissue damage are mitigated passively by the anatomy of elephants' feet, yet this mechanism does not seem to work well for some captive animals. This study tests how foot pressures vary among African and Asian elephants from habitats where natural substrates predominate but where foot care protocols differ. Variations in pressure patterns might be related to differences in husbandry, including but not limited to trimming and the substrates that elephants typically stand and move on...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812404/the-influence-of-socioeconomic-factors-on-the-densities-of-high-value-cross-border-species-the-african-elephant
#2
Sarah-Anne Jeanetta Selier, Rob Slotow, Enrico Di Minin
Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781165/systematic-review-on-the-conservation-genetics-of-african-savannah-elephants
#3
Daniel Zacarias, Luis Mauricio Bini, Rafael Loyola
BACKGROUND: In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757237/coping-with-heat-behavioural-and-physiological-responses-of-savanna-elephants-in-their-natural-habitat
#4
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755570/testing-the-accuracy-of-aerial-surveys-for-large-mammals-an-experiment-with-african-savanna-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#5
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
Accurate counts of animals are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. Past research, however, suggests that observers on aerial surveys may fail to detect all individuals of the target species present in the survey area. Such errors could bias population estimates low and confound trend estimation. We used two approaches to assess the accuracy of aerial surveys for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana. First, we used double-observer sampling, in which two observers make observations on the same herds, to estimate detectability of elephants and determine what variables affect it...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754560/ivory-species-identification-using-electrophoresis-based-techniques
#6
Thitika Kitpipit, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Chutamas Satasook, Adrian Linacre
Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test...
October 18, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736930/trophy-hunting-and-sustainability-temporal-dynamics-in-trophy-quality-and-harvesting-patterns-of-wild-herbivores-in-a-tropical-semi-arid-savanna-ecosystem
#7
Victor K Muposhi, Edson Gandiwa, Paul Bartels, Stanley M Makuza, Tinaapi H Madiri
The selective nature of trophy hunting may cause changes in desirable phenotypic traits in harvested species. A decline in trophy size of preferred species may reduce hunting destination competitiveness thus compromising the sustainability of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. We explored the trophy quality and trends in harvesting patterns (i.e., 2004-2015) of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (Hippotragus niger) in Matetsi Safari Area, northwest Zimbabwe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688971/harvesting-and-chewing-as-constraints-to-forage-consumption-by-the-african-savanna-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#8
Bruce W Clegg, Timothy G O'Connor
As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana), adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt ), chewing (Ct ) and handling times (Ht ) differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food). Bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals), with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across 32 vegetation types...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680673/habitat-heterogeneity-variably-influences-habitat-selection-by-wild-herbivores-in-a-semi-arid-tropical-savanna-ecosystem
#9
Victor K Muposhi, Edson Gandiwa, Abel Chemura, Paul Bartels, Stanley M Makuza, Tinaapi H Madiri
An understanding of the habitat selection patterns by wild herbivores is critical for adaptive management, particularly towards ecosystem management and wildlife conservation in semi arid savanna ecosystems. We tested the following predictions: (i) surface water availability, habitat quality and human presence have a strong influence on the spatial distribution of wild herbivores in the dry season, (ii) habitat suitability for large herbivores would be higher compared to medium-sized herbivores in the dry season, and (iii) spatial extent of suitable habitats for wild herbivores will be different between years, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648236/genetic-connectivity-across-marginal-habitats-the-elephants-of-the-namib-desert
#10
Yasuko Ishida, Peter J Van Coeverden de Groot, Keith E A Leggett, Andrea S Putnam, Virginia E Fox, Jesse Lai, Peter T Boag, Nicholas J Georgiadis, Alfred L Roca
Locally isolated populations in marginal habitats may be genetically distinctive and of heightened conservation concern. Elephants inhabiting the Namib Desert have been reported to show distinctive behavioral and phenotypic adaptations in that severely arid environment. The genetic distinctiveness of Namibian desert elephants relative to other African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations has not been established. To investigate the genetic structure of elephants in Namibia, we determined the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and genotyped 17 microsatellite loci in desert elephants (n = 8) from the Hoanib River catchment and the Hoarusib River catchment...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635327/continent-wide-survey-reveals-massive-decline-in-african-savannah-elephants
#11
Michael J Chase, Scott Schlossberg, Curtice R Griffin, Philippe J C Bouché, Sintayehu W Djene, Paul W Elkan, Sam Ferreira, Falk Grossman, Edward Mtarima Kohi, Kelly Landen, Patrick Omondi, Alexis Peltier, S A Jeanetta Selier, Robert Sutcliffe
