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Diarrhea review

Monique J T Crobach, Jonathan J Vernon, Vivian G Loo, Ling Yuan Kong, Séverine Péchiné, Mark H Wilcox, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile -colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Shrujal Baxi, Annie Yang, Renee L Gennarelli, Niloufer Khan, Ziwei Wang, Lindsay Boyce, Deborah Korenstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rates of serious organ specific immune-related adverse events, general adverse events related to immune activation, and adverse events consistent with musculoskeletal problems for anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) drugs overall and compared with control treatments. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus searched to 16 March 2017 and combined with data from ClinicalTrials...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Alua Omarova, Kamshat Tussupova, Ronny Berndtsson, Marat Kalishev, Kulyash Sharapatova
Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people's health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ali Rezaie, Phillip Gu, Gilaad G Kaplan, Mark Pimentel, Ahmed K Al-Darmaki
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients often continue to experience nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms despite quiescent disease. Unlike non-IBD patients, IBD patients with dyssynergic defecation (DD) may present with various symptoms such as diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, and rectal discomfort. Despite its importance and treatability, DD in IBD patients is not well recognized in practice. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of DD in IBD patients with ongoing defecatory symptoms...
February 24, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Richard D Carvajal, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Ellen Kapiteijn, Paul B Chapman, Stephen Frank, Anthony M Joshua, Josep M Piulats, Pascal Wolter, Veronique Cocquyt, Bartosz Chmielowski, T R Jeffry Evans, Lauris Gastaud, Gerald Linette, Carola Berking, Jacob Schachter, Manuel J Rodrigues, Alexander N Shoushtari, Delyth Clemett, Dana Ghiorghiu, Gabriella Mariani, Shirley Spratt, Susan Lovick, Peter Barker, Elaine Kilgour, Zhongwu Lai, Gary K Schwartz, Paul Nathan
Purpose Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults with no effective systemic treatment option in the metastatic setting. Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is an oral, potent, and selective MEK1/2 inhibitor with a short half-life, which demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma in a randomized phase II trial. Methods The Selumetinib (AZD6244: ARRY-142886) (Hyd-Sulfate) in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma (SUMIT) study was a phase III, double-blind trial ( ClinicalTrial...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Sareh Shahmohammadi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abootorab Shahmohammadi, Rozita Doosti, Ali Zare-Mirzaie, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most important demyelinating diseases that affects the central nervous system. Its treatment often involves a long-term disease modifying therapy. According to some studies, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is higher in MS patients than in the normal population. There are also few studies that have reported the onset of UC after rituximab therapy. The present study presents a report of a 31-years old female patient suffering from aggressive multiple sclerosis, which developed into autoimmune hepatitis during the MS therapy...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Klaus Aktories, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Carsten Schwan
Clostridium difficile infection causes antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the Rho-glucosylating toxins TcdA and TcdB. In addition, many, so-called hypervirulent C. difficile strains produce the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CDT. CDT causes depolymerization of F-actin and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thereby, many cellular functions, which depend on actin, are altered. CDT disturbs the dynamic balance between actin and microtubules in target cells...
March 7, 2018: Anaerobe
Xiu-Jing Han, Dan-Hong Su, Jian-Yun Yi, Ya-Wei Zou, Yu-Ling Shi
BACKGROUND: The typical manifestations of Penicillium marneffei (nowadays Talaromyces marneffei) infection in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain unclear. The current work presents the case of a child without an underlying disease who was infected with P. marneffei comorbid with eosinophilia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old male was infected with P. marneffei. A physical examination revealed a high-grade fever, ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa, anemia, pruritic erythematous papules on the sac and thigh and watery diarrhea...
March 9, 2018: Mycopathologia
Jesus Salinas-Casado, Santiago Méndez-Rubio, Manuel Esteban-Fuertes, Antonio Gómez-Rodríguez, Miguel Vírseda-Chamorro, Marcos Luján-Galán, Grupo Rituman
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of dietary supplement "Manosar®" composed of D-mannose (2 g), 24 h prolonged release, associated with Proanthocyanidin (PAC) (140 mg), ursolic acid (7.98 mg), A, C, and D vitamins and the oligoelement zinc, versus 240 mg of PAC in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), for a designed follow-up of 24 weeks, in women. METHODS: A multicenter randomized experimental double-blind study was carried out. The study was approved by review board of "Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo" (Spain), and all patients gave informed consent...
