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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785340/comparing-the-catch-composition-profitability-and-discard-survival-from-different-trammel-net-designs-targeting-common-spiny-lobster-palinurus-elephas-in-a-mediterranean-fishery
#1
Gaetano Catanese, Hilmar Hinz, Maria Del Mar Gil, Miquel Palmer, Michael Breen, Antoni Mira, Elena Pastor, Amalia Grau, Andrea Campos-Candela, Elka Koleva, Antoni Maria Grau, Beatriz Morales-Nin
In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF) and the use of a guarding net or greca , a mesh piece intended to reduce discards...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#2
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730973/development-of-in-situ-hybridization-for-detection-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-in-asian-elephants
#3
Varankpicha Kochakul, Kittikorn Boonsri, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Chalermchart Somgird, Chatchote Thitaram, Kidsadagon Pringproa
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting the elephant population worldwide, especially juveniles and young adults. We developed a chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) test for detection of EEHV in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Digoxigenin (DIG) DNA probes from the polymerase and terminase genes of EEHV were synthesized using a PCR DIG-labeling method, and detection of hybridized probe to target EEHV DNA was carried out by anti-DIG immunolabeling...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690070/a-new-species-of-brachylepis-kolbe-1894-from-tanzania-scarabaeidae-melolonthinae-leucopholini
#4
Richard Sehnal
The Afrotropical genus Brachylepis Kolbe, 1894 (Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Leucopholini) was established for Coniopholis elephas Gerstaecker, 1867 from Kenya. Subsequently, Brenske (1898) described Brachylepis bennigseni from Tanzania (Pare Mountains), and Lacroix (2009) described B. werneri from Ethiopia (Negele Borana) and synonymised B. bennigseni with B. elephas. Thus, the genus contains only two species. From the closely related Afrotropical leucopholine genera (e.g., Eulepida Kolbe, 1894, Eulepidopsis Burgeon, 1946, Cochliotis Kolbe, 1894) it differs in having nine antennomeres, the terminal maxillary palpomere expanded near midlength, and an incomplete metatibial carina (Lacroix 2009, 2010)...
January 31, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600558/when-elephants-fall-asleep-a-literature-review-on-elephant-rest-with-case-studies-on-elephant-falling-bouts-and-practical-solutions-for-zoo-elephants
#5
Christian Schiffmann, Stefan Hoby, Christian Wenker, Therese Hård, Robert Scholz, Marcus Clauss, Jean-Michel Hatt
Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes. Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days...
March 30, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569705/histological-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-uterine-adenocarcinoma-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#6
Pietro Laricchiuta, Valeria Russo, Alessandro Costagliola, Giuseppe Piegari, Michele Capasso, Pasquale Silvestre, Manuela Martano, Orlando Paciello
A 56 year old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living at the zoological garden of Naples (Italy), with a clinical history of recurrent colic, was found in agonal state and humane euthanasia was elected. At necropsy the uterine body was moderately increased in size and the lumen was reduced due to a poorly demarcated and infiltrative neoplasm. Furthermore, multiple, whitish, firm nodules were present in both lungs. Histological examination of the uterine mass revealed epithelial cells arranged in tubular or solid pattern infiltrating the endometrium and the muscular layer...
March 23, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517458/thromboelastography-in-the-healthy-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-reference-intervals-and-effects-of-storage
#7
Kathryn L Perrin, Anne K Krogh, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, Lauren Howard, Louise Bochsen, Wendy K Kiso, Dennis Schmitt, Annemarie T Kristensen, Mads F Bertelsen
Hemorrhagic disease associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection is the most-frequent cause of mortality in captive Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Survival relies on intensive monitoring of hemostatic status. Thromboelastography (TEG) utilizes whole blood samples containing all the blood components of hemostasis and is therefore a sensitive indicator of the clinical status in the patient. This study was performed to assess the practicability of TEG in Asian elephants in a zoo environment...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517457/elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-infection-in-two-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-calves
#8
Kittikorn Boonsri, Chaleamchat Somgird, Pheudphol Noinafai, Kidsadagon Pringproa, Thittaya Janyamethakul, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Janine L Brown, Pallop Tankaew, Saralee Srivorakul, Chatchote Thitaram
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is an infection associated with fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). This brief communication describes the postmortem evaluation of two Asian elephant calves diagnosed with EEHV4 and EEHV1A in conjunction with Clostridium perfringens infection. Case 1 was a 7-mo-old, male captive-born Asian elephant that developed diarrhea and died 2 days after clinical presentation. Examination of the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen revealed predominantly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517450/use-of-glue-on-shoes-to-improve-conformational-abnormalities-in-two-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#9
Gary Johnson, Joanne Smith, Jim Peddie, Linda Peddie, Joe DeMarco, Ellen Wiedner
This report describes the use of custom-made, glue-on shoes for the front feet of two female adult Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) with conformational abnormalities. Both elephants had unequal leg lengths. The first elephant also had bilateral fetlock varus causing recurrent nail infections of the fourth digits of the front feet. The second elephant displayed weight shifting. Over several years, multiple shoe prototypes were tested. The current version is made of two types of shoe rubber, glued together and attached to the pad of the shorter leg with a liquid adhesive...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515900/evaluating-the-personality-structure-of-semi-captive-asian-elephants-living-in-their-natural-habitat
