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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717755/innovative-breast-cancer-awareness-and-advocacy-campaign
#1
Omolola Salako, Alero A Roberts, Victor I Isibor, Oluwatimilehin Babatunde, Omolara Fatiregun, Chukwumere N Nwogu
Breast cancer is a major disease in Nigeria; in 2012, 27,304 new occurrences were diagnosed, and the number of mortalities was 13,960. Greater than 70% of patients present with advanced disease, which has a poor survival outcome. The mortality rates are high mainly because of a lack of awareness about breast health, screening guidelines, and treatment centers, and because of sociocultural barriers. In Nigeria, health care professionals remain the backbone for the provision of medical information to the public...
April 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717162/ultra-low-threshold-polariton-lasing-at-room-temperature-in-a-gan-membrane-microcavity-with-a-zero-dimensional-trap
#2
R Jayaprakash, F G Kalaitzakis, G Christmann, K Tsagaraki, M Hocevar, B Gayral, E Monroy, N T Pelekanos
Polariton lasers are coherent light sources based on the condensation of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities, which occurs either in the kinetic or thermodynamic (Bose-Einstein) regime. Besides their fundamental interest, polariton lasers have the potential of extremely low operating thresholds. Here, we demonstrate ultra-low threshold polariton lasing at room temperature, using an all-dielectric, GaN membrane-based microcavity, with a spontaneously-formed zero-dimensional trap. The microcavity is fabricated using an innovative method, which involves photo-electrochemical etching of an InGaN sacrificial layer and allows for the incorporation of optimally-grown GaN active quantum wells inside a cavity with atomically-smooth surfaces...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715167/computationally-driven-two-dimensional-materials-design-what-is-next
#3
Jie Pan, Stephan Lany, Yue Qi
Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties...
July 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713002/photo-stimulation-of-persistent-luminescence-nanoparticles-enhances-cancer-cells-death
#4
Gonzalo Ramírez-García, Minerva Martínez-Alfaro, Fanny d'Orlyé, Fethi Bedioui, Nathalie Mignet, Anne Varenne, Silvia Gutiérrez-Granados, Cyrille Richard
Persistent luminescence nanoparticles made of ZnGa1.995Cr0.005O4 (ZGO-NPs) are innovative nanomaterials that emit photons during long periods of time after the end of the excitation, allowing their use as diagnosis probes for in vivo optical imaging. During the excitation process, a part of the energy is stored in traps to further emit photons over long time. However, we observed in this study that some of the energy reduces molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Following this observation, theoxidative stress induction and cytotoxic effects of these NPs were investigated on human breast cancer cells...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701791/multi-photon-absorption-enhancement-by-dual-wavelength-double-pulse-laser-irradiation-for-efficient-dicing-of-sapphire-wafers
#5
Mindaugas Gedvilas, Justinas Mikšys, Jonas Berzinš, Valdemar Stankevič, Gediminas Račiukaitis
The evidence of multi-photon absorption enhancement by the dual-wavelength double-pulse laser irradiation in transparent sapphire was demonstrated experimentally and explained theoretically for the first time. Two collinearly combined laser beams with the wavelengths of 1064 nm and 355 nm, inter-pulse delay of 0.1 ns, and pulse duration of 10 ps were used to induce intra-volume modifications in sapphire. The theoretical prediction of using a particular orientation angle of 15 degrees of the half-wave plate for the most efficient absorption of laser irradiation is in good agreement with the experimental data...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694800/bacterial-survival-under-extreme-uv-radiation-a-comparative-proteomics-study-of-rhodobacter-sp-isolated-from-high-altitude-wetlands-in-chile
#6
Vilma Pérez, Martha Hengst, Lenka Kurte, Cristina Dorador, Wade H Jeffrey, Ruddy Wattiez, Veronica Molina, Sabine Matallana-Surget
Salar de Huasco, defined as a polyextreme environment, is a high altitude saline wetland in the Chilean Altiplano (3800 m.a.s.l.), permanently exposed to the highest solar radiation doses registered in the world. We present here the first comparative proteomics study of a photoheterotrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sp., isolated from this remote and hostile habitat. We developed an innovative experimental approach using different sources of radiation (in situ sunlight and UVB lamps), cut-off filters (Mylar, Lee filters) and a high-throughput, label-free quantitative proteomics method to comprehensively analyze the effect of seven spectral bands on protein regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693107/using-ecosystem-engineers-as-tools-in-habitat-restoration-and-rewilding-beaver-and-wetlands
#7
Alan Law, Martin J Gaywood, Kevin C Jones, Paul Ramsay, Nigel J Willby
Potential for habitat restoration is increasingly used as an argument for reintroducing ecosystem engineers. Beaver have well known effects on hydromorphology through dam construction, but their scope to restore wetland biodiversity in areas degraded by agriculture is largely inferred. Our study presents the first formal monitoring of a planned beaver-assisted restoration, focussing on changes in vegetation over 12years within an agriculturally-degraded fen following beaver release, based on repeated sampling of fixed plots...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#8
