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Kelly M Glynn, Penny Anderson, David J Fast, James Koedam, John F Rebhun, Rodney A Velliquette
Glycation and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) damage skin which is compounded by AGE-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Lip and facial skin could be susceptible to glycation damage as they are chronically stressed. As Gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) root (GR) has an extensive traditional medicine history that includes providing multiple skin benefits, our objective was to determine if GR extract and its base naphthoquinone, shikonin, might protect skin by inhibiting glycation, increasing oxidative defenses, suppressing inflammatory responses, and offering ultraviolet (UV) absorptive potential in lip and facial cosmetic matrices...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Jianxiong Li, Erfan Saydanzad, Uwe Thumm
We propose a scheme for the reconstruction of plasmonic near fields at isolated nanoparticles from infrared-streaked extreme-ultraviolet photoemission spectra. Based on quantum-mechanically modeled spectra, we demonstrate and analyze the accurate imaging of the IR-streaking-pulse-induced transient plasmonic fields at the surface of gold nanospheres and nanoshells with subfemtosecond temporal and subnanometer spatial resolution.
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Sh Yamamoto, T Omi, H Akai, Y Kubota, Y Takahashi, Y Suzuki, Y Hirata, K Yamamoto, R Yukawa, K Horiba, H Yumoto, T Koyama, H Ohashi, S Owada, K Tono, M Yabashi, E Shigemasa, S Yamamoto, M Kotsugi, H Wadati, H Kumigashira, T Arima, S Shin, I Matsuda
Nonlinear optical frequency conversion has been challenged to move down to the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray region. However, the extremely low signals have allowed researchers to only perform transmission experiments of the gas phase or ultrathin films. Here, we report second harmonic generation (SHG) of the reflected beam of a soft x-ray free-electron laser from a solid, which is enhanced by the resonant effect. The observation revealed that the double resonance condition can be met by absorption edges for transition metal oxides in the soft x-ray range, and this suggests that the resonant SHG technique can be applicable to a wide range of materials...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
F Sanson, A K Pandey, F Harms, G Dovillaire, E Baynard, J Demailly, O Guilbaud, B Lucas, O Neveu, M Pittman, D Ros, M Richardson, E Johnson, W Li, Ph Balcou, S Kazamias
We demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) Hartmann wavefront sensors to characterize high charge vortex beams produced by high-order harmonic generation up to the order of 25. We also show that phase matched absorption limited high harmonic generation is able to maintain the high charge vortex structure of the XUV beam even in a rather long (1 cm) generation medium.
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Robyn M Lucas, Rachel E Neale, Sasha Madronich, Richard L McKenzie
Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main risk factor for skin cancer, and a major source of vitamin D, in many regions of the world. Sun protection messages to minimize skin cancer risks but avoid vitamin D deficiency are challenging, partly because levels of UV radiation vary by location, season, time of day, and atmospheric conditions. The UV Index provides information on levels of UV radiation and is a cornerstone of sun protection guidelines. Current guidelines from the World Health Organization are that sun protection is required only when the UV Index is 3 or greater...
June 15, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Sean R Christensen
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is among the most common cancers in humans, and many patients with SCC will develop multiple tumors within their lifetime. The field cancerization concept, originally proposed over 60 years ago, hypothesized that multiple primary cancers may arise simultaneously and coexist with subclinical precursor lesions within a defined field. Genetic sequencing of SCC and precursor lesions has identified what may be the earliest clonal proliferations in SCC development and confirmed that field cancerization in the skin is mediated by ultraviolet radiation...
2018: F1000Research
Eunmiri Roh, Mee-Hyun Lee, Tatyana A Zykova, Feng Zhu, Janos Nadas, Hong-Gyum Kim, Ki Beom Bae, Yan Li, Yong Yeon Cho, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, Janine Einspahr, Sally E Dickinson, Ann M Bode, Zigang Dong
Solar ultraviolet (sUV) irradiation is a major environmental carcinogen that can cause inflammation and skin cancer. The costs and morbidity associated with skin cancer are increasing, and therefore identifying molecules that can help prevent skin carcinogenesis is important. In this study, we identified the p53-related protein kinase (PRPK) as a novel oncogenic protein that is phosphorylated by the T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK). Knockdown of TOPK inhibited PRPK phosphorylation and conferred resistance to solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse models...
