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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#1
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615841/cobboldia-elephantis-cobbold-1866-larval-infestation-in-an-indian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#2
Ananda K Javare Gowda, N K Dharanesha, P Giridhar, S M Byre Gowda
In the present study, post-mortem was conducted on a female elephant aged about 37 years died at Rajeev Gandhi National Park, Hunsur, Mathigoodu Elephant Camp, Karnataka state. The animal suffered with diarrhoea, anorexia, dehydration and was unable to walk for about one week before death and was treated with antibiotics and fluid therapy for three days. The post-mortem examination revealed that, the gastric mucosa was severely congested, hyperaemic and numerous stomach bots attached to the mucosa. The bots were recovered from the gastric mucosa and processed for species identification...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585920/palaeogenomes-of-eurasian-straight-tusked-elephants-challenge-the-current-view-of-elephant-evolution
#3
Matthias Meyer, Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Sina Baleka, Mathias Stiller, Kirsty E H Penkman, Kurt W Alt, Yasuko Ishida, Dietrich Mania, Swapan Mallick, Tom Meijer, Harald Meller, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Sven Ostritz, Nadin Rohland, Karol Schauer, Tim Schüler, Alfred L Roca, David Reich, Beth Shapiro, Michael Hofreiter
The straight-tusked elephants Palaeoloxodon spp. were widespread across Eurasia during the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions using morphological traits have grouped them with Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and many paleontologists place Palaeoloxodon within Elephas. Here, we report the recovery of full mitochondrial genomes from four and partial nuclear genomes from two P. antiquus fossils. These fossils were collected at two sites in Germany, Neumark-Nord and Weimar-Ehringsdorf, and likely date to interglacial periods ~120 and ~244 thousand years ago, respectively...
June 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545986/a-simple-field-friendly-technique-for-cryopreserving-semen-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#4
Danielle M Arnold, Charlie Gray, Terri L Roth, Sebastian Mitchell, Laura H Graham
The specific objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of manual seeding, differing freeze and thaw rates as well as storage for 24h at 4°C prior to cryopreservation on post-thaw sperm quality in Asian elephants. Extended semen was cooled in an equitainer to 4°C, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour at various rates with and without manual seeding or in a dry shipper and thawed at 37, 50 and 75°C. There was a significant effect of freeze rate on post-thaw motility (P<0.0001) and acrosomal integrity (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510590/community-based-human-elephant-conflict-mitigation-the-value-of-an-evidence-based-approach-in-promoting-the-uptake-of-effective-methods
#5
Donny Gunaryadi, Sugiyo, Simon Hedges
Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007) in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) out of crop fields in 91...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506903/ethnozoological-assessment-of-animals-used-by-mon-traditional-medicine-vendors-at-kyaiktiyo-myanmar
#6
Vincent Nijman, Chris R Shepherd
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467495/identification-of-shedders-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesviruses-among-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-switzerland
#7
Mathias Ackermann, Jean-Michel Hatt, Nelli Schetle, Hanspeter Steinmetz
Elephants, particularly Asian (Elephas maximus), are threatened by lethal elephant hemorrhagic disease (EHD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV). At least five of seven known EEHV types have been associated to EHD, with types 1, 4, and 5 predominantly affecting Asian elephants. In Switzerland, at least three Asian elephants have been lost due to EHD but nothing is known about the present EEHV1 circulation. Moreover, the prevalence of other EEHV types has never been assessed. Intermittent shedding of EEHV can be monitored through collecting trunk secretions and analyzing them by PCR methods that discriminate the different EEHV types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402335/elephants-know-when-their-bodies-are-obstacles-to-success-in-a-novel-transfer-task
#8
Rachel Dale, Joshua M Plotnik
The capacity to recognise oneself as separate from other individuals and objects is difficult to investigate in non-human animals. The hallmark empirical assessment, the mirror self-recognition test, focuses on an animal's ability to recognise itself in a mirror and success has thus far been demonstrated in only a small number of species with a keen interest in their own visual reflection. Adapting a recent study done with children, we designed a new body-awareness paradigm for testing an animal's understanding of its place in its environment...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387333/elemental-classification-of-the-tusks-of-dugong-dugong-dugong-by-hh-xrf-analysis-and-comparison-with-other-species
#9
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Phaothep Cherdsukjai, Kongkiat Kittiwatanawong, Chatchote Thitaram
The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293560/when-yawning-occurs-in-elephants
#10
Zoë T Rossman, Benjamin L Hart, Brian J Greco, Debbie Young, Clare Padfield, Lisa Weidner, Jennifer Gates, Lynette A Hart
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257950/redescription-and-molecular-characterization-of-anoplocephala-manubriata-railliet-et-al-1914-cestoda-anoplocephalidae-from-a-sri-lankan-wild-elephant-elephas-maximus
#11
K U E Perera, Susiji Wickramasinghe, B V P Perera, K B A T Bandara, R P V J Rajapakse
The present work provides a detailed morphological and molecular description of Anoplocephala manubriata in elephants. Adult worms were recovered during an autopsy of a wild elephant in Elephant Transit Home, Udawalawe, Sri Lanka. Necropsy findings revealed a severe cestode infection in the small intestine. These tapeworms were tightly attached to the intestinal mucosae, resulted in hyperemic thickened intestinal mucosae, variable size irregular well-demarcated multifocal ulcerative regions sometimes covered with necrotic membranes and variable size, diffuse, well-demarcated raised nodular masses were evident in the small intestine...
