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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920803/assessment-of-a-lancet-and-swab-blood-sampling-technique-for-surveillance-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-infection
#1
Javier Lopez, L do Vet M Sc, Jonathan Haycock, Andrew Mckenzie, Katharina Seilern-Moy, Akbar Dastjerdi
Lancing a finger elicits minimal pain in humans and is applied routinely to obtain small volumes of blood for clinical diagnostics. A modified lancet bleeding method and several blood sampling matrices were evaluated in this study for the purpose of routine elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) surveillance in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The procedure enabled weekly sampling from elephants as young as 9 mo of age. The blood sampling matrices were evaluated for their sensitivity measuring β-actin, tumor necrosis factor α, and/or EEHV-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920785/detomidine-and-butorphanol-for-standing-sedation-in-a-range-of-zoo-kept-ungulate-species
#2
Tim Bouts, Joanne Dodds, Karla Berry, Abdi Arif, Polly Taylor, Andrew Routh, Frank Gasthuys
General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#3
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749286/detection-of-aerosolized-bacteria-in-expired-air-samples-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#4
Sophie M Burke, Larry Vogelnest, Paul Thompson, Euan R Tovey, Peter Williamson
Elephant-mediated transmission of tuberculosis is assumed to be similar to human models, which state close and prolonged contact with an infected individual is required for transmission. Although considered a risk factor for infection, several case studies have reported that close contact with an elephant is not always necessary for transmission, and the role of aerosolized bacteria remains unclear. To investigate aerosol-mediated transmission of pathogenic bacteria from elephants, a method for the detection of aerosols using an adapted sampling system was developed...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749274/evaluation-of-the-i-stat-portable-clinical-analyzer-for-measurement-of-ionized-calcium-and-selected-blood-chemistry-values-in-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#5
Danielle K Tarbert, Erica Behling-Kelly, Heather Priest, Sara Childs-Sanford
Thei-STAT® portable clinical analyzer (PCA) provides patient-side results for hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas values when immediate results are desired. This analyzer is commonly used in nondomestic animals; however, validation of this method in comparison with traditional benchtop methods should be performed for each species. In this study, the i-STAT PCA was compared with the Radiometer ABL 800 Flex benchtop analyzer using 24 heparinized whole blood samples obtained from healthy E. maximus . In addition, the effect of sample storage was evaluated on the i-STAT PCA...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721215/assessment-of-season-dependent-body-condition-scores-in-relation-to-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-in-free-ranging-asian-elephants
#6
Sanjeeta Sharma Pokharel, Polani B Seshagiri, Raman Sukumar
We studied seasonal and annual changes in visual body condition scores (BCSs), and assessed how these scores were related to levels of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the seasonally dry tropical forests of the Mysore and Nilgiri Elephant Reserves in southern India. We assessed the animals' BCS visually on a scale of 1 to 5; where 1 represents a very thin and 5 represents a very fat elephant. To understand the influence of seasonality on BCS, we sampled the population during dry (n = 398) and wet seasons (n = 255) of 2013 and 2015 while, for annual changes in BCS, we sampled nine free-ranging adult females from different family groups that had been repeatedly sighted over seven years...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653455/nocturnal-behavior-of-orphaned-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-calves-in-sri-lanka
#7
Helena Stokes, Vijitha Perera, Nilmini Jayasena, Ayona Silva-Fletcher
Many animals exhibit circadian variation in behavior; thus, studying nocturnal behavior is important to fully understand species activity patterns. The nocturnal behavior of Asian elephants, and specifically calves, has received little previous study. We carried out observational study of the nocturnal behavior of orphaned Asian elephant calves at three age groups: "infant" (0-24 months), "young juvenile" (25-36 months) and "old juveniles" (over 36 months). Project aims were to build a nocturnal activity budget, to investigate key age differences, and whether calves exhibited synchronous behavior patterns...
June 27, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#8
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615841/cobboldia-elephantis-cobbold-1866-larval-infestation-in-an-indian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#9
Ananda K Javare Gowda, N K Dharanesha, P Giridhar, S M Byre Gowda
In the present study, post-mortem was conducted on a female elephant aged about 37 years died at Rajeev Gandhi National Park, Hunsur, Mathigoodu Elephant Camp, Karnataka state. The animal suffered with diarrhoea, anorexia, dehydration and was unable to walk for about one week before death and was treated with antibiotics and fluid therapy for three days. The post-mortem examination revealed that, the gastric mucosa was severely congested, hyperaemic and numerous stomach bots attached to the mucosa. The bots were recovered from the gastric mucosa and processed for species identification...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585920/palaeogenomes-of-eurasian-straight-tusked-elephants-challenge-the-current-view-of-elephant-evolution
#10
Matthias Meyer, Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Sina Baleka, Mathias Stiller, Kirsty E H Penkman, Kurt W Alt, Yasuko Ishida, Dietrich Mania, Swapan Mallick, Tom Meijer, Harald Meller, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Sven Ostritz, Nadin Rohland, Karol Schauer, Tim Schüler, Alfred L Roca, David Reich, Beth Shapiro, Michael Hofreiter
The straight-tusked elephants Palaeoloxodon spp. were widespread across Eurasia during the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions using morphological traits have grouped them with Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and many paleontologists place Palaeoloxodon within Elephas. Here, we report the recovery of full mitochondrial genomes from four and partial nuclear genomes from two P. antiquus fossils. These fossils were collected at two sites in Germany, Neumark-Nord and Weimar-Ehringsdorf, and likely date to interglacial periods ~120 and ~244 thousand years ago, respectively...
