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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402335/elephants-know-when-their-bodies-are-obstacles-to-success-in-a-novel-transfer-task
#1
Rachel Dale, Joshua M Plotnik
The capacity to recognise oneself as separate from other individuals and objects is difficult to investigate in non-human animals. The hallmark empirical assessment, the mirror self-recognition test, focuses on an animal's ability to recognise itself in a mirror and success has thus far been demonstrated in only a small number of species with a keen interest in their own visual reflection. Adapting a recent study done with children, we designed a new body-awareness paradigm for testing an animal's understanding of its place in its environment...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387333/elemental-classification-of-the-tusks-of-dugong-dugong-dugong-by-hh-xrf-analysis-and-comparison-with-other-species
#2
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Phaothep Cherdsukjai, Kongkiat Kittiwatanawong, Chatchote Thitaram
The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293560/when-yawning-occurs-in-elephants
#3
Zoë T Rossman, Benjamin L Hart, Brian J Greco, Debbie Young, Clare Padfield, Lisa Weidner, Jennifer Gates, Lynette A Hart
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257950/redescription-and-molecular-characterization-of-anoplocephala-manubriata-railliet-et-al-1914-cestoda-anoplocephalidae-from-a-sri-lankan-wild-elephant-elephas-maximus
#4
K U E Perera, Susiji Wickramasinghe, B V P Perera, K B A T Bandara, R P V J Rajapakse
The present work provides a detailed morphological and molecular description of Anoplocephala manubriata in elephants. Adult worms were recovered during an autopsy of a wild elephant in Elephant Transit Home, Udawalawe, Sri Lanka. Necropsy findings revealed a severe cestode infection in the small intestine. These tapeworms were tightly attached to the intestinal mucosae, resulted in hyperemic thickened intestinal mucosae, variable size irregular well-demarcated multifocal ulcerative regions sometimes covered with necrotic membranes and variable size, diffuse, well-demarcated raised nodular masses were evident in the small intestine...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221104/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-wild-asian-elephants-southern-india
#5
Arun Zachariah, Jeganathan Pandiyan, G K Madhavilatha, Sathish Mundayoor, Bathrachalam Chandramohan, P K Sajesh, Sam Santhosh, Susan K Mikota
We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#6
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that the local extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, conservationists might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their range even if they are not in danger of global extinction. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123909/skeletal-pathology-and-variable-anatomy-in-elephant-feet-assessed-using-computed-tomography
#7
Sophie Regnault, Jonathon J I Dixon, Chris Warren-Smith, John R Hutchinson, Renate Weller
Foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. Here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (CT) scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana and 14 Asian Elephas maximus), describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones) that could be mistaken for disease. We found all the elephants in our study to have pathology of some type in at least one foot...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118558/hereditary-factor-vii-deficiency-in-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-caused-by-a-f7-missense-mutation
#8
Michael Lynch, Ken McGrath, Karthik Raj, Philippa McLaren, Karen Payne, Richard McCoy, Urs Giger
Hereditary disorders and genetic predispositions to disease are rarely reported in captive and free-ranging wildlife, and none have been definitively identified and characterized in elephants. A wild-caught, 41-yr-old male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) without an apparent increased bleeding tendency was consistently found to have prolonged prothrombin times (PTs, mean=55±35 s) compared to 17 other elephants (PT=10±2 s). This elephant's partial thromboplastin times (PTT) fell within the normal range of the other elephants (12-30 s)...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058745/lipid-and-protein-oxidation-levels-in-spermatozoa-and-seminal-plasma-of-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-and-their-relationship-with-semen-parameters
#9
S Satitmanwiwat, K Promthep, K Buranaamnuay, S Mahasawangkul, K Saikhun
Peroxidation damage to spermatozoa and seminal plasma has an important role in sperm quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of lipid and protein oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with varying percentage of progressive motility. Lipid and protein oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay and the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Fresh semen samples were collected from Asian elephants and classified according to the percentage of motile spermatozoa into good (>60%) and poor (≤20%) motility...
January 6, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049867/elephant-s-breast-milk-contains-large-amounts-of-glucosamine
#10
Zenta Takatsu, Muneya Tsuda, Akio Yamada, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Akira Takai, Yasuhiro Takeda, Mitsunori Takase
Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant's breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant's breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927197/erratum-to-feeding-preferences-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-in-nepal
#11
Raj Kumar Koirala, David Raubenheimer, Achyut Aryal, Mitra Lal Pathak, Weihong Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855704/feeding-preferences-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-in-nepal
#12
Raj Kumar Koirala, David Raubenheimer, Achyut Aryal, Mitra Lal Pathak, Weihong Ji
BACKGROUND: Nepal provides habitat for approximately 100-125 wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Although a small proportion of the world population of this species, this group is important for maintaining the genetic diversity of elephants and conservation of biodiversity in this region. Knowledge of foraging patterns of these animals, which is important for understanding their habitat requirements and for assessing their habitat condition, is lacking for the main areas populated by elephants in Nepal...
