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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782693/multidomain-intervention-for-the-prevention-of-cognitive-decline-after-stroke-a-pooled-patient-level-data-analysis
#1
Yvonne Teuschl, Hege Ihle-Hansen, Karl Matz, Alexandra Dachenhausen, Paulina Ratajczak, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Marie Helene Ursin, Guri Hagberg, Bente Thommessen, Anne Rita Øksengård, Michael Brainin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this pooled patient-level data analysis was to test if multidomain interventions, addressing several modifiable vascular risk factors simultaneously, is more effective than usual post-stroke care for the prevention of cognitive decline after stroke. METHODS: This pooled patient-level data analysis includes two randomised controlled trials using a multidomain approach to target vascular risk factors in stroke patients and cognition as primary outcome...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782485/evaluation-and-application-of-summary-statistic-imputation-to-discover-new-height-associated-loci
#2
Sina Rüeger, Aaron McDaid, Zoltán Kutalik
As most of the heritability of complex traits is attributed to common and low frequency genetic variants, imputing them by combining genotyping chips and large sequenced reference panels is the most cost-effective approach to discover the genetic basis of these traits. Association summary statistics from genome-wide meta-analyses are available for hundreds of traits. Updating these to ever-increasing reference panels is very cumbersome as it requires reimputation of the genetic data, rerunning the association scan, and meta-analysing the results...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780262/high-mortality-due-to-cutaneous-melanoma-in-norway-a-study-of-prognostic-factors-in-a-nationwide-cancer-registry
#3
Trude Eid Robsahm, Per Helsing, Yngvar Nilssen, Linda Vos, Syed Mohammad H Rizvi, Lars A Akslen, Marit B Veierød
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine why Norway has the highest rate of mortality due to cutaneous melanoma (CM) in Europe. The Norwegian Malignant Melanoma Registry (NMMR) enables the study of clinical and histopathological characteristics of patients who die due to CM. Results: The NMMR and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry provided data on the clinical and histopathological factors as well as the date and cause of death, through June 2015 for all first invasive CMs diagnosed in 2008-2012 (n=8087)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780058/determinants-of-high-school-dropout-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-deprived-area-of-japan
#4
Takahiro Tabuchi, Sho Fujihara, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Hiroyuki Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: Our objective in this study was to find determinants of high-school dropout in a deprived area of Japan using longitudinal data, including socio-demographic and junior high school-period information. METHODS: We followed 695 students who graduated the junior high school located in a deprived area of Japan between 2002 and 2010 for 3 years after graduation (614 students: follow-up rate, 88.3%). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for high-school dropout, using multiple imputation (MI) to account for non-response at follow-up...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779033/genome-wide-association-study-of-renal-function-traits-results-from-the-japan-multi-institutional-collaborative-cohort-study
#5
Asahi Hishida, Masahiro Nakatochi, Masato Akiyama, Yoichiro Kamatani, Takeshi Nishiyama, Hidemi Ito, Isao Oze, Yuichiro Nishida, Megumi Hara, Naoyuki Takashima, Tanvir Chowdhury Turin, Miki Watanabe, Sadao Suzuki, Rie Ibusuki, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Yohko Nakamura, Haruo Mikami, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Norihiro Furusyo, Kiyonori Kuriki, Kaori Endoh, Teruhide Koyama, Daisuke Matsui, Hirokazu Uemura, Kokichi Arisawa, Tae Sasakabe, Rieko Okada, Sayo Kawai, Mariko Naito, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, Kenji Wakai
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a rapidly growing, worldwide public health problem. Recent advances in genome-wide-association studies (GWAS) revealed several genetic loci associated with renal function traits worldwide. METHODS: We investigated the association of genetic factors with the levels of serum creatinine (SCr) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Japanese population-based cohorts analyzing the GWAS imputed data with 11,221 subjects and 12,617,569 variants, and replicated the findings with the 148,829 hospital-based Japanese subjects...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778561/severe-xanthomatosis-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#6
Sumayah Aljenedil, Isabelle Ruel, Kevin Watters, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic lipoprotein disorder characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, (tendinous xanthomas, xanthelasmas, and premature arcus corneus) and early onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein B or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 genes. Rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1, APOE p...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778399/may-measurement-month-2017-an-analysis-of-blood-pressure-screening-results-worldwide
#7
Thomas Beaney, Aletta E Schutte, Maciej Tomaszewski, Cono Ariti, Louise M Burrell, Rafael R Castillo, Fadi J Charchar, Albertino Damasceno, Ruan Kruger, Daniel T Lackland, Peter M Nilsson, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Agustin J Ramirez, Markus P Schlaich, Jiguang Wang, Michael A Weber, Neil R Poulter
BACKGROUND: Increased blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. Data suggest that less than half of the population with hypertension is aware of it. May Measurement Month was initiated to raise awareness of the importance of blood pressure and as a pragmatic interim solution to the shortfall in screening programmes. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey included volunteer adults (≥18 years) who ideally had not had their blood pressures measured in the past year...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777866/considerations-of-multiple-imputation-approaches-for-handling-missing-data-in-clinical-trials
#8
Hui Quan, Li Qi, Xiaodong Luo, Loic Darchy
Missing data exist in all clinical trials and missing data issue is a very serious issue in terms of the interpretability of the trial results. There is no universally applicable solution for all missing data problems. Methods used for handling missing data issue depend on the circumstances particularly the assumptions on missing data mechanisms. In recent years, if the missing at random mechanism cannot be assumed, conservative approaches such as the control-based and returning to baseline multiple imputation approaches are applied for dealing with the missing data issues...
