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Roxana Moslehi, Nur Zeinomar, Francis P Boscoe
OBJECTIVES: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), with UVB and UVA as the relevant components, is a risk factor for melanoma. Complete ascertainment and registration of melanoma in Iran was conducted in five provinces (Ardabil, Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and Kerman) during 1996-2000. The aim of our study was to compare population-based incidence data from these provinces with rates in the United States (US) while standardizing ambient UVR. METHODS: Population-based rates representing all incident cases of melanoma (1996-2000) across the five Iranian provinces were compared to rates of melanoma among white non-Hispanics in the US...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Bing Sun, Yanbin Xin, Xiaomei Zhu, Zhiying Gao, Zhiyu Yan, Takayuki Ohshima
In this work, the bacterial inactivation effects of shock waves, ultraviolet (UV) light, and electric field produced by high-voltage pulsed discharge in liquid with needle-plate configurations were studied. The contributions of each effect on the bacterial killing ratio in the discharge process were obtained individually by modifying reactor type and usage of glass, quartz, and black balloons. The results showed that the location from the discharge center axis significantly influenced the effects of shock waves and electric fields, although the effect of UV light was not affected by the location in the reactor...
December 2, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Alejandro Yopasá Arenas, Gustavo de Souza Pessôa, Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda, Anne Hélène Fostier
Experiments in saturated soil columns were performed to investigate the transport and retention of 25 nm and 75 nm silver nanoparticles stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-AgNPs) in two Brazilian soils (sandy and sandy-clay). The normalized concentration of the PVP-AgNPs was obtained through a flow injection analysis method based on the surface plasmon ressonance effect of the metallic nanoparticles. The use of the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) allows a rapid and low-cost analysis. The obtained breakthrough curves (BCs) were modeled with a deterministic model of solute transport in steady conditions of water flow and considering two regions of non-physical equilibrium; this model allowed the determination of the hydrodynamic parameters...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Luke Springall, Craig D Hughes, Michelle Simons, Stavros Azinas, Bennett Van Houten, Neil M Kad
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the primary mechanism for removal of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced DNA photoproducts and is mechanistically conserved across all kingdoms of life. Bacterial NER involves damage recognition by UvrA2 and UvrB, followed by UvrC-mediated incision either side of the lesion. Here, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo single-molecule studies we show that a UvrBC complex is capable of lesion identification in the absence of UvrA. Single-molecule analysis of eGFP-labelled UvrB and UvrC in living cells showed that UV damage caused these proteins to switch from cytoplasmic diffusion to stable complexes on DNA...
December 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
James M Barazesh, Carsten Prasse, Jannis Wenk, Stephanie Berg, Christina K Remucal, David L Sedlak
As water scarcity intensifies, point-of-use and point-of-entry treatment may provide a means of exploiting locally available water resources that are currently considered to be unsafe for human consumption. Among the different classes of drinking water contaminants, toxic trace elements (e.g., arsenic and lead) pose substantial operational challenges for distributed drinking water treatment systems. Removal of toxic trace elements via adsorption onto iron oxides is an inexpensive and robust treatment method; however, the presence of metal-complexing ligands associated with natural organic matter (NOM) often prevents the formation of iron precipitates at the relatively low concentrations of dissolved iron typically present in natural water sources, thereby requiring the addition of iron which complicates the treatment process and results in a need to dispose of relatively large amounts of accumulated solids...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Andreas Ioannou, Antreas Theodosiou, Christophe Caucheteur, Kyriacos Kalli
