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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944748/host-location-behavior-of-the-tea-green-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the-hemiptera-cicadellidae-olfactory-and-visual-effects-on-their-orientation
#1
X Zhang, T Pengsakul, M Tukayo, L Yu, W Fang, D Luo
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944199/comparative-analysis-of-cytomegalovirus-retinitis-and-microvascular-retinopathy-in-patients-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#2
Chao Chen, Chun-Gang Guo, Li Meng, Jing Yu, Lian-Yong Xie, Hong-Wei Dong, Wen-Bin Wei
AIM: To compare the clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and microvascular retinopathy (MVR) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in China. METHODS: A total of 93 consecutive patients with AIDS, including 41 cases of CMV retinitis and 52 cases of MVR were retrospectively reviewed. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) status was recorded. HIV and CMV immunoassay were also tested. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and blood CMV-DNA test were performed in all patients...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943107/analyses-of-sustained-vowels-in-down-syndrome-ds-a-case-study-using-spectrograms-and-perturbation-data-to-investigate-voice-quality-in-four-adults-with-ds
#3
Tracy Jeffery, Stuart Cunningham, Sandra P Whiteside
OBJECTIVES: Automatic acoustic measures of voice quality in people with Down syndrome (DS) do not reliably reflect perceived voice qualities. This study used acoustic data and visual spectral data to investigate the relationship between perceived voice qualities and acoustic measures. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were four young adults (two males, two females; mean age 23.8 years) with DS and severe learning disabilities, at least one of whom had a hearing impairment...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942493/asymptomatic-corneal-keratopathy-secondary-to%C3%A2-hypertyrosinaemia-following-low-dose-nitisinone-and%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-literature-review-of-tyrosine-keratopathy-in%C3%A2-alkaptonuria
#4
M Khedr, S Judd, M C Briggs, A T Hughes, A M Milan, R M K Stewart, E A Lock, J A Gallagher, L R Ranganath
Nitisinone, although unapproved for use in alkaptonuria (AKU), is currently the only homogentisic acid lowering therapy with a potential to modify disease progression in AKU. Therefore, safe use of nitisinone off-label requires identifying and managing tyrosine keratopathy. A 22-year-old male with AKU commenced 2 mg daily nitisinone after full assessment. He was issued an alert card explaining potential ocular symptoms such as red eye, tearing, ocular pain and visual impairment and how to manage them. On his first and second annual follow-up visits to the National Alkaptonuria Centre (NAC), there was no corneal keratopathy on slit lamp examination...
September 24, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942477/cognitive-performance-in-mid-stage-parkinson-s-disease-functional-connectivity-under-chronic-antiparkinson-treatment
#5
Roxana Vancea, Kristina Simonyan, Maria Petracca, Miroslaw Brys, Alessandro Di Rocco, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Matilde Inglese
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to the reorganization of brain topology. Although drug challenge studies have proven how levodopa treatment can modulate functional connectivity in brain circuits, the role of chronic dopaminergic therapy on cognitive status and functional connectivity has never been investigated. We sought to characterize brain functional topology in mid-stage PD patients under chronic antiparkinson treatment and explore the presence of correlation between reorganization of brain architecture and specific cognitive deficits...