May 16, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777227/in-utero-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-and-adiposity-does-breastfeeding-make-a-difference
#9
L L Hui, A M Li, E A S Nelson, G M Leung, S L Lee, C M Schooling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Short-term breastfeeding from mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) may programme metabolism and increase offspring diabetes risk. We examined the association of in utero GDM exposure with adiposity from infancy to adolescence, and whether any association was modified by breastfeeding during early infancy. METHODS: In the prospective Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" (n = 7342, 88% follow-up rate), generalised estimate equations with multiple imputation were used to assess associations of in utero GDM exposure with age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score during infancy (3 and 9 months), childhood (2- < 8 years) and adolescence (8-16 years), adjusted for sex, parity, maternal age, birth place, preeclampisa, smoking, and family socio-economic position...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776327/utility-of-whole-genome-sequence-data-for-across-breed-genomic-prediction
#10
Biaty Raymond, Aniek C Bouwman, Chris Schrooten, Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat, Roel F Veerkamp
BACKGROUND: Genomic prediction (GP) across breeds has so far resulted in low accuracies of the predicted genomic breeding values. Our objective was to evaluate whether using whole-genome sequence (WGS) instead of low-density markers can improve GP across breeds, especially when markers are pre-selected from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to test our hypothesis that many non-causal markers in WGS data have a diluting effect on accuracy of across-breed prediction. METHODS: Estimated breeding values for stature and bovine high-density (HD) genotypes were available for 595 Jersey bulls from New Zealand, 957 Holstein bulls from New Zealand and 5553 Holstein bulls from the Netherlands...
May 18, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775707/in-vitro-digestibility-of-normal-and-waxy-corn-starch-is-modified-by-the-addition-of-tween-80
#11
E J Vernon-Carter, J Alvarez-Ramirez, L A Bello-Perez, A Garcia-Hernandez, C Roldan-Cruz, S Garcia-Diaz
Aqueous dispersions of normal and waxy corn starch (3% w/w) were mixed with Tween 80 (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 g/100 g of starch), and gelatinized (90 °C, 20 min). Optical microscopy of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSDx ; x = Tween 80 concentration) revealed that the microstructure was characterized by a continuous phase of leached amylose and amylopectin entangled chains, and a dispersed phase of insoluble remnants, called ghosts, on whose surface small granules were observed, imputed to Tween 80...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773932/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-therapy-with-once-weekly-exenatide-versus-basal-insulin-among-injectable-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-real-world-setting-in-the-united-states
#12
Anita M Loughlin, Qing Qiao, Anthony P Nunes, Stephen M Ezzy, Laura Yochum, C Robin Clifford, Robert V Gately, David D Dore, John D Seeger
A propensity-matched cohort study compared injectable-naive patients with type 2 diabetes initiating exenatide once weekly (EQW) or basal insulin (BI), from 2012 through 2015, within a U.S. electronic health record database. A1C and weight were obtained as observed or multiply imputed values at baseline and quarterly for 1 year (Q1-Q4). Hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal symptoms were identified using diagnostic codes and clinical notes. EQW ( n = 2,008) and BI ( n = 4,016) cohorts were comparable at baseline (mean A1C and weight: EQW, 8...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772479/adverse-lipid-profile-elevates-risk-for-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Joni Lindbohm, Miikka Korja, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. METHODS: The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH...
May 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770443/the-impact-of-policy-incentives-on-long-term-care-insurance-and-medicaid-costs-does-underwriting-matter
#14
Portia Y Cornell, David C Grabwoski
OBJECTIVE: To test whether underwriting modifies the effect of state-based incentives on individuals' purchase of long-term care insurance. DATA SOURCE: Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1996-2012. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated difference-in-difference regression models with an interaction of state policy indicators with individuals' probabilities of being approved for long-term care insurance. DATA EXTRACTION: We imputed probabilities of underwriting approval for respondents in the HRS using a model developed with underwriting decisions from two U...
