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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102417/does-sunlight-protect-us-from-cancer
#1
Jacqueline E Marshall, Scott N Byrne
The Ultraviolet (UV) radiation contained in sunlight is a powerful mutagen and immune suppressant which partly explains why exposure to solar UV is the biggest risk factor for the development of cutaneous tumours. Evidence is building that sunlight may be protective against some internal malignancies. Because patients with these tumours are often vitamin D deficient, this has led some to propose that vitamin D supplementation will be beneficial in the treatment of these cancers. However, the results from already completed trials have been disappointing which has given weight to the argument that there must be something else about sunlight that explains its cancer-protecting properties...
January 19, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101018/remarkable-improvement-of-nail-changes-in-alopecia-areata-universalis-with-10-months-of-treatment-with-tofacitinib-a-case-report
#2
Sineida Berbert Ferreira, Morton Scheinberg, Denise Steiner, Tatiana Steiner, Gustavo Longhi Bedin, Rachel Berbert Ferreira
Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic, autoimmune disease. The main symptom is massive hair loss, localized or diffuse, in the scalp and the whole body. However, nails may also be involved, and brittleness, fragility and pitting can be signs of nail dystrophy in AA patients. Here, we report the case of a male patient with AA refractory to various treatments, including oral, topical and intralesional corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, cyclosporin and PUVA (oxoralen plus ultraviolet light), all interrupted due to side effects...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101017/efficacy-of-a-film-forming-medical-device-containing-piroxicam-and-sun-filters-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-actinic-keratosis-lesions-in-a-subject-with-a-history-of-kaposi-sarcoma
#3
Elisabetta Scotti, Salvatore Deledda, Massimo Milani
Actinic keratosis (AK) is considered a premalignant form of skin cancer due to chronic sun exposure. In addition, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been advocated a role in the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. HPV proteins (mainly E6 and E7) seem to act synergistically with ultraviolet (UV) radiation in reducing the defensive mechanisms of keratinocyte apoptosis after UV damage. Data regarding the involvement of other viruses, i.e. human herpes viruses (HHV), in the pathogenesis of AK are so far controversial...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100658/maps-of-cone-opsin-input-to-mouse-v1-and-higher-visual-areas
#4
Issac Rhim, Gabriela Coello-Reyes, Hee-Kyoung Ko, Ian Nauhaus
Studies in the mouse retina have characterized the spatial distribution of an anisotropic ganglion cell and photoreceptor mosaic, which provides a solid foundation to study how the cortex pools from afferent parallel color channels. In particular, the mouse's retinal mosaic exhibits a gradient of wavelength sensitivity along its dorsoventral axis. Cones at the ventral extreme mainly express S-opsin, which is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Then, moving toward the retina's dorsal extreme, there is a transition to M-opsin dominance...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098755/exopolysaccharides-isolated-from-milk-fermented-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-prevent-ultraviolet-induced-skin-damage-in-hairless-mice
#5
Masashi Morifuji, Masami Kitade, Tomoyuki Fukasawa, Taketo Yamaji, Masamitsu Ichihashi
BACKGROUND: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. METHODS: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098721/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-its-role-in-eczematous-dermatoses
#6
Alexandra R Trusler, Ashley K Clark, Raja K Sivamani, Vivian Y Shi
The skin serves as the foremost barrier between the internal body and the external world, providing crucial protection against pathogens and chemical, mechanical, and ultraviolet damages. The skin is a central player in the intricate network of immune, neurologic, and endocrine systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) includes an extensive network of bioactive lipid mediators and their receptors, functions to modulate appetite, pain, mood, and memory, and has recently been implicated in skin homeostasis. Disruption of ECS homeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of several prevalent skin conditions...