September 23, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#6
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
September 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941861/concurrent-intramedullary-spinal-cord-and-multiple-intracranial-tuberculomas-with-tuberculous-optic-neuritis-a-rare-case-report
#7
Lulup Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Mallick, Geeta Mohanty, Kali Prasanna Swain, Soumyadarshan Nayak, Ashwini Kumar Sahu
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide burden, with a large majority of new active TB cases occurring in underdeveloped and developing countries. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the common infections of central nervous system. Other manifestations include intracranial tuberculoma, tubercular brain abscess, spinal tuberculoma, and granulomatous arachnoiditis. Visual impairment in TBM may be due to optic neuritis, optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA), tuberculoma in the chiasmatic region or in the optic pathways, chorioretinitis, secondary to hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure, and finally due to ethambutol toxicity...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941531/disentangling-how-the-brain-is-wired-in-cortical-cerebral-visual-impairment
#8
Lotfi B Merabet, D Luisa Mayer, Corinna M Bauer, Darick Wright, Barry S Kran
Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) results from perinatal injury to visual processing structures and pathways of the brain and is the most common cause of severe visual impairment or blindness in children in developed countries. Children with CVI display a wide range of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity, impaired visual field function, as well as impairments in higher-order visual processing and attention. Together, these visual impairments can dramatically influence a child's development and well-being...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941032/are-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-more-neurocognitively-impaired
#9
Imma Torres, Brisa Sole, Montse Corrales, Esther Jiménez, Sofia Rotger, Juan Francisco Serra-Pla, Irene Forcada, Vanesa Richarte, Ester Mora, Carlos Jacas, Nuria Gómez, Maria Mur, Francesc Colom, Eduard Vieta, Miquel Casas, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Jose M Goikolea, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: Research on neurocognitive impairment in adult patients with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very scarce. This study assessed the neurocognitive profile of a comorbid group (BD+ADHD) compared with that of pure BD (pBD) group, pure ADHD (pADHD) group and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: This was a three-site study comprising 229 subjects: 70 patients with pBD, 23 with BD+ADHD, 50 with pADHD, and 86 HCs...
September 21, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940879/phosphorylation-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-in-the-rat-dorsal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-alcohol-induced-cognitive-inflexibility
#10
Luis A Natividad, Michael Q Steinman, Sarah A Laredo, Cristina Irimia, Ilham Y Polis, Robert Lintz, Matthew W Buczynski, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Marisa Roberto, Loren H Parsons
Repeated cycles of alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication and withdrawal dysregulate excitatory glutamatergic systems in the brain and induce neuroadaptations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. The mPFC is composed of subdivisions that are functionally distinct, with dorsal regions facilitating drug-cue associations and ventral regions modulating new learning in the absence of drug. A key modulator of glutamatergic activity is the holoenzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) that phosphorylates ionotropic glutamate receptors...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940697/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-unaffected-siblings-of-probands-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Yi-Ling Chien, Yu-Jen Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Despite the evidence of altered white-matter tract property in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about their unaffected siblings. This study aimed to investigate white-matter integrity in unaffected siblings of ASD probands. Thirty-nine unaffected siblings (mean age 15.6 ± 6.0 years; 27 males, 69.2%) and 39 typically developing controls (TDC) (14.2 ± 5.6 years; 26 males, 66.7%) were assessed with diffusion spectrum images and neuropsychological tests. Using the tract-based automatic analysis and the threshold-free cluster weighted (TFCW) scores, we searched for the segments among 76 tracts with the largest difference over the entire brain compared to TDC...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940374/the-effect-of-prism-on-preferred-retinal-locus
#12
David Lewerenz, Daniel Blanco, Chase Ratzlaff, Ashley Zodrow
BACKGROUND: Whether prism, especially base-up prism, affects the area of the retina used for fixation in a patient with central scotoma has been a controversial subject for 35 years. Our pilot study employed microperimetry to evaluate the effect of base-up prism on the fixation locus, or preferred retinal locus (PRL), in subjects with central scotoma. METHODS: We used a microperimeter to assess the PRL in 13 visually impaired subjects with central scotoma under four conditions: no lens, a lens with no prism (control lens), 6(Δ) base-up, and 10(Δ) base-up...
September 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937972/a-risk-factor-analysis-of-cognitive-impairment-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-diseases-in-a-chinese-population
#13
Ye Li, Xiang Fang, Wei-Gang Zhao, Yan Chen, Shi-Lian Hu
BACKGROUND This study analyzed the risk factors of cognitive impairment (CI) in elderly patients with chronic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS In total of 385 elderly patients with chronic diseases were selected and assigned into CI and normal groups. The activities of daily living (ADL), global deterioration scale (GDS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) were performed to analyze the differences between the 2 groups...