In this Letter, we report a flexible, plane-by-plane direct write inscription method for the development of tailored, tilted fiber Bragg gratings using a femtosecond laser. Compared to ultraviolet or femtosecond laser inscription based on the phase mask, interferometric, or point-by-point methods, the presented approach is far more flexible and offers several advantages. Laser inscription is made through the fiber coating, while the grating planes are controlled to minimize birefringence, with precise control over the wavelength location and strength of cladding modes...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
F Labaye, M Gaponenko, V J Wittwer, A Diebold, C Paradis, N Modsching, L Merceron, F Emaury, I J Graumann, C R Phillips, C J Saraceno, C Kränkel, U Keller, T Südmeyer
We demonstrate a compact extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source based on high-harmonic generation (HHG) driven directly inside the cavity of a mode-locked thin-disk laser oscillator. The laser is directly diode-pumped at a power of only 51 W and operates at a wavelength of 1034 nm and a 17.35 MHz repetition rate. We drive HHG in a high-pressure xenon gas jet with an intracavity peak intensity of 2.8×1013  W/cm2 and 320 W of intracavity average power. Despite the high-pressure gas jet, the laser operates at high stability...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Sylvain Sergent, Hideaki Taniyama, Masaya Notomi
We propose a novel type of nanowire (NW)-induced nanocavity based on photonic crystal disks, and we investigate its design by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations. We detail the confinement principle used in such a cavity and discuss the influence of geometric and material parameters on the cavity performance. Finally, we report on an optimized design presenting a quality factor Q=7.2×104, a mode volume as small as Vm=2.2(λ/nrNW)3, and a large confinement factor of the electric field energy in the NW Γ=65%, which shows good prospects for the realization of efficient NW-based nanolasers operating in the ultraviolet and visible ranges...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Nikolai I Chkhalo, Sergei A Gusev, Andrey N Nechay, Dmitry E Pariev, Vladimir N Polkovnikov, Nikolai N Salashchenko, Franz Schäfers, Mewael G Sertsu, Andrey Sokolov, Mikhail V Svechnikov, Dmitry A Tatarsky
The effect of Be layers on the reflection coefficients of Mo/Be/Si multilayer mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region is reported. Samples were studied using laboratory and synchrotron based reflectometry, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The samples under study have reflection coefficients above 71% at 13.5 nm and more than 72% at 12.9 nm in a near normal incidence mode. Calculations show that by optimizing the thickness of the Be layer it should be possible to increase the reflection coefficient by another 0...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Qingge Feng, Huidong Cai, Haiying Lin, Siying Qin, Zheng Liu, Dachao Ma, Yuyang Ye
TiO2 aerogel is a unique three-dimensional porous nano-particle material with the characteristics of high specific surface area and good light transmittance. In this paper, a novel method involving ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel, solvent exchange, and vacuum drying was successfully developed to synthesis the TiO2 aerogel. The morphology and properties of the prepared TiO2 aerogels were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Thermogravimetric analysis-Differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy...
December 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
C M Olsen, L F Wilson, A C Green, N Biswas, J Loyalka, D C Whiteman
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation causes cutaneous melanoma. Sunscreen prevents sunburn and protects skin cells against mutations. High-quality epidemiological studies suggest regular sunscreen use prevents melanoma. OBJECTIVES: To calculate the potential impact fraction (PIF) for melanoma in the U.S.A. and Australia assuming a range of different intervention scenarios intended to increase sunscreen use. METHODS: We calculated the PIF, the proportional difference between the observed number of melanomas arising under prevailing levels of sunscreen use compared with the number expected under counterfactual scenarios...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Salwa I Hindawi, Anwar M Hashem, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Ahmed M Tolah, Ahmed M Hassan, Esam I Azhar
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. Although the potential for MERS-CoV transmission through blood transfusion is not clear, MERS-CoV was recognized as a pathogen of concern for the safety of the blood supply especially after its detection in whole blood, serum, and plasma of infected individuals. Here we investigated the efficacy of amotosalen and ultraviolet A light (UVA) to inactivate MERS-CoV in fresh-frozen plasma (FFP)...