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691448/evaluation-of-chemical-physical-properties-and-cytocompatibility-of-theracal-lc
#9
A Buonavoglia, D Lauritano, D Perrone, F Ardito, G Troiano, M Dioguardi, V Candotto, F J Silvestre, L Lo Muzio
TheraCal LC (TLC, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) is a light-cured, resin-modified, calcium silicate-filled base/liner material designed for direct and indirect pulp-capping. In this study the result of the evaluation in vitro of the biocompatibility and chemical-physical properties of TLC are reported. TLC specimens were prepared under aseptic conditions in strict compliance with the manufacturer’s instructions and sterilized. Osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were used. For different time points, solubility, water uptake, alkalinizing activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688995/catchment-scale-assessment-of-risk-posed-by-traffic-generated-heavy-metals-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#10
Yukun Ma, James McGree, An Liu, Kaveh Deilami, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic chemical pollutants present in urban stormwater. Consequently, urban stormwater reuse is constrained due to the human health risk posed by these pollutants. This study developed a scientifically robust approach to assess the risk to human health posed by HMs and PAHs in urban stormwater in order to enhance its reuse. Accordingly, an innovative methodology was created consisting of four stages: quantification of traffic and land use parameters; estimation of pollutant concentrations for model development; risk assessment, and risk map presentation...
July 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686903/polysaccharide-coated-liposomes-by-post-insertion-of-a-hyaluronan-lipid-conjugate
#11
Donato Cosco, Nicolas Tsapis, Thais L Nascimento, Massimo Fresta, David Chapron, Myriam Taverna, Silvia Arpicco, Elias Fattal
Hyaluronan (MW: 1.5 MDa) was linked to a phospholipid (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, DPPE) by an amidification procedure to obtain novel macromolecules (HA-DPPE) able to coat liposomes. Liposomes made of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (DPPC/Chol: 95/5 molar ratio), with a mean size around 100nm, were incubated with HA-DPPE at 55°C, allowing the insertion of DPPE moieties in the liposomal bilayer and leading to hyaluronan-coated liposomes (HAsomes) as evidenced by several techniques including dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry...
June 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686837/tethering-luminescent-thermometry-and-plasmonics-light-manipulation-to-assess-real-time-thermal-flow-in-nanoarchitectures
#12
Carlos D S Brites, Maria Cecilia Fuertes, Paula C Angelomé, Eduardo D Martínez, Patrícia P Lima, Galo J A A Soler-Illia, Luís D Carlos
The past decade has seen significant progresses in the ability to fabricate new mesoporous thin films with highly controlled pore systems and emerging applications in sensing, electrical and thermal isolation, microfluidics, solar cells engineering, energy storage, and catalysis. Heat management at the micro- and nanoscale is a key issue in most of these applications, requiring a complete thermal characterization of the films that is commonly performed using electrical methods. Here, plasmonic-induced heating (through Au NPs) is combined with Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) luminescence thermometry to measure the thermal conductivity of silica and titania mesoporous nanolayers...
July 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684352/developing-an-innovative-textural-structure-for-semi-volume-breads-based-on-interaction-of-spray-dried-yogurt-powder-and-jujube-polysaccharide
#13
Saeedeh Sharafi, Shima Yousefi, Alireza Faraji
Addition effect of yogurt powder (YP, 2.96-10.03%) and jujube polysaccharide (JP, 2.08-4.91%) to the dough formulation of novel semi-volume breads was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve the best physical (moisture content, specific volume and color parameters), textural (crumb firmness and springiness) and sensory attributes. A contrary behaviour on physico-mechanical and sensorial characteristics was found by adding YP and JP. An increase in JP content led to a significant reduction in the texture firmness and a remarkable increase in specific volume, crumb springiness and overall acceptability...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684014/the-evolution-of-empathy-research-models-muddles-and-mechanisms
#14
Richard M Frankel
The word empathy enters the English language in 1909, translated incompletely from German by a British-born psychologist interested in introspection. In the ensuing 100+ years, the term has been defined in a range of different ways by researchers and scholars. The biopsychosocial framework developed by George Engel comes closest to capturing empathy as a biological, psychological and social phenomenon. In this paper, I explore the psychological and social/communicative dimensions of empathy. Psychologists ask the question, How does the capacity for empathy vary across individuals? By contrast, interaction scholars ask, How is empathy communicated from one person (a healthcare provider) to another (a sufferer)? A communication focus involves the accuracy and impact of empathic communication as evidenced in a sufferer's response...