June 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545986/a-simple-field-friendly-technique-for-cryopreserving-semen-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#11
Danielle M Arnold, Charlie Gray, Terri L Roth, Sebastian Mitchell, Laura H Graham
The specific objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of manual seeding, differing freeze and thaw rates as well as storage for 24h at 4°C prior to cryopreservation on post-thaw sperm quality in Asian elephants. Extended semen was cooled in an equitainer to 4°C, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour at various rates with and without manual seeding or in a dry shipper and thawed at 37, 50 and 75°C. There was a significant effect of freeze rate on post-thaw motility (P<0.0001) and acrosomal integrity (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510590/community-based-human-elephant-conflict-mitigation-the-value-of-an-evidence-based-approach-in-promoting-the-uptake-of-effective-methods
#12
Donny Gunaryadi, Sugiyo, Simon Hedges
Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007) in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) out of crop fields in 91...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506903/ethnozoological-assessment-of-animals-used-by-mon-traditional-medicine-vendors-at-kyaiktiyo-myanmar
#13
Vincent Nijman, Chris R Shepherd
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467495/identification-of-shedders-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesviruses-among-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-switzerland
#14
Mathias Ackermann, Jean-Michel Hatt, Nelli Schetle, Hanspeter Steinmetz
Elephants, particularly Asian (Elephas maximus), are threatened by lethal elephant hemorrhagic disease (EHD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV). At least five of seven known EEHV types have been associated to EHD, with types 1, 4, and 5 predominantly affecting Asian elephants. In Switzerland, at least three Asian elephants have been lost due to EHD but nothing is known about the present EEHV1 circulation. Moreover, the prevalence of other EEHV types has never been assessed. Intermittent shedding of EEHV can be monitored through collecting trunk secretions and analyzing them by PCR methods that discriminate the different EEHV types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402335/elephants-know-when-their-bodies-are-obstacles-to-success-in-a-novel-transfer-task
#15
Rachel Dale, Joshua M Plotnik
The capacity to recognise oneself as separate from other individuals and objects is difficult to investigate in non-human animals. The hallmark empirical assessment, the mirror self-recognition test, focuses on an animal's ability to recognise itself in a mirror and success has thus far been demonstrated in only a small number of species with a keen interest in their own visual reflection. Adapting a recent study done with children, we designed a new body-awareness paradigm for testing an animal's understanding of its place in its environment...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387333/elemental-classification-of-the-tusks-of-dugong-dugong-dugong-by-hh-xrf-analysis-and-comparison-with-other-species
#16
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Phaothep Cherdsukjai, Kongkiat Kittiwatanawong, Chatchote Thitaram
The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293560/when-yawning-occurs-in-elephants
#17
Zoë T Rossman, Benjamin L Hart, Brian J Greco, Debbie Young, Clare Padfield, Lisa Weidner, Jennifer Gates, Lynette A Hart
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257950/redescription-and-molecular-characterization-of-anoplocephala-manubriata-railliet-et-al-1914-cestoda-anoplocephalidae-from-a-sri-lankan-wild-elephant-elephas-maximus
#18
K U E Perera, Susiji Wickramasinghe, B V P Perera, K B A T Bandara, R P V J Rajapakse
The present work provides a detailed morphological and molecular description of Anoplocephala manubriata in elephants. Adult worms were recovered during an autopsy of a wild elephant in Elephant Transit Home, Udawalawe, Sri Lanka. Necropsy findings revealed a severe cestode infection in the small intestine. These tapeworms were tightly attached to the intestinal mucosae, resulted in hyperemic thickened intestinal mucosae, variable size irregular well-demarcated multifocal ulcerative regions sometimes covered with necrotic membranes and variable size, diffuse, well-demarcated raised nodular masses were evident in the small intestine...
June 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221104/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-wild-asian-elephants-southern-india
#19
Arun Zachariah, Jeganathan Pandiyan, G K Madhavilatha, Sathish Mundayoor, Bathrachalam Chandramohan, P K Sajesh, Sam Santhosh, Susan K Mikota
We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#20
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, they might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their ranges even if they were not globally endangered. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
October 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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