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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299268/parasite-associated-mortality-in-a-long-lived-mammal-variation-with-host-age-sex-and-reproduction
#1
Carly L Lynsdale, Hannah S Mumby, Adam D Hayward, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa
Parasites can cause severe host morbidity and threaten survival. As parasites are generally aggregated within certain host demographics, they are likely to affect a small proportion of the entire population, with specific hosts being at particular risk. However, little is known as to whether increased host mortality from parasitic causes is experienced by specific host demographics. Outside of theoretical studies, there is a paucity of literature concerning dynamics of parasite-associated host mortality. Empirical evidence mainly focuses on short-lived hosts or model systems, with data lacking from long-lived wild or semi-wild vertebrate populations...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297839/reproductive-parameters-and-birth-statistics-for-a-herd-of-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-north-america-over-a-20-year-period
#2
Wendy K Kiso, Ellen Wiedner, Ramiro Isaza, William Lindsay, Janice Aria, Gary Jacobson, Kathy Jacobson, Dennis Schmitt
We reviewed medical records documenting 28 pregnancies occurring within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) over a 20-yr (1994-2014) period at a private facility in the southeastern United States. Twenty-six pregnancies resulted in live calves and two ended in stillbirths. The 26 live births represented the offspring of 11 cows and 5 bulls. Twenty-four calves survived their first year, including two critically ill calves born after dystocias. Male and female calves occurred in almost equal numbers...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297830/successful-treatment-of-a-clinical-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-infection-the-dynamics-of-viral-load-genotype-analysis-and-treatment-with-acyclovir
#3
Supaphen Sripiboon, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Khajohnpat Boonprasert, Petthisak Sombutputorn, Warangkhana Langkaphin, William Ditcham, Kristin Warren
This article describes the treatment of clinical elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection in a male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus; approximately 3 yr old), the dynamics of viral load during the active infection, and genetic analysis of the virus. Treatment included injectable acyclovir (12 mg/kg iv, bid), antibiotic, vitamin, and fluids. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the viral levels in blood, which decreased continuously after initiation of intravenous acyclovir...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297818/vital-signs-and-first-occurrences-in-normal-and-abnormal-newborn-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-calves
#4
Ellen Wiedner, Wendy K Kiso, Janice Aria, Ramiro Isaza, William Lindsay, Gary Jacobson, Kathy Jacobson, Dennis Schmitt
Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287954/monitoring-and-controlling-ovarian-activity-in-elephants
#5
Chatchote Thitaram, Janine L Brown
Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ...
December 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186207/metabolic-health-assessment-of-zoo-elephants-management-factors-predicting-leptin-levels-and-the-glucose-to-insulin-ratio-and-their-associations-with-health-parameters
#6
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168606/the-role-of-seed-size-phenology-oogenesis-and-host-distribution-in-the-specificity-and-genetic-structure-in-seed-weevils-curculio-spp-in-mixed-forests
#7
Harold Arias-LeClaire, Raúl Bonal, Daniel García-López, Josep Maria Espelta
Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis are suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests and ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151445/serum-activities-of-two-bone-markers-in-captive-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-at-different-ages
#8
Kazuya Takehana, Kaoru Hatate, Norio Yamagishi
The blood biochemical analysis of bone markers could have a role in the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in animals; however, there is limited information on bone markers in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples from ten captive Asian elephants were obtained to clarify the relationship between age and the blood bone markers tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). Serum TRAP5b and BALP activities were negatively correlated with age...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093478/wild-captive-interactions-and-economics-drive-dynamics-of-asian-elephants-in-laos
#9
Gilles Maurer, Benjamin S Rashford, Vatsana Chanthavong, Baptiste Mulot, Olivier Gimenez
The interactions between wild and captive populations of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) persist in most countries of the species distribution, notably through the reproduction between captive females and wild males. However, these complex interactions have been poorly studied, despite their relevance for conservation of this endangered species. Laos has a centuries-long tradition of raising Asian elephants. Besides being cultural icons, captive elephants are inextricably linked to economics through their work in forestry...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942737/adaptation-and-evaluation-of-an-elisa-for-trypanosoma-evansi-infection-surra-in-elephants-and-its-application-to-a-serological-survey-in-thailand
#10
Margot Camoin, Arthur Kocher, Piangjai Chalermwong, Sarawut Yangtarra, Nikorn Thongtip, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Marc Desquesnes
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the 'threatened to extinction' CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934325/first-report-of-changes-in-leukocyte-morphology-in-response-to-inflammatory-conditions-in-asian-and-african-elephants-elephas-maximus-and-loxodonta-africana
#11