March 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
John Jensen, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard, Antonio Battisti, Keith Edward Baptiste
At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain...
March 5, 2018: Environment International
Jonathan C Cho, Monika T Zmarlicka, Kristy M Shaeer, Joe Pardo
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, efficacy, administration, and considerations for clinical use of meropenem/vaborbactam (M/V). DATA SOURCES: A literature search using PubMed and (June 2013 to December 2017) was conducted using the search terms meropenem, vaborbactam, RPX7009, biapenem, RPX2003, and carbavance. References from relevant articles and conference abstracts were also reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
S Elkholy, S Mogawer, A Farag
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a rare benign condition that is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the lymphoid follicles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). During endoscopy, NLH appears as multiple or occasionally innumerable nodules measuring a few millimeters in diameter. NLH occurs mainly in the small intestine, less commonly in the large intestine and rarely involves the stomach. There are multiple associated diseases such as immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes, giardiasis, Helicobacter pylori (H...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Marzieh Tavakol, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Mir Reza Ghaemi, Mohammad Vaezi, Atosa Dorudinia, Hamidreza Jamaati, Ali Akbar Velayati
Good's syndrome, the adult onset hypogammaglobulinemia associated with thymoma has been explained about six decades ago. It generally presents with recurrent infections and several paraneoplastic syndromes including myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, connective tissue disorders, superior vena cava, Horner's syndrome, lichen planus and inflammatory bowel disease. Lack of B cell, dysfunction of T cell, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, reversed CD4/CD8+ T cell ratio, autoantibodies against Th17 related cytokines have been respected as the pathogenesis of the immune dysregulation this syndrome...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Jiayi Cai, Chunyang Zhao, Yajie Du, Yaqiong Zhang, Mingyi Zhao, Qingchun Zhao
Background: Probiotics are commonly used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). However, the optimum regimen remains controversial. Objective: The objective of this article is to compare and rank the relative efficacy and tolerability among all available probiotic agents for AAD through a network meta-analysis. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane library and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the efficacy of probiotic therapy for AAD...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Hailan Zhang, Yuzuo Bai, Weilin Wang
Background: In children less than 3 years of age, there is little experience in the nonoperative management of appendiceal phlegmon or abscess (APA), especially in APA with an appendicolith. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of an appendicolith and the success rate of nonoperative management for APA in these young children. Methods: Children younger than 3 years of age with APA who underwent attempted initial nonoperative treatment between January 2008 and December 2016 were reviewed...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Hope E Arnold, Katherine J Baxter, Heather L Short, Curtis Travers, Amina Bhatia, Megan M Durham, Mehul V Raval
BACKGROUND: Our goal is to determine short- and long-term outcomes of simple gastroschisis (SG) and complicated gastroschisis (CG) patients including quality of life (QoL) measures, surgical reoperation rates, and residual gastrointestinal symptom burden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgical repair of gastroschisis between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012, was performed at a quaternary children's hospital. Parent telephone surveys were conducted to collect information on subsequent operations and current health status as well as to assess QoL using two validated tools...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Kazuki Hirata, Taku Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Nobuyasu Hirai, Tomoko Nakagawa-Onishi, Kenji Uno, Masahiro Takeyama, Kei Kasahara, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Mitsuru Konishi, Keiichi Mikasa
Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Qingjuan Shang, Qiankun Geng, Xuebing Zhang, Hongfang Xu, Chunbao Guo
This study was conducted to assess the clinical advantages of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in pediatric patients who underwent surgery with gastrointestinal (GI) anastomosis.EEN has been associated with clinical benefits in various aspect of surgical intervention, including GI function recovery and postoperative complications reduction. Evaluable data documenting clinical advantages with EEN for pediatric patients after surgery with GI anastomosis are limited.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 575 pediatric patients undergoing surgical intervention with GI anastomosis...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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