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First do no harm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435281/first-do-no-harm-institutional-betrayal-and-trust-in-health-care-organizations
#1
Carly Parnitzke Smith
PURPOSE: Patients' trust in health care is increasingly recognized as important to quality care, yet questions remain about what types of health care experiences erode trust. The current study assessed the prevalence and impact of institutional betrayal on patients' trust and engagement in health care. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants who had sought health care in the US in October 2013 were recruited from an online marketplace, Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Participants (n = 707; 73% Caucasian; 56...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398697/effects-of-targeting-lower-versus-higher-arterial-oxygen-saturations-on-death-or-disability-in-preterm-infants
#2
REVIEW
Lisa M Askie, Brian A Darlow, Peter G Davis, Neil Finer, Ben Stenson, Maximo Vento, Robin Whyte
BACKGROUND: The use of supplemental oxygen in the care of extremely preterm infants has been common practice since the 1940s. Despite this, there is little agreement regarding which oxygen saturation (SpO₂) ranges to target to maximise short- or long-term growth and development, while minimising harms. There are two opposing concerns. Lower oxygen levels (targeting SpO₂ at 90% or less) may impair neurodevelopment or result in death. Higher oxygen levels (targeting SpO₂ greater than 90%) may increase severe retinopathy of prematurity or chronic lung disease...
April 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383979/revenge-versus-rapport-interrogation-terrorism-and-torture
#3
Laurence Alison, Emily Alison
This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363223/first-do-no-irreparable-harm-infarction-bleeding-and-subsequent-risk-of-death-the-dangers-of-false-equivalency
#4
Brian A Bergmark, Benjamin M Scirica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318458/first-do-no-harm-advocating-for-opioid-prescribing-guidelines-in-canadian-emergency-departments
#5
Kieran Moore, Julia Lew, Samantha Buttemer, Lauren Kielstra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294982/cubozoan-sting-site-seawater-rinse-scraping-and-ice-can-increase-venom-load-upending-current-first-aid-recommendations
#6
Angel Anne Yanagihara, Christie L Wilcox
Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as "venom load", has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis)...
March 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288272/interventions-to-improve-inhaler-technique-for-people-with-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca Normansell, Kayleigh M Kew, Alexander G Mathioudakis
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide. Inhalers are often prescribed to help control asthma symptoms, improve quality of life and reduce the risk of exacerbations or flare-ups. However, evidence suggests that many people with asthma do not use their inhaler correctly. It is therefore important to evaluate whether interventions aimed specifically at improving technique are effective and safe, and whether use of these interventions translates into improved clinical outcomes...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274949/management-of-endocrine-disease-subclinical-thyrotoxicosis-prevalence-causes-and-choice-of-therapy
#8
Allan Carle, Stine Linding Andersen, Kristien Boelaert, Peter Laurberg
Subclinical thyrotoxicosis is a condition affecting up to 10% of the population in some studies. We have reviewed literature and identified studies describing prevalences, causes and outcomes of this condition. Treatment should be considered in all subjects if this biochemical abnormality is persistent, especially in case of symptoms of thyrotoxicosis or in the presence of any complication. In particular, treatment should be offered in those subclinically thyrotoxic patients with a sustained serum TSH below 0...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246316/first-do-no-harm
#9
Sarah Tulk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194188/primum-non-nocere-first-do-no-harm-and-then-feed-peanut
#10
Kyla Jade Hildebrand, Elissa Michele Abrams, Timothy K Vander Leek, Julia Elizabeth Mainwaring Upton, Douglas P Mack, Linda Kirste, Christine McCusker, Sandeep Kapur
The Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States-Report of the NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel were developed to build on previous food allergy guidelines after several key studies demonstrated the benefit of early introduction of allergenic foods. These landmark studies including the Learning Early about Peanut (LEAP), LEAP-On and Enquiring about Tolerance trials created a paradigm shift in food allergy prevention. The "take home" messages of this guideline include that peanut should be introduced early in the first year of life, and for the majority of infants, peanut can be introduced at home...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188998/midwives-experiences-of-working-in-an-obstetric-high-dependency-unit-a-qualitative-study
#11
Isabelle J Eadie, Nicolette F Sheridan
OBJECTIVES: to understand the challenges experienced by midwives providing obstetric high dependency care and identify the training they perceive is needed for work in an obstetric high dependency unit. DESIGN: sixteen midwives who worked in the obstetric high dependency unit participated in one of three focus groups. Focus groups lasted 60-90minutes and were conducted in the workplace and facilitated by author (IE). Data were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed manually by author (IE), specifically using a 'codebook' model to generate codes, categories and themes...
January 21, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121543/to-first-do-no-harm-you-must-start-with-good-evidence
#12
(no author information available yet)
The intrepid young oncologist's criticism of cancer screening and surrogate endpoints has stirred up controversy. Prasad thinks that providers should offer medical therapies that do more good than harm. "I mean things that matter to people, which is living longer, living better."
