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Diarrhea review

Jing Zhang, Yuan Zong, Gang-Zhu Xu, Ke Xing
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken in June 2015. Phase II/III trials of erlotinib for the treatment of advanced HCC were included. A descriptive analysis was applied. The study was conducted in College of Medicine, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, between June 2015 and January 2016. RESULTS: Ten trials, comprising 9 phase II and one phase III trial, were included in the systematic review...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Yuichiro Kizaki, Tomonori Nagai, Ken Ohara, Yosuke Gomi, Taichi Akahori, Yoshihisa Ono, Shigetaka Matsunaga, Yasushi Takai, Masahiro Saito, Kazunori Baba, Hiroyuki Seki
BACKGROUND: While ovarian mature cystic teratomas are benign ovarian germ-cell tumors and the most common type of all ovarian tumors, the formation of fistulas into surrounding organs such as the bladder and the intestinal tract is extremely rare. This report documents a case of ovarian mature cystic teratoma with a rectal fistula, thought to be caused by local inflammation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A pelvic mass was diagnosed as an ovarian mature cystic teratoma of approximately 10 cm in diameter on transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations...
2016: SpringerPlus
Hamid Reza Bahrami, Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Roshanak Salari, Mohammadreza Noras
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic digestive disorder, which is characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and constipation periods. The etiology is unknown. Based on the different mechanisms in the etiology, treatment focuses on controlling symptoms. Due to the longtime of syndrome, inadequacy of current treatments, financial burden for patients and pharmacologic effects, several patients have turned to the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Complementary and alternative treatments for IBS include hypnosis, acupuncture, cognitive behavior therapy, yoga, and herbal medicine...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Jing Yu, Yue Zhang, Lai-Han Leung, Lian Liu, Fan Yang, Xiaojun Yao
Monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or its receptors have been investigated in several studies for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (GC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of angiogenesis inhibitors in advanced GC. We searched published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing angiogenesis inhibitors with non-angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of GC. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Miguel O'Ryan, Margarita Riera-Montes, Benjamin Lopman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis. Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. METHODS: We carried out a literature search in Medline, SciELO and LILACS...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Shu Y Ng, Kathryn L Colborn, Lajhem Cambridge, Carla Hajj, T Jonathan Yang, Abraham J Wu, Karyn A Goodman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined acute toxicity profiles and outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to identify predictive clinical factors associated with increased acute toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 301 consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy (median dose 5000cGy) at our institution between 2007 and 2014...
October 14, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Fausto Petrelli, Gianluca Tomasello, Michele Ghidini, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Sandro Barni
Combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) is an active but not well-tolerated regimen for advanced gastric cancer (GC) with standard 3-weekly doses. Several modified schedules (mDCFs) have been designed to reduce acute toxicities and improve feasibility as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic GC. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and grade (G) greater than or equal to 3 adverse event of mDCF chemotherapy in this setting...