January 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098285/kb-po4-f-a-novel-acentric-deep-ultraviolet-material
#7
Ji-Hong Jiang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Ya-Xi Huang, Zhi-Mei Sun, Yuanming Pan, Jin-Xiao Mi
Two challenges to grow KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF), the best known deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical (NLO) material to date, are the limited crystal sizes and the use of a highly toxic element (Be). Herein we report on the discovery of a novel anhydrous non-centrosymmetric alkali fluorinated borophosphate KB(PO4)F (KBPF) featuring a cut-off wavelength of less than 200 nm and a large second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect similar to KH2PO4 (KDP), hence representing a new promising deep-ultraviolet NLO material. The KBPF crystals consisting of common elements can be grown using green and cost effective processes and do not show any detectable hygroscopicity...
January 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098175/correlated-electronic-decay-in-expanding-clusters-triggered-by-intense-xuv-pulses-from-a-free-electron-laser
#8
Tim Oelze, Bernd Schütte, Maria Müller, Jan P Müller, Marek Wieland, Ulrike Frühling, Markus Drescher, Alaa Al-Shemmary, Torsten Golz, Nikola Stojanovic, Maria Krikunova
Irradiation of nanoscale clusters and large molecules with intense laser pulses transforms them into highly-excited non- equilibrium states. The dynamics of intense laser-cluster interaction is encoded in electron kinetic energy spectra, which contain signatures of direct photoelectron emission as well as emission of thermalized nanoplasma electrons. In this work we report on a so far not observed spectrally narrow bound state signature in the electron kinetic energy spectra from mixed Xe core - Ar shell clusters ionized by intense extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses from a free-electron-laser...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098140/dynamical-observations-on-the-crack-tip-zone-and-stress-corrosion-of-two-dimensional-mos2
#9
Thuc Hue Ly, Jiong Zhao, Magdalena Ola Cichocka, Lain-Jong Li, Young Hee Lee
Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097871/redox-responsive-self-assembly-micelles-from-poly-n-acryloylmorpholine-block-2-acryloyloxyethyl-ferrocene-carboxylate-amphiphilic-block-copolymers-as-drug-release-carriers
#10
Feng Xu, He Li, Yan-Ling Luo, Wei Tang
Novel well-defined redox-responsive ferrocene-containing amphiphilic block copolymers (PACMO-b-PAEFC) were synthesized by ATRP, with poly(N-acryloylmorpholine) (PACMO) as hydrophilic blocks and poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl ferrocenecarboxylate) (PAEFC) as hydrophobic blocks. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography, and the crystalline behavior was determined by X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering. The results showed that the size of the lamellar crystals and crystallinity vary with the systematic compositions while the periodic structure of the lamellar stacks has no obvious change...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097673/schoolyard-shade-and-sun-exposure-assessment-of-personal-monitoring-during-children-s-physical-activity
#11
Jennifer K Vanos, Grant R McKercher, Kylie Naughton, Marc Lochbaum
Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma later in life. However, it is challenging to accurately determine personal outdoor exposure to UVR, specifically erythemally-weighted UVR (UVEry ), due to technological constraints, variable time-activity patterns, and the influence of outdoor environmental design. To address this challenge, the current study utilized mobile and stationary techniques to examine the UVEry exposures of 14 children in a schoolyard in Lubbock, TX in spring 2016...
