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Diarrhea review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640662/using-probiotics-in-clinical-practice-where-are-we-now-a-review-of-existing-meta-analyses
#1
Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Anna Faliva, Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gabriella Peroni, Anna Maria Castellazzi
The scientific literature has demonstrated that probiotics have a broad spectrum of activity, although often the results are contradictory. This study provides a critical overview of the current meta-analyses that have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in physiological and pathological conditions, such as metabolic disease, antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, IBS, constipation, IBD, chemotherapy-associated diarrhea, respiratory tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, NAFLD, liver encephalopathy, periodontitis, depression, vaginosis, urinary tract infections, pancreatitis, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital infection and stay in ICU, mortality of post-trauma patients, necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636835/use-of-bacteriophages-to-control-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-domestic-ruminants-meat-products-and-fruits-and-vegetables
#2
Lili Wang, Kunli Qu, Xiaoyu Li, Zhenhui Cao, Xitao Wang, Zhen Li, Yaxiong Song, Yongping Xu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes...
June 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636257/covalent-attachment-and-pro-pro-endopeptidase-ppep-1-mediated-release-of-clostridium-difficile-cell-surface-proteins-involved-in-adhesion
#3
REVIEW
Jeroen Corver, Valentina Cordo', Hans C van Leeuwen, Oleg I Klychnikov, Paul J Hensbergen
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as an important gut pathogen. This anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium is the main cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. Whereas much is known about the mechanism through which the C. difficile toxins cause diarrhea, relatively little is known about the dynamics of adhesion and motility, which is mediated by cell surface proteins. This review will discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the sortase-mediated covalent attachment of cell surface (adhesion) proteins to the peptidoglycan layer of C...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635648/deoxyelephantopin-and-isodeoxyelephantopin-as-potential-anticancer-agents-with-effects-on-multiple-signaling-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, Hamed A Ghramh, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and isodeoxyelephantopin (IDET) are sesquiterpene lactone components of "Elephantopus scaber and Elephantopus carolinianus", traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have long been used as folk medicines to treat liver diseases, diabetes, diuresis, bronchitis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, and inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634691/modulation-of-rotavirus-severe-gastroenteritis-by-the-combination-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#5
REVIEW
Guadalupe Gonzalez-Ochoa, Lilian K Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-Garcia, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626911/clinical-findings-and-management-of-153-horses-with-large-colon-sand-accumulations
#6
Isabelle Kilcoyne, Julie E Dechant, Sharon J Spier, Mathieu Spriet, Jorge E Nieto
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of radiographic quantification of sand accumulation on the medical versus surgical management of large colon sand accumulations. To compare short- and long-term outcomes and complications associated with medical and surgical management of these horses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 153 horses. METHODS: Medical records and abdominal radiographs of horses presented for colic between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed...
June 19, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#7
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624578/temporary-removal-accuracy-of-tests-for-antibodies-against-tissue-transglutaminase-in-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-without-biopsy
#8
K J Werkstetter, I R Korponay-Szabó, A Popp, V Villanacci, M Salemme, G Heilig, S T Lillevang, M L Mearin, C Ribes-Koninckx, A Thomas, R Troncone, B Filipiak, M Mäki, J Gyimesi, M Najafi, J Dolinšek, S Dydensborg Sander, R Auricchio, A Papadopoulou, A Vécsei, P Szitanyi, E Donat, R Nenna, Ph Alliet, F Penagini, H Garnier-Lengliné, G Castillejo, K Kurppa, R Shamir, A C Hauer, F Smets, S Corujeira, M van Winckel, S Buderus, S Chong, S Husby, S Koletzko
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
June 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623566/clinical-and-molecular-genetic-features-of-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-patients-in-chinese-families
#9
Chen Chen, Yue Zhang, Hui Wu, Yi-Min Sun, Ye-Hua Cai, Jian-Jun Wu, Jian Wang, Ling-Yun Gong, Zheng-Tong Ding
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid-storage disease caused by mutations in CYP27A1. Current publications of Chinese CTX were mainly based on case reports. Here we investigated the clinical manifestations, genetic features in Chinese CTX patients. The clinical materials of 4 Chinese CTX pedigrees were collected. The genetic testing was done by polymerase chain reaction plus Sanger sequencing. The features of Chinese CTX patients reported previously were also reviewed. Three novel mutations of p.Arg513Cys, c...
