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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186207/metabolic-health-assessment-of-zoo-elephants-management-factors-predicting-leptin-levels-and-the-glucose-to-insulin-ratio-and-their-associations-with-health-parameters
#1
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#2
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098403/nuclear-organization-of-the-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana-amygdaloid-complex-an-unusual-mammalian-amygdala
#3
Aude'Marie Limacher-Burrell, Adhil Bhagwandin, Busisiwe C Maseko, Paul R Manger
Here we describe the nuclear organization of the African elephant amygdaloid complex using Nissl, myelin, and a range of immunohistochemical stains. The African elephant is thought to exhibit many affect-laden and social-empathic behaviours; however, to date the amygdaloid complex, which is the generator of emotional states of the brain is yet to be fully explored in the elephants. For the most part, the amygdaloid complex of the African elephant is similar to that observed in other mammals in terms of the presence of nuclei and their topological relationships; however, we did observe several specific differences in amygdaloid organization...
November 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076179/the-ecological-consequences-of-forest-elephant-declines-for-afrotropical-forests
#4
John R Poulsen, Cooper Rosin, Amelia Meier, Emily Mills, Chase Nunez, Sally E Koerner, Emily Blanchard, Jennifer Callejas, Sarah Moore, Mark Sowers
Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat, thus their loss will have strong consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. We evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053428/dust-bathing-behaviors-of-african-herbivores-and-the-potential-risk-of-inhalational-anthrax
#5
Zoe R Barandongo, John K E Mfune, Wendy C Turner
Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942338/distances-between-individuals-in-an-artificial-herd-of-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-africana-during-resource-utilisation-in-a-semi-captive-environment
#6
Elena Stagni, Simona Normando, Barbara de Mori
Space allowance and resource dispersion is recognised as an important factor affecting the welfare of elephants in captivity. In the present pilot study, we investigated distances kept among individuals in an artificially created semi-captive mixed-sex group of African elephants, when individuals were free to disperse. The study involved a herd of six elephants, three females (aged 11 to 16years), and three males (aged 15 to 23years). They were observed through instantaneous scan sampling in order to assess distances between individuals and body orientation in space and through continuous focal animal sampling to assess inter-specific social behaviour and general activity...
September 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934325/first-report-of-changes-in-leukocyte-morphology-in-response-to-inflammatory-conditions-in-asian-and-african-elephants-elephas-maximus-and-loxodonta-africana
#7
Nicole I Stacy, Ramiro Isaza, Ellen Wiedner
Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions. Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Morphological changes included heterophil left-shifting with or without concurrent dysgranulopoiesis, toxicity, or hypersegmentation, reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or vacuolated monocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#8
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915245/effects-of-gnrh-vaccination-in-wild-and-captive-african-elephant-bulls-loxodonta-africana-on-reproductive-organs-and-semen-quality
#9
Imke Lueders, Debbie Young, Liana Maree, Gerhard van der Horst, Ilse Luther, Stephan Botha, Brendan Tindall, Geoffrey Fosgate, André Ganswindt, Henk J Bertschinger
OBJECTIVES: Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls. METHODS: In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749306/successful-treatment-of-digital-osteitis-by-intravenous-regional-perfusion-of-ceftiofur-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#10
Christopher J Dutton, Pauline G Delnatte, Simon R Hollamby, Graham J Crawshaw
A 41-yr-old African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) presented with a swollen third digit of the left forelimb and a 2-cm hole in the pad. Corrective trimming, topical treatments, and an oral antibiotic resulted in apparent resolution; however, it reoccurred after 4 mo. Radiographs suggested bone lysis in the third phalanx, with the primary differential diagnosis being septic osteitis. Flushing with metronidazole solution and intravenous regional perfusion (IVRP) of the foot were commenced. A tourniquet was applied just above the carpus, an interdigital vein was identified by ultrasound, and into this vein 2 g (20 ml) of ceftiofur sodium solution, followed by 60 ml of heparinized saline, was administered...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749266/epidemiologic-evaluation-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-3b-infection-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#11
Ellen Bronson, Michael McClure, Jennifer Sohl, Ellen Wiedner, Sherry Cox, Erin M Latimer, Virginia R Pearson, Gary S Hayward, Angela Fuery, Paul D Ling
This epidemiologic study follows a 5-yr-old male African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) during an episode of hemorrhagic disease (HD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 3B (EEHV3B) utilizing data from complete blood counts, electrophoresis and acute phase protein analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple body fluids during and after the clinical episode. The elephant presented with sudden onset of marked lethargy and inappetence followed by hypersalivation, hyperemia of the conjunctivae and focally on the tongue, and swellings on the head and ventrum...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691383/different-origins-of-two-corpora-lutea-recovered-from-a-pregnant-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#12
Y Yamamoto, K Nagaoka, Y Kamite, G Watanabe, T Allen, F Stansfield, K Taya
Elephant ovaries contain multiple corpora lutea (CLs) throughout pregnancy. Two CLs (P-1 and P-2) collected from a pregnant African elephant were used to investigate their origin and physiological state in this study. The mRNA expressions of prolactin receptor, CYP11A and inhibin betaB subunit were higher in P-2 than in P-1, while LHCGR and inhibin betaA subunit mRNA were higher in P-1 than in P-2. Protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 was detected in P-1 but not in P-2. These results suggest different origins for the two CLs in this one pregnant elephant, and we also demonstrated the production of bioactive prolactin by the elephant placenta...