African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC), the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616433/hippopotamus-h-amphibius-diet-change-indicates-herbaceous-plant-encroachment-following-megaherbivore-population-collapse
#12
Kendra L Chritz, Scott A Blumenthal, Thure E Cerling, Hans Klingel
Megaherbivores (>1000 kg) are critical for ecosystem health and function, but face population collapse and extinction globally. The future of these megaherbivore-impoverished ecosystems is difficult to predict, though many studies have demonstrated increasing representation of C3 woody plants. These studies rely on direct observational data, however, and tools for assessing decadal-scale changes in African ecology without observation are lacking. We use isotopic records of historical common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) canines to quantify herbaceous vegetation change in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda following a period of civil unrest and poaching...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580888/does-diet-influence-salivary-enzyme-activities-in-elephant-species
#13
Carolin Boehlke, Sandra Pötschke, Verena Behringer, Christian Hannig, Oliver Zierau
Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, Asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than Africans. Although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. This study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant for protective and digestive functions in humans...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495127/interspecific-interference-competition-at-the-resource-patch-scale-do-large-herbivores-spatially-avoid-elephants-while-accessing-water
#14
Nicolas Ferry, Stéphane Dray, Hervé Fritz, Marion Valeix
1.Animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. This may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. Such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. 2.We tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition, and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale of a resource-patch...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468011/immunolocalization-of-inhibin-activin-subunits-and-steroidogenic-enzymes-in-the-testes-of-an-adult-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#15
Qinglin Li, Lu Lu, Qiang Weng, Shigehisa Kawakami, Eriko Saito, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Yuki Yamamoto, Saroch Kaewmanee, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya
In this case report, the authors investigated immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits, as well as steroidogenic enzymes, in the testes of an African elephant. Testes were collected from a reproductively active male African elephant (24 yr old) at autopsy. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous tubules. Positive immunostaining for inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in Sertoli and Leydig cells...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456228/development-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-markers-in-the-african-forest-elephant-loxodonta-cyclotis
#16
Natalie A Gugala, Yasuko Ishida, Nicholas J Georgiadis, Alfred L Roca
BACKGROUND: African elephants comprise two species, the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the forest elephant (L. cyclotis), which are distinct morphologically and genetically. Forest elephants are seriously threatened by poaching for meat and ivory, and by habitat destruction. However, microsatellite markers have thus far been developed only in African savanna elephants and Asian elephants, Elephas maximus. The application of microsatellite markers across deeply divergent lineages may produce irregular patterns such as large indels or null alleles...
2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455912/dietary-management-husbandry-and-body-weights-of-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-during-successful-pregnancies-at-disney-s-animal-kingdom
#17
Kathleen Sullivan, Katherine Kerr, Rachel Wanty, Bryan Amaral, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Eduardo Valdes
Successful pregnancy in African elephants is influenced by biological and environmental factors. For managed elephants many of these factors are set directly or indirectly by their human care takers, including nutrition and husbandry. While African elephants often struggle to conceive and produce healthy offspring under human care, Disney's Animal Kingdom (DAK) has effectively managed six gestations to fruition in three cows. Despite differences between mothers in terms of BW and growth curves during gravidity, each pregnancy successfully resulted in the birth of a healthy calf...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416141/reproductive-health-assessment-of-female-elephants-in-north-american-zoos-and-association-of-husbandry-practices-with-reproductive-dysfunction-in-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#18
Janine L Brown, Stephen Paris, Natalia A Prado-Oviedo, Cheryl L Meehan, Jennifer N Hogan, Kari A Morfeld, Kathy Carlstead
As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana) and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus) (8-55 years of age) elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416071/the-days-and-nights-of-zoo-elephants-using-epidemiology-to-better-understand-stereotypic-behavior-of-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-and-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-north-american-zoos
#19
Brian J Greco, Cheryl L Meehan, Jen N Hogan, Katherine A Leighty, Jill Mellen, Georgia J Mason, Joy A Mench
Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415763/housing-and-demographic-risk-factors-impacting-foot-and-musculoskeletal-health-in-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-and-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-north-american-zoos
#20
Michele A Miller, Jennifer N Hogan, Cheryl L Meehan
For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012...
2016: PloS One
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