December 14, 2017: Transfusion
Sander De Bruyne, Marijn M Speeckaert, Joris R Delanghe
Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a nondestructive, label-free, highly sensitive and specific technique that provides complete information on the chemical composition of biological samples. The technique both can offer fundamental structural information and serve as a quantitative analysis tool. Therefore, it has many potential applications in different fields of clinical laboratory science. Although considerable technological progress has been made to promote biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, most clinical laboratory analyses are based on spectroscopic measurements in the visible or ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and the potential role of FTIR spectroscopy still remains unexplored...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Sarah McFarlane
Melanopsin photopigments, Opn4x and Opn4m, were evolutionary selected to "see the light" in systems that regulate skin colour change. In this review, we analyze the roles of melanopsins, and how critical evolutionary developments, including the requirement for thermoregulation and ultraviolet protection, the emergence of a background adaptation mechanism in land-dwelling amphibian ancestors, and the loss of a photosensitive pineal gland in mammals, may have helped sculpt the mechanisms that regulate light-controlled skin pigmentation...
December 14, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Kentaro Arikawa, Tomoyuki Iwanaga, Motohiro Wakakuwa, Michiyo Kinoshita
Following gene duplication events, the expression patterns of the resulting gene copies can often diverge both spatially and temporally. Here we report on gene duplicates that are expressed in distinct but overlapping patterns, and which exhibit temporally divergent expression. Butterflies have sophisticated color vision and spectrally complex eyes, typically with three types of heterogeneous ommatidia. The eyes of the butterfly Papilio xuthus express two green- and one red-absorbing visual pigment, which came about via gene duplication events, in addition to one ultraviolet (UV)- and one blue-absorbing visual pigment...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Her Shuang Toh, Roxanne Line Faure, Liyana Bte Mohd Amin, Crystal Yu Fang Hay, Saji George
This article presents a simple, one-step, in situ generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized fabrics with antibacterial properties, circumventing the conventional, multistep, time-consuming methods. Silver nanoparticle formation was studied with a library of capping agents (branched polyethylenimine [BPEI] of molecular weight [Mw] 10,000 and 25,000, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylalcohol and citrate) mixed with silver nitrate. The mixture was then exposed to an assortment of light wavelengths (ultraviolet, infrared and simulated solar light) for studying the light-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Simon Vitt, Janina E Zierul, Theo C M Bakker, Ingolf P Rick
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) reaching the earth's surface has increased due to human-caused stratospheric ozone depletion. Whereas the harmful effects of UVB on aquatic organisms are well studied at the molecular and cellular level, recent studies have also begun to address behavioural changes caused by sublethal amounts of UVB. However, the behavioural consequences of long-term exposure to ecologically relevant UVB levels over several life stages are virtually unknown, particularly with regard to predator-prey behaviour...
December 2017: Biology Letters
Martin Muller, David Vehlow, Bernhard Torger, Birgit Urban
BACKGROUND: In this contribution an overview is given on own work concerning drug loaded polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP) used to functionalize bone substitute materials (BSM) for the therapy of bone defects associated with systemic bone diseases. In this context drug loaded PEC NP have certain advantages, which are exemplarily summarized herein. METHODS: Concerning preparative methods PEC NP were fabricated by controlled mixing of polycation and polyanion solutions and integration of charged drugs during and after mixing...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Fang Bai, Kangdong Liu, Huiliang Li, Jiawei Wang, Junsheng Zhu, Pei Hao, Lili Zhu, Shoude Zhang, Lei Shan, Weiya Ma, Ann M Bode, Weidong Zhang, Honglin Li, Zigang Dong
Because the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) regulates a variety of protein-encoding genes, it is a participant in many cellular functions, including proliferation, transformation, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and apoptosis. Inhibitors targeting AP-1 have potential use in the treatment of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we identify veratramine as a potent natural modulator of AP-1, which selectively binds to a specific site (TRE 5'-TGACTCA-3') of the AP-1 target DNA sequence and regulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription without interfering with cystosolic signaling cascades that might lead to AP-1 activation...
December 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Shi Chen, Jing Deng, Lei Li, Naiyun Gao
This study evaluated the effect of low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from algal organic matter of Microcystis aeruginosa during subsequent chlorination and chloramination. The algal organic matter includes extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM). The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that the humic/fulvic acid-like organics of EOM and the protein-like organics of IOM may be preferentially degraded by UV treatment...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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