January 18, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097599/biosynthesis-characterization-and-bioactivities-evaluation-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-mediated-by-the-roots-of-chinese-herbal-angelica-pubescens-maxim
#12
Josua Markus, Dandan Wang, Yeon-Ju Kim, Sungeun Ahn, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Chao Wang, Deok Chun Yang
A facile synthesis and biological applications of silver (DH-AgNps) and gold nanoparticles (DH-AuNps) mediated by the aqueous extract of Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (Du Huo) are explored. Du Huo is a medicinal root belonging to Angelica pubescens Maxim which possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant properties. The absorption spectra of nanoparticles in varying root extract and metal ion concentration, pH, reaction temperatures, and time were recorded by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097285/localization-in-an-idealized-heterogeneous-elastic-sheet
#13
Bekele J Gurmessa, Andrew B Croll
Localized deformation is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering materials as they approach failure, and a significant effort has been made to understand localization processes with simple continuum models. Real materials are much more commonly heterogeneous but it is unclear exactly how heterogeneity affects outcomes. In this work we study the response of an idealized heterogenous elastic sheet on a soft foundation as it is uniaxially compressed. The patterned surface layers are created by selective ultraviolet/ozone treatment of the top surface of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sample using a TEM grid as a mask...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096668/impact-of-nanostructured-thin-zno-film-in-ultraviolet-protection
#14
Morteza Sasani Ghamsari, Sanaz Alamdari, Wooje Han, Hyung-Ho Park
Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095545/real-time-high-resolution-in-vivo-characterization-of-superficial-skin-with-microscopy-using-ultraviolet-surface-excitation-muse
#15
Derek Ho, Farzad Fereidouni, Richard M Levenson, Jared Jagdeo
BACKGROUND: Skin care products make up the largest part (36%) of the cosmetic market globally, of which the United States plays the largest role. In 2015, approximately 115 billion USD was spent globally on skin care products. Skin care products, in contradistinction to pharmaceuticals, are not strictly regulated by the FDA. A key factor for evaluation of a skin care product or topical drug is skin barrier function and effect on super cial skin. Thus, it is critical to have quantitative and qualitative methods to study the effects of skin care products on skin barrier and the super cial skin...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095515/effects-of-ultraviolet-photofunctionalization-on-bone-augmentation-and-integration-capabilities-of-titanium-mesh-and-implants
#16
Makoto Hirota, Takayuki Ikeda, Masako Tabuchi, Tomomichi Ozawa, Iwai Tohnai, Takahiro Ogawa
PURPOSE: Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photofunctionalization has earned considerable attention for the enhancement of the biologic capabilities of titanium. The effects of photofunctionalization on bone augmentation and gap closure were examined using titanium implants and mesh in a rat femur model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acid-etched titanium implant (4-mm length, 1-mm diameter) was placed in the gluteal tuberosity that resembles a knife-edge-like edentulous ridge...
January 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094876/ultraviolet-b-irradiation-increases-keratin-1-and-keratin-10-expression-in-hacat-keratinocytes-via-trpv1-activation-and-erk-phosphorylation
#17
Kuo-Feng Huang, Kuo-Hsing Ma, Pei-Shan Liu, Bo-Wei Chen, Sheau-Huei Chueh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093774/comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-diaveridine-in-pigs-and-chickens-following-single-intravenous-and-oral-administration
#18
Y-F Li, H-Y Guo, F Yang, L-G Zhou, X-H Huang, H-Z Ding, Z-L Zeng
Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of diaveridine following single intravenous and oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight in healthy pigs and chickens were investigated, respectively. Concentrations of diaveridine in plasma samples were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method. The concentration-time data were subjected to noncompartmental kinetic analysis by WinNonlin program. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters in pigs or chickens after single intravenous administration were as follows, respectively: t1/2β (elimination half-life) 0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093330/effect-of-solution-plasma-process-with-bubbling-gas-on-physicochemical-properties-of-chitosan
#19
Fengming Ma, Pu Li, Baiqing Zhang, Qun Fu, Zhenyu Wang, Cailian Gu
In the present work, solution plasma process (SPP) with bubbling gas was used to prepare oligochitosan. The effect of SPP irradiation with bubbling gas on the degradation of chitosan was evaluated by the intrinsic viscosity reduction rate and the degradation kinetic. The formation of OH radical was studied. Changes of the physicochemical properties of chitosan were measured by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, as well as ultraviolet-visible, Fourier-transform infrared, and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093092/evaluation-of-analysis-conditions-for-laser-pulsed-atom-probe-tomography-example-of-cemented-tungsten-carbide
#20
Zirong Peng, Pyuck-Pa Choi, Baptiste Gault, Dierk Raabe
Cemented tungsten carbide has been analyzed using laser-pulsed atom probe tomography (APT). The influence of experimental parameters, including laser pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and specimen base temperature, on the acquired data were evaluated from different aspects, such as mass spectrum, chemical composition, noise-to-signal ratio, and multiple events. Within all the applied analysis conditions, only 1 MHz pulse repetition rate led to a strong detector saturation effect, resulting in a largely biased chemical composition...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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