May 5, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683340/how-counterfactuals-of-red-queen-theory-shed-light-on-science-and-its-historiography
#15
Joachim L Dagg
A historical episode of evolutionary theory, which has lead to the Red Queen theory of the evolutionary maintenance of sex, includes two striking contingencies. These are used to explore alternative what-if scenarios, in order to test some common opinions about such counterfactuals. This sheds new light on the nature of science and its historiography. One counterfactual leads to an unexpected convergence of its result to that of the actual science but, nevertheless, differs in its causal structure. The other diverges towards an incompatible alternative, but this requires further contingent choices that also diverge from actual science...
July 3, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682133/outcomes-of-an-innovative-training-course-in-laparoscopic-hernia-repair
#16
D Light, S Bawa, P Gallagher, L Horgan
INTRODUCTION The Ethicon™ laparoscopic inguinal groin hernia training (LIGHT) course is an educational course based on three days of teaching on laparoscopic hernia surgery. The first day involves didactic lectures with tutorials. The second day involves practical cadaveric procedures in laparoscopic hernia surgery. The third day involves direct supervision by a consultant surgeon during laparoscopic hernia surgery on a real patient. We reviewed our outcomes for procedures performed on real patients on the final day of the course for early complications and outcomes...
July 6, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680126/multiple-cues-produced-by-a-robotic-fish-modulate-aggressive-behaviour-in-siamese-fighting-fishes
#17
Donato Romano, Giovanni Benelli, Elisa Donati, Damiano Remorini, Angelo Canale, Cesare Stefanini
The use of robotics to establish social interactions between animals and robots, represents an elegant and innovative method to investigate animal behaviour. However, robots are still underused to investigate high complex and flexible behaviours, such as aggression. Here, Betta splendens was tested as model system to shed light on the effect of a robotic fish eliciting aggression. We evaluated how multiple signal systems, including a light stimulus, affect aggressive responses in B. splendens. Furthermore, we conducted experiments to estimate if aggressive responses were triggered by the biomimetic shape of fish replica, or whether any intruder object was effective as well...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678264/self-assembled-nanocapsules-in-water-a-molecular-mechanistic-study
#18
Hang Xiao, Xiaoyang Shi, Xi Chen
The self-assembly mechanism of one-end-open carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended in an aqueous solution was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. It was shown that two one-end-open CNTs with different diameters can coaxially self-assemble into a nanocapsule. The nanocapsules formed were stable in aqueous solution under ambient conditions, and the pressure inside the nanocapsule was much higher than the ambient pressure due to the van der Waals interactions between the two parts of the nanocapsule. The effects of the normalized radius difference, normalized inter-tube distance and aspect ratio of the CNT pairs were systematically explored...
July 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677575/from-class-waivers-to-precision-medicine-in-paediatric-oncology
#19
REVIEW
Andrew D J Pearson, Stefan M Pfister, Andre Baruchel, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Michela Casanova, Louis Chesler, François Doz, Angelika Eggert, Birgit Geoerger, David T W Jones, Pamela R Kearns, Jan J Molenaar, Bruce Morland, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Johannes H Schulte, Josef Vormoor, Lynley V Marshall, C Michel Zwaan, Gilles Vassal
New drugs are crucially needed for children with cancer. The European Paediatric Regulation facilitates paediatric class waivers for drugs developed for diseases only occurring in adults. In this Review, we retrospectively searched oncology drugs that were class waivered between June, 2012, and June, 2015. 147 oncology class waivers were confirmed for 89 drugs. Mechanisms of action were then assessed as potential paediatric therapeutic targets by both a literature search and an expert review. 48 (54%) of the 89 class-waivered drugs had a mechanisms of action warranting paediatric development...
July 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673742/blue-light-potentiates-neurogenesis-induced-by-retinoic-acid-loaded-responsive-nanoparticles
#20
Tiago Santos, Raquel Ferreira, Emanuel Quartin, Carlos Boto, Cláudia Saraiva, José Bragança, João Peça, Cecília Rodrigues, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino
Neurogenic niches constitute a powerful endogenous source of new neurons that can be used for brain repair strategies. Neuronal differentiation of these cells can be regulated by molecules such as retinoic acid (RA) or by mild levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are also known to upregulate RA receptor alpha (RARα) levels. Data showed that neural stem cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) exposed to blue light (405nm laser) transiently induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS, resulting in β-catenin activation and neuronal differentiation, and increased RARα levels...
June 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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