May 16, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768667/analyzing-self-controlled-case-series-data-when-case-confirmation-rates-are-estimated-from-an-internal-validation-sample
#15
Stanley Xu, Christina L Clarke, Sophia R Newcomer, Matthew F Daley, Jason M Glanz
Vaccine safety studies are often electronic health record (EHR)-based observational studies. These studies often face significant methodological challenges, including confounding and misclassification of adverse event. Vaccine safety researchers use self-controlled case series (SCCS) study design to handle confounding effect and employ medical chart review to ascertain cases that are identified using EHR data. However, for common adverse events, limited resources often make it impossible to adjudicate all adverse events observed in electronic data...
May 16, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764423/multidisciplinary-biopsychosocial-rehabilitation-for-chronic-low-back-pain-the-need-to-present-minimal-important-differences-units-in-meta-analyses
#16
Silvia Gianola, Anita Andreano, Greta Castellini, Lorenzo Moja, Maria Grazia Valsecchi
BACKGROUND: The results of meta-analyses are all too often elusive, making it difficult to interpret their relevance for clinical practice. Reporting them in minimal important difference (MID) units could improve the interpretation of evidence in meta-analyses. The aim of this study was to compare, via calculation of MID units, outcomes after multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation (MBR) versus usual care for pain relief in chronic low back pain (LBP). METHODS: We re-analyzed the data of a published Cochrane review on MBR...
May 15, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764364/efficient-algorithms-for-polyploid-haplotype-phasing
#17
Dan He, Subrata Saha, Richard Finkers, Laxmi Parida
BACKGROUND: Inference of haplotypes, or the sequence of alleles along the same chromosomes, is a fundamental problem in genetics and is a key component for many analyses including admixture mapping, identifying regions of identity by descent and imputation. Haplotype phasing based on sequencing reads has attracted lots of attentions. Diploid haplotype phasing where the two haplotypes are complimentary have been studied extensively. In this work, we focused on Polyploid haplotype phasing where we aim to phase more than two haplotypes at the same time from sequencing data...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763869/exposure-of-dioxin-like-chemicals-in-participants-of-the-anniston-community-health-survey-follow-up
#18
Eric Yang, Marian Pavuk, Andreas Sjödin, Michael Lewin, Richard Jones, Jim Olson, Linda Birnbaum
The 2014 follow-up of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS II) consisted of 338 surviving participants from the 2005-2007 baseline study (ACHS) who had previous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) measurements, were not pregnant, and were not institutionalized. Questionnaires and blood samples provided the demographic, personal history, and chemical concentration data of the Anniston residents. Approximately 51% of participants were African American, 72% were female, and the mean age was 63 years old. The objectives of this study were to provide an exposure assessment of dioxin-like chemicals in the ACHS II participants and compare the measurements with the general United States (U...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762745/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-a-meningioma-risk-locus-at-11p15-5
#19
Elizabeth B Claus, Alex J Cornish, Peter Broderick, Joellen M Schildkraut, Sara E Dobbins, Amy Holroyd, Lisa Calvocoressi, Lingeng Lu, Helen M Hansen, Ivan Smirnov, Kyle M Walsh, Johannes Schramm, Per Hoffmann, Markus M Nöthen, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anthony Swerdlow, Signe Benzon Larsen, Christoffer Johansen, Matthias Simon, Melissa Bondy, Margaret Wrensch, Richard Houlston, Joseph L Wiemels
BACKGROUND: Meningioma are adult brain tumors originating in the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord, with significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified only a single risk locus for meningioma, at 10p12.31. METHODS: To identify a susceptibility locus for meningioma, we conducted a meta-analysis of two GWAS, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, with validation in two independent sample series totaling 2,138 cases and 12,081 controls...
May 12, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759910/genetic-parameters-predictions-and-rankings-for-semen-production-traits-in-a-thailand-multi-breed-dairy-population-using-genomic-polygenic-and-polygenic-models
#20
Mattaneeya Sarakul, Mauricio A Elzo, Skorn Koonawootrittriron, Thanathip Suwanasopee, Danai Jattawa
The objectives were to compare estimates of variance components, genetic parameters, prediction accuracies, and rankings of bulls for semen volume (VOL), number of sperm (NS), and motility (MOT) using genomic-polygenic (GPRM) and polygenic repeatability models (PRM). The dataset comprised 13,535 VOL, 12,773 NS, and 12,660 MOT from 131 bulls collected from 2001 to 2017 in the Semen Production and Dairy Genetic Evaluation Center of the Dairy Farming Promotion Organization of Thailand. Genotypic data encompassed 76,519 actual and imputed SNP from 72 animals...
May 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
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