November 17, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785817/the-presence-of-seminal-plasma-especially-derived-from-stallion-semen-helps-preserve-chilled-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-sperm-motility
#13
A Pinyopummin, S Mahasawangkul, K Kornkaewrat, S Rattanapirom, W Leartsang, S Kitkha
The effects of seminal plasma (SP), derived from autologous, homologous and heterologous species (stallion, boar and dog) on chilled Asian elephant sperm quality, were determined. Semen was collected from eight males and samples with ≥30% motile spermatozoa were used in the study. Semen was diluted with Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender, supplemented with different SP types and preserved at 4°C for 48 hr. Experiment 1 (n = 31), showed that the presence of SP (autologous) helped to preserve sperm quality in terms of sperm motility and acrosome integrity (p < ...
October 26, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754560/ivory-species-identification-using-electrophoresis-based-techniques
#14
Thitika Kitpipit, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Chutamas Satasook, Adrian Linacre
Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test...
December 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701328/comments-on-the-morphology-and-biology-of-pammene-castanicola-trematerra-clausi-2009-lepidoptera-tortricidae-grapholitini
#15
Mirella Clausi, Diego Leone, Monica Oreste, Eustachio Tarasco
Many insects are reported to damage cultivated chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.; Fagaceae) in Italy, but the most important pests of chestnut fruits are weevils (Curculio elephas Gyll. and Curculio glandium Marsh.; Curculionidae) and tortricid moths (Pammene and Cydia; Tortricidae) (Pollini, 1998, Speranza, 1999). The larvae of the tortricid pests develop internally, tunnelling in the fruits and eating the endocarp (Rotundo et al. 1991), which significantly reduces nut quality and commercial value. The most damaging tortricid moths in the Italian chestnut industry are Pammene fasciana (Linnaeus) (the early chestnut moth), Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (the intermediate chestnut moth), and Cydia splendana (Hübner) (the late chestnut moth) (Pedrazzoli et al...
September 16, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691967/isoniazid-and-rifampin-pharmacokinetics-in-two-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Eric F Egelund, Ramiro Isaza, Abdullah Alsultan, Charles A Peloquin
This report describes the pharmacokinetic profiles of chronically administered oral isoniazid and rifampin in one adult male and one adult female Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) that were asymptomatically infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Rifampin's half-life was reduced when compared to previous single-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of healthy uninfected Asian elephants. Both elephants experienced delayed absorption of isoniazid and rifampin as compared to previous pharmacokinetic studies in this species...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691957/isolation-and-identification-of-microsporum-canis-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-the-chongqing-zoo-china
#17
Xingfang Qiao, Juan Hu, Denghu Wu, Li Wei, Yang Yang, Jiankang Chen, Benzhong Mi, SongQuan Yang
Skin diseases affect millions of people and animals worldwide, including Asian elephants. This study sought to determine the pathogen of skin diseases that occurred in Asian elephants in Chongqing Zoo, China. The isolated fungus was identified through its cultural characteristics, morphology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR amplification using common fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) determined that the pathogen was 99.7% homologous to Microsporum canis. This is the first report on elephants infected with Microsporum canis in China...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665491/reproductive-performance-of-the-largest-captive-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-population-in-sri-lanka
#18
P G A Pushpakumara, R C Rajapakse, B M A O Perera, J L Brown
The Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage (PEO) in Sri Lanka maintains one of the largest captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) populations in the world, with a total of 79 animals (45 females and 34 males) at present. It was established in 1975 as an orphanage for rescued wild calves, and commenced natural breeding under controlled conditions when they reached breeding age. This study summarizes reproductive data of 65 live births from 38 years of records at PEO. The age at first calving (n=31) was 14.6±0...
November 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631976/predicting-hotspots-of-human-elephant-conflict-to-inform-mitigation-strategies-in-xishuangbanna-southwest-china
#19
Ying Chen, Jorgelina Marino, Yong Chen, Qing Tao, Casey D Sullivan, Kun Shi, David W Macdonald
Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China's largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620691/reproductive-endocrinology-and-musth-indicators-in-a-captive-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#20
Connie Duer, Tom Tomasi, Charles I Abramson
Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable...
December 2016: Psychological Reports
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