Nicole I Stacy, Ramiro Isaza, Ellen Wiedner
Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions. Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Morphological changes included heterophil left-shifting with or without concurrent dysgranulopoiesis, toxicity, or hypersegmentation, reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or vacuolated monocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920803/assessment-of-a-lancet-and-swab-blood-sampling-technique-for-surveillance-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-infection
#12
Javier Lopez, L do Vet M Sc, Jonathan Haycock, Andrew Mckenzie, Katharina Seilern-Moy, Akbar Dastjerdi
Lancing a finger elicits minimal pain in humans and is applied routinely to obtain small volumes of blood for clinical diagnostics. A modified lancet bleeding method and several blood sampling matrices were evaluated in this study for the purpose of routine elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) surveillance in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The procedure enabled weekly sampling from elephants as young as 9 mo of age. The blood sampling matrices were evaluated for their sensitivity measuring β-actin, tumor necrosis factor α, and/or EEHV-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920785/detomidine-and-butorphanol-for-standing-sedation-in-a-range-of-zoo-kept-ungulate-species
#13
Tim Bouts, Joanne Dodds, Karla Berry, Abdi Arif, Polly Taylor, Andrew Routh, Frank Gasthuys
General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#14
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749286/detection-of-aerosolized-bacteria-in-expired-air-samples-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#15
Sophie M Burke, Larry Vogelnest, Paul Thompson, Euan R Tovey, Peter Williamson
Elephant-mediated transmission of tuberculosis is assumed to be similar to human models, which state close and prolonged contact with an infected individual is required for transmission. Although considered a risk factor for infection, several case studies have reported that close contact with an elephant is not always necessary for transmission, and the role of aerosolized bacteria remains unclear. To investigate aerosol-mediated transmission of pathogenic bacteria from elephants, a method for the detection of aerosols using an adapted sampling system was developed...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749274/evaluation-of-the-i-stat-portable-clinical-analyzer-for-measurement-of-ionized-calcium-and-selected-blood-chemistry-values-in-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#16
Danielle K Tarbert, Erica Behling-Kelly, Heather Priest, Sara Childs-Sanford
Thei-STAT® portable clinical analyzer (PCA) provides patient-side results for hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas values when immediate results are desired. This analyzer is commonly used in nondomestic animals; however, validation of this method in comparison with traditional benchtop methods should be performed for each species. In this study, the i-STAT PCA was compared with the Radiometer ABL 800 Flex benchtop analyzer using 24 heparinized whole blood samples obtained from healthy E. maximus . In addition, the effect of sample storage was evaluated on the i-STAT PCA...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721215/assessment-of-season-dependent-body-condition-scores-in-relation-to-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-in-free-ranging-asian-elephants
#17
Sanjeeta Sharma Pokharel, Polani B Seshagiri, Raman Sukumar
We studied seasonal and annual changes in visual body condition scores (BCSs), and assessed how these scores were related to levels of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the seasonally dry tropical forests of the Mysore and Nilgiri Elephant Reserves in southern India. We assessed the animals' BCS visually on a scale of 1 to 5; where 1 represents a very thin and 5 represents a very fat elephant. To understand the influence of seasonality on BCS, we sampled the population during dry (n = 398) and wet seasons (n = 255) of 2013 and 2015 while, for annual changes in BCS, we sampled nine free-ranging adult females from different family groups that had been repeatedly sighted over seven years...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653455/nocturnal-behavior-of-orphaned-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-calves-in-sri-lanka
#18
Helena Stokes, Vijitha Perera, Nilmini Jayasena, Ayona Silva-Fletcher
Many animals exhibit circadian variation in behavior; thus, studying nocturnal behavior is important to fully understand species activity patterns. The nocturnal behavior of Asian elephants, and specifically calves, has received little previous study. We carried out observational study of the nocturnal behavior of orphaned Asian elephant calves at three age groups: "infant" (0-24 months), "young juvenile" (25-36 months) and "old juveniles" (over 36 months). Project aims were to build a nocturnal activity budget, to investigate key age differences, and whether calves exhibited synchronous behavior patterns...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#19
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615841/cobboldia-elephantis-cobbold-1866-larval-infestation-in-an-indian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#20
Ananda K Javare Gowda, N K Dharanesha, P Giridhar, S M Byre Gowda
In the present study, post-mortem was conducted on a female elephant aged about 37 years died at Rajeev Gandhi National Park, Hunsur, Mathigoodu Elephant Camp, Karnataka state. The animal suffered with diarrhoea, anorexia, dehydration and was unable to walk for about one week before death and was treated with antibiotics and fluid therapy for three days. The post-mortem examination revealed that, the gastric mucosa was severely congested, hyperaemic and numerous stomach bots attached to the mucosa. The bots were recovered from the gastric mucosa and processed for species identification...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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