July 9, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649470/determinants-of-seasonal-changes-in-availability-of-food-patches-for-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-a-semi-arid-african-savanna
#13
Bruce W Clegg, Timothy G O'Connor
Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana) on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616175/seasonal-habitat-use-by-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-mole-national-park-of-ghana
#14
George Ashiagbor, Emmanuel Danquah
To avoid unnecessary waste of limited resources and to help prioritize areas for conservation efforts, this study aimed to provide information on habitat use by elephants between the wet and dry seasons in the Mole National Park (MNP) of Ghana. We compiled coordinates of 516 locations of elephants' encounters, 256 for dry season and 260 for wet season. Using nine predictor variables, we modeled the probability of elephant's distribution in MNP. We threshold the models to "suitable" and "nonsuitable" regions of habitat use using the equal training sensitivity and specificity values of 0...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585920/palaeogenomes-of-eurasian-straight-tusked-elephants-challenge-the-current-view-of-elephant-evolution
#15
Matthias Meyer, Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Sina Baleka, Mathias Stiller, Kirsty E H Penkman, Kurt W Alt, Yasuko Ishida, Dietrich Mania, Swapan Mallick, Tom Meijer, Harald Meller, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Sven Ostritz, Nadin Rohland, Karol Schauer, Tim Schüler, Alfred L Roca, David Reich, Beth Shapiro, Michael Hofreiter
The straight-tusked elephants Palaeoloxodon spp. were widespread across Eurasia during the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions using morphological traits have grouped them with Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and many paleontologists place Palaeoloxodon within Elephas. Here, we report the recovery of full mitochondrial genomes from four and partial nuclear genomes from two P. antiquus fossils. These fossils were collected at two sites in Germany, Neumark-Nord and Weimar-Ehringsdorf, and likely date to interglacial periods ~120 and ~244 thousand years ago, respectively...
June 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503553/elephant-initiated-interactions-with-humans-individual-differences-and-specific-preferences-in-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#16
Zoë T Rossman, Clare Padfield, Debbie Young, Lynette A Hart
South Africa has seen a recent increase in the number of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained in reserves and parks and managed in free contact, where they may spend a significant amount of time in close proximity to humans. This study investigates how individual elephants choose to initiate interactions with humans by examining whether interaction types and frequencies vary both between elephants and with regards to the category of human involved in the interaction. Observations were made on a herd of seven captive African elephants frequently exposed to elephant handlers (guides), volunteers (who carry out general observations for the park's research unit), and tourists...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489908/sexual-dimorphism-in-african-elephant-social-rumbles
#17
Anton Baotic, Angela S Stoeger
This study used the source and filter theory approach to analyse sex differences in the acoustic features of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) low-frequency rumbles produced in social contexts ('social rumbles'). Permuted discriminant function analysis revealed that rumbles contain sufficient acoustic information to predict the sex of a vocalizing individual. Features primarily related to the vocalizer's size, i.e. fundamental frequency variables and vocal tract resonant frequencies, differed significantly between the sexes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464628/automated-detection-of-low-frequency-rumbles-of-forest-elephants-a-critical-tool-for-their-conservation
#18
Sara C Keen, Yu Shiu, Peter H Wrege, Elizabeth D Rowland
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) occupy large ranges in dense tropical forests and often use far-reaching vocal signals to coordinate social behavior. Elephant populations in Central Africa are in crisis, having declined by more than 60% in the last decade. Methods currently used to monitor these populations are expensive and time-intensive, though acoustic monitoring technology may offer an effective alternative if signals of interest can be efficiently extracted from the sound stream. This paper proposes an automated elephant call detection algorithm that was tested on nearly 4000 h of field recordings collected from five forest clearings in Central Africa, including sites both inside protected areas and in logging concessions...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422091/male-african-elephants-discriminate-and-prefer-vocalizations-of-unfamiliar-females
#19
Angela S Stoeger, Anton Baotic
Gaining information about conspecifics via long-distance vocalizations is crucial for social and spatially flexible species such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Female elephants are known to discriminate individuals and kin based on acoustic cues. Specifically, females approached the loudspeaker exclusively with playbacks of familiar individuals with high association indexes, intentionally fusing with their affiliates. For males, which are less bonded, gathering social information via vocalizations could still have important implications, but little is known about their vocal discrimination skills...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293560/when-yawning-occurs-in-elephants
#20
Zoë T Rossman, Benjamin L Hart, Brian J Greco, Debbie Young, Clare Padfield, Lisa Weidner, Jennifer Gates, Lynette A Hart
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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