June 14, 2018: Oncogene
Xiaohong Yuan, Yuanjing Ye, Min Lian, Qufu Wei
Al/TiO₂ composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabrics by using magnetron sputtering techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited films on the fabrics, and the structural colors and anti-ultraviolet property of fabrics were also analyzed. The results indicated that polyester fabrics coated with Al/TiO₂ composite films achieved structural colors. The reactive sputtering times of TiO₂ films in Al/TiO₂ composite films were 10 min, 12 min, 18 min, 20 min, 26 min, 27 min, 30 min and 45 min, respectively, the colors of corresponding fabrics were bluish violet, blue, cyan, green, yellow, yellowish red, orange and blue-green, which was consistent with the principle of the thin film interference...
June 14, 2018: Materials
Hyunkyung Lee, Yongxun Jin, Seungkwan Hong
Since ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have emerged as an alternative light source for UV disinfection systems, enhancement of reactor performance is a demanding challenge to promote its practical application in water treatment process. This study explored the underlying mechanism of the inefficiency observed in flow-through mode UV disinfection tests to improve the light utilization of UV-LED applications. In particular, the disinfection performance of UV-LED reactors was evaluated using two different flow channel types, reservoir and pathway systems, in order to elucidate the impact of physical circumstances on germicidal efficiency as the light profile was adjusted...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Xuan Qin, Xin Wang
Nucleotides and their sugar conjugates are fundamental molecules in life, participating in processes of DNA/RNA composition, cell wall build-up, glycosylation reactions, and signal conduction. Therefore, the quantification of these compounds in biological samples significantly benefits the understanding of their functions. However, nucleotides and nucleotide sugars are extremely hydrophilic, causing bad retention and peak symmetry on regular C18 chromatographic columns. To solve this problem, ion-pair (IP) chromatography, ion-exchange (IE) chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were applied, of which differentiated mechanisms were utilized to increase the retention of the analytes on the stationary phases...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
M Montana Quick, Christopher M Crittenden, Jake A Rosenberg, Jennifer S Brodbelt
Deciphering disulfide bond patterns in proteins remains a significant challenge. In the present study, inter-linked disulfide bonds connecting peptide chains are homolytically cleaved with 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD). Analysis of insulin showcased the ability of UVPD to cleave multiple disulfide bonds and provide sequence coverage of the peptide chains in the same MS/MS event. For proteins containing more complex disulfide bonding patterns, an approach combining partial reduction and alkylation mitigated disulfide scrambling and alloed assignment of the array of disulfide bonds...
June 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Serap Gedikli, Gökhan Güngör, Yağmur Toptaş, Dilber Ece Sezgin, Murat Demirbilek, Nuray Yazıhan, Pınar Aytar Çelik, Emir Baki Denkbaş, Vural Bütün, Ahmet Çabuk
In the present study, culture conditions of Streptococcus equi was optimized through Box-Behnken experimental design for hyaluronic acid production. About 0.87 gL-1 of hyaluronic acid was produced under the determined conditions and optimal conditions were found as 38.42 °C, 24 hr and 250 rpm. The validity and practicability of this statistical optimization strategy were confirmed relation between predicted and experimental values. The hyaluronic acid obtained under optimal conditions was characterized...
June 14, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Roberto Fallica, Benjamin Watts, Benedikt Roesner, Gioia Della Giustina, Laura Brigo, Giovanna Brusatin, Yasin Ekinci
We report on the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy of hybrid organic-inorganic resists. These materials are nonchemically amplified systems based on Si, Zr, and Ti oxides, synthesized from organically modified precursors and transition metal alkoxides by a sol-gel route and designed for ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and electron beam lithography. The experiments were conducted using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) which combines high spatial-resolution microscopy and NEXAFS spectroscopy...
