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Kathryn L Perrin, Anne K Krogh, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, Lauren Howard, Louise Bochsen, Wendy K Kiso, Dennis Schmitt, Annemarie T Kristensen, Mads F Bertelsen
Hemorrhagic disease associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection is the most-frequent cause of mortality in captive Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Survival relies on intensive monitoring of hemostatic status. Thromboelastography (TEG) utilizes whole blood samples containing all the blood components of hemostasis and is therefore a sensitive indicator of the clinical status in the patient. This study was performed to assess the practicability of TEG in Asian elephants in a zoo environment...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Kittikorn Boonsri, Chaleamchat Somgird, Pheudphol Noinafai, Kidsadagon Pringproa, Thittaya Janyamethakul, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Janine L Brown, Pallop Tankaew, Saralee Srivorakul, Chatchote Thitaram
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is an infection associated with fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). This brief communication describes the postmortem evaluation of two Asian elephant calves diagnosed with EEHV4 and EEHV1A in conjunction with Clostridium perfringens infection. Case 1 was a 7-mo-old, male captive-born Asian elephant that developed diarrhea and died 2 days after clinical presentation. Examination of the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen revealed predominantly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Gary Johnson, Joanne Smith, Jim Peddie, Linda Peddie, Joe DeMarco, Ellen Wiedner
This report describes the use of custom-made, glue-on shoes for the front feet of two female adult Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) with conformational abnormalities. Both elephants had unequal leg lengths. The first elephant also had bilateral fetlock varus causing recurrent nail infections of the fourth digits of the front feet. The second elephant displayed weight shifting. Over several years, multiple shoe prototypes were tested. The current version is made of two types of shoe rubber, glued together and attached to the pad of the shorter leg with a liquid adhesive...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Martin W Seltmann, Samuli Helle, Mark J Adams, Khyne U Mar, Mirkka Lahdenperä
Data on personality for long-lived, highly social wild mammals with high cognitive abilities are rare. We investigated the personality structure of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) by using a large sample of semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar. Data were collected during 2014-2017 using questionnaires, for which elephant riders (mahouts) rated 28 behavioural adjectives of elephants. Repeated questionnaires were obtained for each elephant from several raters whenever possible, resulting in 690 ratings of 150 female and 107 male elephants...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Christian Gortázar, Michele A Miller, W Ray Waters
Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Puntita Siengdee, Sarisa Klinhom, Chatchote Thitaram, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Primary cultures from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) allow scientists to obtain representative cells that have conserved most of their original characteristics, function, physiology and biochemistry. This technique has thus gained significant importance as a foundation for further cellular, cell biology and molecular research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe conditions for the successful establishment of primary adult fibroblasts from Asian elephant carcasses...
2018: PeerJ
Sirinart Chaichanathong, Kasuyoshi Taya, Gen Watanabe, Kentaro Nagaoka, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Apichaya Sudsukh, Nikorn Thongtip
Immunolocalization of inhibin-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits in the testes of Asian elephant was determined. Testicular sections were immunostained with polyclonal antisera against inhibin subunit-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Positive immunostaining against inhibin-α subunit was strongly present in Sertoli cells, and positive immunostaining for the inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in both Sertoli and Leydig cells. These results indicated that while Sertoli cells are the predominant source of inhibin and activin secretions in the testes of adult male Asian elephant, Leydig cells are a source of activin but not inhibin...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Carly L Lynsdale, Hannah S Mumby, Adam D Hayward, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa
Parasites can cause severe host morbidity and threaten survival. As parasites are generally aggregated within certain host demographics, they are likely to affect a small proportion of the entire population, with specific hosts being at particular risk. However, little is known as to whether increased host mortality from parasitic causes is experienced by specific host demographics. Outside of theoretical studies, there is a paucity of literature concerning dynamics of parasite-associated host mortality. Empirical evidence mainly focuses on short-lived hosts or model systems, with data lacking from long-lived wild or semi-wild vertebrate populations...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Wendy K Kiso, Ellen Wiedner, Ramiro Isaza, William Lindsay, Janice Aria, Gary Jacobson, Kathy Jacobson, Dennis Schmitt
We reviewed medical records documenting 28 pregnancies occurring within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) over a 20-yr (1994-2014) period at a private facility in the southeastern United States. Twenty-six pregnancies resulted in live calves and two ended in stillbirths. The 26 live births represented the offspring of 11 cows and 5 bulls. Twenty-four calves survived their first year, including two critically ill calves born after dystocias. Male and female calves occurred in almost equal numbers...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Supaphen Sripiboon, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Khajohnpat Boonprasert, Petthisak Sombutputorn, Warangkhana Langkaphin, William Ditcham, Kristin Warren
This article describes the treatment of clinical elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection in a male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus; approximately 3 yr old), the dynamics of viral load during the active infection, and genetic analysis of the virus. Treatment included injectable acyclovir (12 mg/kg iv, bid), antibiotic, vitamin, and fluids. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the viral levels in blood, which decreased continuously after initiation of intravenous acyclovir...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ellen Wiedner, Wendy K Kiso, Janice Aria, Ramiro Isaza, William Lindsay, Gary Jacobson, Kathy Jacobson, Dennis Schmitt
Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Chatchote Thitaram, Janine L Brown
Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ...
December 13, 2017: Theriogenology
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
Harold Arias-LeClaire, Raúl Bonal, Daniel García-López, Josep Maria Espelta
Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis are suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests and ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kazuya Takehana, Kaoru Hatate, Norio Yamagishi
The blood biochemical analysis of bone markers could have a role in the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in animals; however, there is limited information on bone markers in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples from ten captive Asian elephants were obtained to clarify the relationship between age and the blood bone markers tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). Serum TRAP5b and BALP activities were negatively correlated with age...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Gilles Maurer, Benjamin S Rashford, Vatsana Chanthavong, Baptiste Mulot, Olivier Gimenez
The interactions between wild and captive populations of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) persist in most countries of the species distribution, notably through the reproduction between captive females and wild males. However, these complex interactions have been poorly studied, despite their relevance for conservation of this endangered species. Laos has a centuries-long tradition of raising Asian elephants. Besides being cultural icons, captive elephants are inextricably linked to economics through their work in forestry...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Margot Camoin, Arthur Kocher, Piangjai Chalermwong, Sarawut Yangtarra, Nikorn Thongtip, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Marc Desquesnes
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the 'threatened to extinction' CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
Nicole I Stacy, Ramiro Isaza, Ellen Wiedner
Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions. Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Morphological changes included heterophil left-shifting with or without concurrent dysgranulopoiesis, toxicity, or hypersegmentation, reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or vacuolated monocytes...
2017: PloS One
Javier Lopez, L do Vet M Sc, Jonathan Haycock, Andrew Mckenzie, Katharina Seilern-Moy, Akbar Dastjerdi
Lancing a finger elicits minimal pain in humans and is applied routinely to obtain small volumes of blood for clinical diagnostics. A modified lancet bleeding method and several blood sampling matrices were evaluated in this study for the purpose of routine elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) surveillance in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The procedure enabled weekly sampling from elephants as young as 9 mo of age. The blood sampling matrices were evaluated for their sensitivity measuring β-actin, tumor necrosis factor α, and/or EEHV-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Tim Bouts, Joanne Dodds, Karla Berry, Abdi Arif, Polly Taylor, Andrew Routh, Frank Gasthuys
General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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