June 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221104/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-wild-asian-elephants-southern-india
#12
Arun Zachariah, Jeganathan Pandiyan, G K Madhavilatha, Sathish Mundayoor, Bathrachalam Chandramohan, P K Sajesh, Sam Santhosh, Susan K Mikota
We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#13
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that the local extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, conservationists might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their range even if they are not in danger of global extinction. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123909/skeletal-pathology-and-variable-anatomy-in-elephant-feet-assessed-using-computed-tomography
#14
Sophie Regnault, Jonathon J I Dixon, Chris Warren-Smith, John R Hutchinson, Renate Weller
Foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. Here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (CT) scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana and 14 Asian Elephas maximus), describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones) that could be mistaken for disease. We found all the elephants in our study to have pathology of some type in at least one foot...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118558/hereditary-factor-vii-deficiency-in-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-caused-by-a-f7-missense-mutation
#15
Michael Lynch, Ken McGrath, Karthik Raj, Philippa McLaren, Karen Payne, Richard McCoy, Urs Giger
Hereditary disorders and genetic predispositions to disease are rarely reported in captive and free-ranging wildlife, and none have been definitively identified and characterized in elephants. A wild-caught, 41-yr-old male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) without an apparent increased bleeding tendency was consistently found to have prolonged prothrombin times (PTs, mean=55±35 s) compared to 17 other elephants (PT=10±2 s). This elephant's partial thromboplastin times (PTT) fell within the normal range of the other elephants (12-30 s)...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058745/lipid-and-protein-oxidation-levels-in-spermatozoa-and-seminal-plasma-of-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-and-their-relationship-with-semen-parameters
#16
S Satitmanwiwat, K Promthep, K Buranaamnuay, S Mahasawangkul, K Saikhun
Peroxidation damage to spermatozoa and seminal plasma has an important role in sperm quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of lipid and protein oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with varying percentage of progressive motility. Lipid and protein oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay and the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Fresh semen samples were collected from Asian elephants and classified according to the percentage of motile spermatozoa into good (>60%) and poor (≤20%) motility...
January 6, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049867/elephant-s-breast-milk-contains-large-amounts-of-glucosamine
#17
Zenta Takatsu, Muneya Tsuda, Akio Yamada, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Akira Takai, Yasuhiro Takeda, Mitsunori Takase
Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant's breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant's breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927197/erratum-to-feeding-preferences-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-in-nepal
#18
Raj Kumar Koirala, David Raubenheimer, Achyut Aryal, Mitra Lal Pathak, Weihong Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855704/feeding-preferences-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-in-nepal
#19
Raj Kumar Koirala, David Raubenheimer, Achyut Aryal, Mitra Lal Pathak, Weihong Ji
BACKGROUND: Nepal provides habitat for approximately 100-125 wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Although a small proportion of the world population of this species, this group is important for maintaining the genetic diversity of elephants and conservation of biodiversity in this region. Knowledge of foraging patterns of these animals, which is important for understanding their habitat requirements and for assessing their habitat condition, is lacking for the main areas populated by elephants in Nepal...
November 17, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785817/the-presence-of-seminal-plasma-especially-derived-from-stallion-semen-helps-preserve-chilled-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-sperm-motility
#20
A Pinyopummin, S Mahasawangkul, K Kornkaewrat, S Rattanapirom, W Leartsang, S Kitkha
The effects of seminal plasma (SP), derived from autologous, homologous and heterologous species (stallion, boar and dog) on chilled Asian elephant sperm quality, were determined. Semen was collected from eight males and samples with ≥30% motile spermatozoa were used in the study. Semen was diluted with Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender, supplemented with different SP types and preserved at 4°C for 48 hr. Experiment 1 (n = 31), showed that the presence of SP (autologous) helped to preserve sperm quality in terms of sperm motility and acrosome integrity (p < ...
October 26, 2016: Andrologia
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