June 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Igor Kviatkovski, Hadas Mamane, Anat Lakretz, Ilana Sherman, Delila Beno-Moualem, Dror Minz
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an emerging strategy for controlling the formation of undesired biofilms in water desalination facilities using reverse osmosis (RO). However, most studies examining these pretreatments are limited as they have been conducted on single-species cultures, while biofilms are composed of multiple-species communities. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on a model community composed of six environmental isolates from a marine biofilm formed in RO seawater desalination plant...
June 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mingwu Deng, Dong Li, Yichen Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Wenjie Zhang
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in the aging of dermal fibroblasts. Crocin, a bioactive constituent of Crocus sativus, possesses anti‑oxidation effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of crocin on UVB‑induced dermal fibroblast photoaging. Human dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of crocin prior to and following exposure to UVB irradiation. The senescent phenotypes of cells were evaluated, including cell proliferation, cell cycle, senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase (SA‑β‑gal) expression, intracellular ROS, expression of antioxidant protein glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX‑1) and extracellular matrix protein collagen type 1 (Col‑1)...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiao-Qing Li, Li-Min Cai, Jing Liu, Yan-Li Ma, Ying-Hui Kong, He Li, Ming Jiang
Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is known to trigger inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptotic responses through various signaling pathways, which eventually lead to skin cancer. The present study investigated whether liquiritin suppresses UVB‑induced skin injury in vivo and in vitro using SKH‑1 hairless mice and HACAT cells, respectively. The animals were exposed to UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2) for 20 min, followed by liquiritin treatment. The findings indicated that UVB exposure resulted in the excessive release of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, IL‑18, IL‑6 and cyclooxygenase (COX)2, which were dependent on the toll‑like receptor (TLR)4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) signaling pathway...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Franck Gesbert, Lionel Larue
Cutaneous melanoma derives from the tumoral transformation of melanocytes. These pigmented cells produce melanin prior transmitting it to the surrounding keratinocytes of the skin, hair and mane. The main function of melanin is to protect cells and their DNA from damage caused by ultraviolet light. Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer whose incidence has increased steadily in recent decades. Advances in basic research have resulted in a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events responsible for the initiation and progression of melanomas...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
VijayKumar Patra, Léo Laoubi, Jean-François Nicolas, Marc Vocanson, Peter Wolf
The human skin is known to be inhabited by diverse microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and mites. This microbiome exerts a protective role against infections by promoting immune development and inhibiting pathogenic microbes to colonize skin. One of the factors having an intense effect on the skin and its resident microbes is ultraviolet-radiation (UV-R). UV-R can promote or inhibit the growth of microbes on the skin and modulate the immune system which can be either favorable or harmful...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jacob J Valenzuela, Adrián López García de Lomana, Allison Lee, E V Armbrust, Mónica V Orellana, Nitin S Baliga
The fate of diatoms in future acidified oceans could have dramatic implications on marine ecosystems, because they account for ~40% of marine primary production. Here, we quantify resilience of Thalassiosira pseudonana in mid-20th century (300 ppm CO2 ) and future (1000 ppm CO2 ) conditions that cause ocean acidification, using a stress test that probes its ability to recover from incrementally higher amount of low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation and re-initiate growth in day-night cycles, limited by nitrogen...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Friedrich G Kapp, Julie R Perlin, Elliott J Hagedorn, John M Gansner, Daniel E Schwarz, Lauren A O'Connell, Nicholas S Johnson, Chris Amemiya, David E Fisher, Ute Wölfle, Eirini Trompouki, Charlotte M Niemeyer, Wolfgang Driever, Leonard I Zon
Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) require a specific microenvironment, the haematopoietic niche, which regulates HSPC behaviour1,2 . The location of this niche varies across species, but the evolutionary pressures that drive HSPCs to different microenvironments remain unknown. The niche is located in the bone marrow in adult mammals, whereas it is found in other locations in non-mammalian vertebrates, for example, in the kidney marrow in teleost fish. Here we show that a melanocyte umbrella above the kidney marrow protects HSPCs against ultraviolet light in zebrafish...
June 13, 2018: Nature
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