October 2016: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095818/when-parents-won-t-vaccinate-their-children-a-qualitative-investigation-of-australian-primary-care-providers-experiences
#13
Nina J Berry, Alexandra Henry, Margie Danchin, Lyndal J Trevena, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, the experiences and perceptions of parents who decline vaccination are the subject of investigation. However, the experiences of clinicians who encounter these parents in the course of their work has received little academic attention to date. This study aimed to understand the challenges faced and strategies used when general practitioners and immunising nurses encounter parents who choose not to vaccinate their children. METHODS: Primary care providers were recruited from regions identified through the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) as having higher than national average rates of registered objection to childhood vaccination...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093732/long-term-hormone-therapy-for-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#14
REVIEW
Jane Marjoribanks, Cindy Farquhar, Helen Roberts, Anne Lethaby, Jasmine Lee
BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) is widely provided for control of menopausal symptoms and has been used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia in older women. This is an updated version of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of long-term HT (at least 1 year's duration) on mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, cancer, gallbladder disease, fracture and cognition in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during and after cessation of treatment...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074754/legal-and-ethical-imperatives-for-using-certified-sign-language-interpreters-in-health-care-settings-how-to-do-no-harm-when-it-s-all-greek-sign-language-to-you
#15
Angela M Nonaka
Communication obstacles in health care settings adversely impact patient-practitioner interactions by impeding service efficiency, reducing mutual trust and satisfaction, or even endangering health outcomes. When interlocutors are separated by language, interpreters are required. The efficacy of interpreting, however, is constrained not just by interpreters' competence but also by health care providers' facility working with interpreters. Deaf individuals whose preferred form of communication is a signed language often encounter communicative barriers in health care settings...
September 1, 2016: Care Management Journals: Journal of Case Management ; the Journal of Long Term Home Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073541/the-main-nitrate-transporter-of-the-dinoflagellate-lingulodinium-polyedrum-is-constitutively-expressed-and-not-responsible-for-daily-variations-in-nitrate-uptake-rates
#16
Steve Dagenais Bellefeuille, David Morse
Dinoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotes capable of forming spectacular harmful algal blooms (HABs). Eutrophication of coastal waters by fertilizer runoff, nitrate in particular, has contributed to recent increases in the frequency, magnitude and geographic extent of HABs. Although physiological nitrate uptake and assimilation in dinoflagellates have often been measured in the field and in the laboratory, no molecular components involved in nitrate transport have yet been reported. This study reports the first identification and characterization of dinoflagellate nitrate transporters, found in the transcriptome of the bloom-forming Lingulodinium polyedrum...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073178/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-induction-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#17
REVIEW
Penny Hill, Nicholas B Cross, A Nicholas R Barnett, Suetonia C Palmer, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Prolonging kidney transplant survival is an important clinical priority. Induction immunosuppression with antibody therapy is recommended at transplantation and non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies (IL2Ra) are considered first line. It is suggested that recipients at high risk of rejection should receive lymphocyte-depleting antibodies but the relative benefits and harms of the available agents are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: evaluate the relative and absolute effects of different antibody preparations (except IL2Ra) when used as induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients; determine how the benefits and adverse events vary for each antibody preparation; determine how the benefits and harms vary for different formulations of antibody preparation; and determine whether the benefits and harms vary in specific subgroups of recipients (e...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070633/-acne-and-rosacea-in-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
S K Bechstein, F Ochsendorf
Acne and rosacea are common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. During pregnancy these skin disorders may become aggravated, in rare cases occurring for the first time. There are no data available for rosacea and little data for acne concerning the course of these skin disorders during pregnancy. Up to 42% of the pregnant women suffer from acne. In 90% of these women the disease existed before pregnancy. In 1/3, however, acne relapsed during pregnancy after a prior disease-free period. In 60% acne deteriorated during pregnancy...
February 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001142/perspective-medical-futility-a-contemporary-review
#19
Ellen Coonan
As medical technology has advanced, the question of medical futility has become a topic of intense debate both within the medical community and within society as a whole. However, a unanimous definition thereof is yet to be decided-some commentators are sceptical as to whether an agreement will ever be reached-and this continues to lead to difficulties, tension, and even legal action when a treating physician disagrees with a patient and/or a patient's family regarding care and treatment options. Although living in a pluralistic society presents one of the major reasons as to why, despite 30 years of intense discussion, no consensus has been made; the issue of medical futility will always be complex as it is, by nature, multifaceted, and numerous elements-including possible risks, evidence of the probability of benefit, the wishes of the patient (and family), professional standards, and cost-interact...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898998/nutritional-supplementation-for-hip-fracture-aftercare-in-older-people
#20
REVIEW
Alison Avenell, Toby O Smith, James P Curtain, Jenson Cs Mak, Phyo K Myint
BACKGROUND: Older people with hip fractures are often malnourished at the time of fracture, and subsequently have poor food intake. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To review the effects (benefits and harms) of nutritional interventions in older people recovering from hip fracture. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, trial registers and reference lists...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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