June 17, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#10
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611491/phytases-of-probiotic-bacteria-characteristics-and-beneficial-aspects
#11
REVIEW
P Priyodip, P Y Prakash, S Balaji
Probiotics play a vital role in clinical applications for the treatment of diarrhea, obesity and urinary tract infections. Phytate, an anti-nutrient, chelates essential minerals that are vital for human health. In the past few decades, research reports emphasize extensively on phytate degradation in animals. There is a growing need for finding alternate strategies of phytate utilization in human, as they are unable to produce phytase. At this juncture, probiotics can be utilized for phytase production to combat mineral deficiency in humans...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608661/campylobacter-jejuni-bacteremia-in-a-liver-cirrhosis-patient-and-review-of-literature-a-case-study
#12
Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hak Jun Hyun, Min Joo Choi, Ji Ho Jeon, Eunju Jung, Seonghui Kang, Jeeyong Kim, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Campylobacter infection causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. Occasionally, Campylobacter bacteremia affects immunocompromised patients; however, serious outcomes are known to be rare. Here, we present a case of a patient with Campylobacter bacteremia who had underlying liver cirrhosis. The patient had fever and diarrhea. These symptoms subsided after treatment with cefotaxime. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in the blood culture after 10 days. In addition, previously reported cases of Campylobacter bacteremia in Asian countries were reviewed with respect to antimicrobial sensitivities...
May 26, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606713/rhabdomyolysis-and-coeliac-disease-a-causal-or-casual-association-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Claudia Mandato, Alessandro Rossi, Mariano Caldore, Marta Lamba, Michele Rocco, Renata Auricchio, Pietro Vajro, Paolo Siani
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition, caused by multiple disorders. The association with Coeliac Disease (CD) has been rarely reported and in these cases muscular damage was imputed to hypokalemia. Herein we describe a new case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a child subsequently diagnosed as affected by CD, and review previous reports. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old boy was referred for diarrhea, brown urine, muscular pain/weakness, and no history of muscular trauma...
June 9, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602793/the-single-anastomosis-duodenal-switch-modifications-a-review-of-the-current-literature-on-outcomes
#14
Philippe Topart, Guillaume Becouarn
BACKGROUND: The single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) was designed in 2007 to reduce the side effects of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) by replacing the Roux-en-Y construction with a single duodeno-ileal anastomosis and combining the common channel with the alimentary limb. Several variants using different channel lengths were published. The objective of this study was to identify the published cases of SADI-S and variants and assess the results regarding potential benefits on side effects and revisions...
April 27, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602619/the-impact-of-sanitation-on-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-status-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Matthew C Freeman, Joshua V Garn, Gloria D Sclar, Sophie Boisson, Kate Medlicott, Kelly T Alexander, Gauthami Penakalapati, Darcy Anderson, Amrita G Mahtani, Jack E T Grimes, Eva A Rehfuess, Thomas F Clasen
BACKGROUND: Sanitation aims to sequester human feces and prevent exposure to fecal pathogens. More than 2.4 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities and almost one billion practice open defecation. We undertook systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compile the most recent evidence on the impact of sanitation on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and nutritional status assessed using anthropometry. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We updated previously published reviews by following their search strategy and eligibility criteria...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#16
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601423/crohn-disease-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Joseph D Feuerstein, Adam S Cheifetz
Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills...
June 7, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597812/microbial-impact-on-host-metabolism-opportunities-for-novel-treatments-of-nutritional-disorders
#18
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Malnutrition is the cause of major public health concerns worldwide. On the one hand, obesity and associated pathologies (also known as the metabolic syndrome) affect more than 10% of the world population. Such pathologies might arise from an elevated inflammatory tone. We have discovered that the inflammatory properties of high-fat diets were linked to the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We proposed a mechanism associating the gut microbiota with the onset of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, a phenomenon that we called "metabolic endotoxemia...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596030/two-three-and-four-drug-regimens-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-a-north-american-sexual-assault-victim-population
#19
Thara Kumar, Kari Sampsel, Ian G Stiell
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Due to perceived increased tolerability and compliance, and decreased cost, recent trends in practice are moving towards using fewer drugs for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. However, there is limited literature to assess this is in the North American sexual assault victim population. METHODS: This retrospective before-and-after cohort study compared patients seen at a sexual assault care facility before and after the introduction of two and three-drug post-exposure prophylaxis regimens...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595451/dependent-erythema-of-the-legs-associated-with-mild-autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunction
#20
Bahar Bahrani, Christopher S Sladden
INTRODUCTION: Dependent erythema or rubor is an erythematous discoloration of the limbs, most commonly associated with peripheral artery disease. We present a case of florid dependent erythema, associated with additional autonomic symptoms. METHODS: Examination and full workup of a 16-year-old healthy girl with an 8-year history of dependent erythema, chronic diarrhea, and mild hyperhidrosis. A literature search was performed to review any similar cases and generate a differential diagnosis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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