#10
Martin W Seltmann, Samuli Helle, Mark J Adams, Khyne U Mar, Mirkka Lahdenperä
Data on personality for long-lived, highly social wild mammals with high cognitive abilities are rare. We investigated the personality structure of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) by using a large sample of semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar. Data were collected during 2014-2017 using questionnaires, for which elephant riders (mahouts) rated 28 behavioural adjectives of elephants. Repeated questionnaires were obtained for each elephant from several raters whenever possible, resulting in 690 ratings of 150 female and 107 male elephants...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408038/spectrum-of-antibody-profiles-in-tuberculous-elephants-cervids-and-cattle
#11
Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Christian Gortázar, Michele A Miller, W Ray Waters
Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379691/isolation-and-culture-of-primary-adult-skin-fibroblasts-from-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#12
Puntita Siengdee, Sarisa Klinhom, Chatchote Thitaram, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Primary cultures from Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) allow scientists to obtain representative cells that have conserved most of their original characteristics, function, physiology and biochemistry. This technique has thus gained significant importance as a foundation for further cellular, cell biology and molecular research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe conditions for the successful establishment of primary adult fibroblasts from Asian elephant carcasses...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375089/immunohistochemical-localization-of-inhibin-activin-subunits-in-adult-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-testes
#13
Sirinart Chaichanathong, Kasuyoshi Taya, Gen Watanabe, Kentaro Nagaoka, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Apichaya Sudsukh, Nikorn Thongtip
Immunolocalization of inhibin-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits in the testes of Asian elephant was determined. Testicular sections were immunostained with polyclonal antisera against inhibin subunit-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Positive immunostaining against inhibin-α subunit was strongly present in Sertoli cells, and positive immunostaining for the inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in both Sertoli and Leydig cells. These results indicated that while Sertoli cells are the predominant source of inhibin and activin secretions in the testes of adult male Asian elephant, Leydig cells are a source of activin but not inhibin...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299268/parasite-associated-mortality-in-a-long-lived-mammal-variation-with-host-age-sex-and-reproduction
#14
Carly L Lynsdale, Hannah S Mumby, Adam D Hayward, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa
Parasites can cause severe host morbidity and threaten survival. As parasites are generally aggregated within certain host demographics, they are likely to affect a small proportion of the entire population, with specific hosts being at particular risk. However, little is known as to whether increased host mortality from parasitic causes is experienced by specific host demographics. Outside of theoretical studies, there is a paucity of literature concerning dynamics of parasite-associated host mortality. Empirical evidence mainly focuses on short-lived hosts or model systems, with data lacking from long-lived wild or semi-wild vertebrate populations...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297839/reproductive-parameters-and-birth-statistics-for-a-herd-of-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-north-america-over-a-20-year-period
#15
Wendy K Kiso, Ellen Wiedner, Ramiro Isaza, William Lindsay, Janice Aria, Gary Jacobson, Kathy Jacobson, Dennis Schmitt
We reviewed medical records documenting 28 pregnancies occurring within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) over a 20-yr (1994-2014) period at a private facility in the southeastern United States. Twenty-six pregnancies resulted in live calves and two ended in stillbirths. The 26 live births represented the offspring of 11 cows and 5 bulls. Twenty-four calves survived their first year, including two critically ill calves born after dystocias. Male and female calves occurred in almost equal numbers...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297830/successful-treatment-of-a-clinical-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-infection-the-dynamics-of-viral-load-genotype-analysis-and-treatment-with-acyclovir
#16
Supaphen Sripiboon, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Khajohnpat Boonprasert, Petthisak Sombutputorn, Warangkhana Langkaphin, William Ditcham, Kristin Warren
This article describes the treatment of clinical elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection in a male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus; approximately 3 yr old), the dynamics of viral load during the active infection, and genetic analysis of the virus. Treatment included injectable acyclovir (12 mg/kg iv, bid), antibiotic, vitamin, and fluids. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the viral levels in blood, which decreased continuously after initiation of intravenous acyclovir...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297818/vital-signs-and-first-occurrences-in-normal-and-abnormal-newborn-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-calves
#17
Ellen Wiedner, Wendy K Kiso, Janice Aria, Ramiro Isaza, William Lindsay, Gary Jacobson, Kathy Jacobson, Dennis Schmitt
Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287954/monitoring-and-controlling-ovarian-activity-in-elephants
#18
Chatchote Thitaram, Janine L Brown
Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ...
March 15, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186207/metabolic-health-assessment-of-zoo-elephants-management-factors-predicting-leptin-levels-and-the-glucose-to-insulin-ratio-and-their-associations-with-health-parameters
#19
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168606/the-role-of-seed-size-phenology-oogenesis-and-host-distribution-in-the-specificity-and-genetic-structure-in-seed-weevils-curculio-spp-in-mixed-forests
#20
Harold Arias-LeClaire, Raúl Bonal, Daniel García-López, Josep Maria Espelta
Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis are suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests and ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
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