September 22, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937949/international-vision-care-issues-and-approaches
#14
Rohit C Khanna, Srinivas Marmamula, Gullapalli N Rao
Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Success stories, including control of vitamin A deficiency, onchocerciasis, and trachoma, showed that global partnerships, multisectoral collaboration, public-private partnerships, corporate philanthropy, support from nongovernmental organizations-both local and international-and governments are responsible for the success of these programs...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937870/student-led-screening-of-school-children-for-refractive-error-correction
#15
Dipesh Bhattarai, Subodh Gnyawali, Arpan Silwal, Sudan Puri, Anita Shrestha, Man Bahadur Kunwar, Madan Prasad Upadhyay
PURPOSE: Detection and correction of uncorrected refractive errors among 12 million children is an overwhelming task for the 500 currently available eye-care professionals in Nepal. A mid-term review of VISION 2020 goals in Nepal has recommended utilizing alternative human resources that could screen children for visual impairment. This study was conducted to assess the validity of vision screening of school children by trained high school students when compared to optometrist testing as the gold standard...
September 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937148/transition-from-paediatric-to-adult-ophthalmology-services-what-matters-most-to-young-people-with-visual-impairment
#16
A O Robertson, V Tadić, J S Rahi
PurposeTo identify the views and experiences and thus the transition-related needs of young people with visual impairment (VI), so as to inform future practice and policies.Patients and methodsQualitative study of 17 young people aged 16-19 years (ie the conventional transition age threshold) with VI (best-corrected acuity logMAR worse than 0.48) and without additional impairments, drawn from a sampling frame of paediatric ophthalmology patients attending Great Ormond Street Hospital and Moorfields Eye Hospital (London, UK)...
September 22, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937045/carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-nonstroke-patients
#17
REVIEW
Wei-Hong Chen, Wei Jin, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Rui Li, Ming Hu, Xiang-Jian Xiao
OBJECTIVE: As a vascular risk factor, carotid atherosclerosis is crucial to cognitive impairment. While carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis can reflect carotid atherosclerosis in different stages, this review aimed to explore researches on the role of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis in the progress of cognitive impairment in nonstroke patients and tried to illustrate the possible mechanisms. DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to July 2017, with the key words of "carotid atherosclerosis," "carotid intima-media thickness," "carotid plaque," "carotid stenosis," "nonstroke," and "cognitive impairment...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936822/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-triggerred-by-alcohol-withdrawal
#18
Tuğçe Mengi, Yaprak Seçil, Aysel Çoban, Yeşim Beckmann
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, altered mental status, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances and typically transient changes in posterior cerebral circulation areas. In this article, we present a case of alcohol withdrawal accompanied by PRES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with visual hallucinations and meaningless speech...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934951/communicating-projected-survival-with-treatments-for-chronic-kidney-disease-patient-comprehension-and-perspectives-on-visual-aids
#19
Frances Dowen, Karishma Sidhu, Elizabeth Broadbent, Helen Pilmore
BACKGROUND: Mortality in end stage renal disease (ESRD) is higher than many malignancies. There is no data about the optimal way to present information about projected survival to patients with ESRD. In other areas, graphs have been shown to be more easily understood than narrative. We examined patient comprehension and perspectives on graphs in communicating projected survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: One hundred seventy-seven patients with CKD were shown 4 different graphs presenting post transplantation survival data...
September 21, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934871/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-vision-venous-intervention-versus-shunting-in-iih-for-optic-nerve-disc-swelling-trial-patient-perspective-questionnaire
#20
Arun Chandran, Heinke Pulhorn, Catherine McMahon
INTRODUCTION: Headaches, visual problems and tinnitus are symptoms of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) which resolve with reduction of CSF pressure. Impaired cranial venous outflow has been implicated in the pathogenesis and there is evidence of good treatment results in IIH using venous sinus stenting. We are currently initiating a multi-centre randomised controlled trial, the VISION study (Venous Intervention versus Shunting in IIH for Optic Disc Swelling) comparing radiological (venous sinus stenting) to surgical intervention (CSF shunting)...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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