September 30, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
George M Carter, Aryan Esmaeili, Hardikkumar Shah, Debbie Indyk, Matthew Johnson, Michael Andreae, Henry S Sacks
People living with human immunodeficiency virus frequently use dietary supplements, including probiotics, but concern exists about ingesting live organisms. We performed a systematic review of the benefits of probiotics and a meta-analysis of sepsis risk. We undertook a protocol-driven, comprehensive review to identify all relevant studies, assess their quality, and summarize the evidence. Of 2068 references, 27 were analyzed. The data suggest possible benefits for CD4 count, recurrence or management of bacterial vaginosis, and diarrhea management...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ankit Mangla, Nikki Agarwal, Chou Carmel, Thomas Lad
Erlotinib is one of the most widely used tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor. Since its introduction, it has revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Skin rashes and diarrhea are the most often reported side effects of erlotinib however it is also associated with interstitial pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, which often turns out to be fatal complication of using this medicine. Though reported scarcely in the western world, the association of interstitial lung disease with epidermal growth factor receptor has attracted a lot of attention in the recent times...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Miwa Higashiarakawa, Tetsuo Hirata, Teruhisa Tanaka, Gretchen Parrott, Tetsu Kinjo, Hidekatsu Naka, Akira Hokama, Jiro Fujita
Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Adrien Flahault, Marguerite Vignon, Marion Rabant, Aurélie Hummel, Laure-Hélène Noël, Danielle Canioni, Bertrand Knebelmann, Felipe Suarez, Khalil El Karoui
INTRODUCTION: We report the case of a multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) with initial renal involvement. Although the renal involvement in this case was typical of MCD, it constitutes a rare presentation of the disease, and in our case the renal manifestations led to the haematological diagnosis. CLINICAL FINDINGS/PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was admitted for fever, diarrhea, anasarca, lymphadenopathies and acute renal failure. Despite intravenous rehydration using saline and albumin, renal function worsened and the patient required dialysis...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ankita Tirath, Sandra Tadros, Samuel L Coffin, Kristina W Kintziger, Jennifer L Waller, Stephanie L Baer, Rhonda E Colombo, Lu Y Huber, Mufaddal F Kheda, N Stanley Nahman
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be at increased risk for CDI. Patients with ESRD with CDI have increased mortality, longer length of stay, and higher costs. The present studies extend these observations and address associated comorbidities, incidence of recurrence, and risk factors for mortality. We queried the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) for patients with ESRD diagnosed with CDI, and assessed for the incidence of infection, comorbidities, and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
J Daniel Dubreuil, Richard E Isaacson, Dieter M Schifferli
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors: adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17, and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produce enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Ernest H Law, Melissa Badowski, Yu-Ting Hung, Kimberly Weems, Angelica Sanchez, Todd A Lee
OBJECTIVE: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that is characterized by chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea. Concern regarding a potential association between proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and MC has recently emerged. We sought to systematically review and summarize the evidence for the potential association between PPIs and MC. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar using the terms proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or esomeprazole), microscopic colitis, collagenous colitis, and lymphocytic colitis STUDY SELECTION: Full-text, English-language reports of case reports/series, observational studies, experimental studies, and systematic reviews/meta-analyses published between January 2000 to August 2016 were included...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Qing Zhao, Xiao-Ya Chen, Cathie Martin
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, or Chinese skullcap, has been widely used as a medicinal plant in China for thousands of years, where the preparation from its roots is called Huang-Qin. It has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, hemorrhaging, insomnia, inflammation and respiratory infections. Flavones such as baicalin, wogonoside and their aglycones baicalein wogonin are the major bioactive compounds extracted from the root of S. baicalensis. These flavones have been reported to have various pharmacological functions, including anti-cancer, hepatoprotection, antibacterial and antiviral, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects...
2016: Science Bulletin
Muhan Lü, Shan Yu, Jiaqi Deng, Qiong Yan, Chun Yang, Guodong Xia, Xian Zhou
BACKGROUND: Traditional Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapies have shown efficacies below 80% in several studies, and their use has been accompanied by antibiotic-related side effects. Some recent studies have reported that supplementing standard therapies with probiotics can improve the efficacy and tolerability of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on the eradication rates and therapy-related adverse event rates of anti-Helicobacter pylori regimens...
2016: PloS One
Andrew Mitchell, Alexandre Dugas
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the colon occurring during or shortly following colonoscopy or barium enema is a rare complication of collagenous colitis (CC). "Spontaneous" perforation in CC, in which no instigating factor is identified, is even less common, with only five cases reported to date. We report herein an additional case of spontaneous perforation in previously undiagnosed CC and review the clinical and pathological features of previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80 year old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain preceded by approximately one month of frequent non-bloody diarrhea...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Sameer Hassamal, Susan Waller, Kimberly Reese, Claudia Testa
Valproic acid (VPA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. VPA is also used off-label to treat other conditions in psychiatry such as impulse control disorders, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although VPA is mostly well-tolerated, common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (sedation, ataxia, tremor), weight gain, and alopecia...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Biswanath Dinda, Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Subhajit Dinda, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Aristea Velegraki, Charlambos Markopoulos, Manikarna Dinda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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