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Juvenile delinquency and substance use

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#1
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476263/outcomes-of-a-family-based-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-substance-using-juvenile-offenders
#2
Marina Tolou-Shams, Emily Dauria, Selby M Conrad, Kathleen Kemp, Sarah Johnson, Larry K Brown
Approximately 80% of all arrested youth are diverted from detention and supervised in the community through probation, specialty courts and other community-based diversion efforts. Justice-involved youth have greater psychiatric impairment, substance use and sexual risk behaviors than their non-justice-involved peers. Family-based interventions to address mental health, substance use and recidivism have been successful in improving these youth outcomes; but the lack of integration of HIV/STI prevention is notable given the co-occurrence of substance use, delinquency and sexual risk-taking behaviors among justice-involved youth...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363134/dissociable-effects-of-age-and-testosterone-on-adolescent-impatience
#3
Corinna Laube, Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Megan Johnson, Ronald E Dahl, Wouter van den Bos
The onset of adolescence is associated with an increase in transgressive behaviours-from juvenile delinquency to substance use and unprotected sex-that are often attributed to increased impulsiveness. In the past, this increase was ascribed to "raging hormones"; more recently, to an imbalance in the maturation of different brain regions. However, it remains unclear how these large-scale biological changes impact specific processes that result in impulsive decisions, namely, sensitivity to immediate rewards and general discounting of future options...
June 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132705/the-juvenile-justice-behavioral-health-services-cascade-a-new-framework-for-measuring-unmet-substance-use-treatment-services-needs-among-adolescent-offenders
#4
Steven Belenko, Danica Knight, Gail A Wasserman, Michael L Dennis, Tisha Wiley, Faye S Taxman, Carrie Oser, Richard Dembo, Angela A Robertson, Jessica Sales
OVERVIEW: Substance use and substance use disorders are highly prevalent among youth under juvenile justice (JJ) supervision, and related to delinquency, psychopathology, social problems, risky sex and sexually transmitted infections, and health problems. However, numerous gaps exist in the identification of behavioral health (BH) problems and in the subsequent referral, initiation and retention in treatment for youth in community justice settings. This reflects both organizational and systems factors, including coordination between justice and BH agencies...
March 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117060/trajectories-of-substance-use-disorder-in-youth-after-detention-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#5
Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Karen M Abram, Hongyun Han, Gayle R Byck, Linda A Teplin
OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of substance use disorders (SUDs) in youth during the 12 years after detention and how gender, race/ethnicity, and age at baseline predict trajectories. METHOD: As part of the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal study of 1,829 youth randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois from 1995 through 1998, participants were reinterviewed in the community or correctional facilities up to 9 times over 12 years. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992626/sex-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-positive-outcomes-in-delinquent-youth-after-detention-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#6
Karen M Abram, Nicole M Azores-Gococo, Kristin M Emanuel, David A Aaby, Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Melinda S Rosenbaum, Linda A Teplin
Importance: Longitudinal studies of delinquent youth have focused on criminal recidivism, not on psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. This omission is critical because after detention most youth return to the community, where they become the responsibility of pediatric health care professionals. Objective: To investigate 8 positive outcomes among delinquent youth 5 and 12 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal US study of long-term outcomes of delinquent youth after detention, participants were interviewed in detention between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and reinterviewed up to 9 times during the 12-year study period, through May 12, 2011...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776683/social-ecological-determinants-of-substance-use-treatment-entry-among-serious-juvenile-offenders-from-adolescence-through-emerging-adulthood
#7
Jordan P Davis, Tara M Dumas, Eric F Wagner, Gabriel J Merrin
PURPOSE: To examine the social-ecological determinants of substance use treatment entry among serious juvenile offenders over a 7 year period. Using the social-ecological framework, relevant predictors of substance use from the literature were used to assess risk (and protective) factors at the individual, parental, peer and neighborhood level. METHOD: Serious juvenile offenders (N=1354, Mage baseline=16.0 years, SD=1.14) were prospectively followed over 7 years (Mage Conclusion=23...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745723/-psychological-processes-of-stress-management-and-neuroendocrine-regulation-in-incarcerated-adolescent-offenders-a-pilot-study
#8
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688799/the-associations-of-cumulative-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-irritability-with-mental-disorders-in-detained-male-adolescent-offenders
#9
Hannes Bielas, Steffen Barra, Christine Skrivanek, Marcel Aebi, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Cornelia Bessler, Belinda Plattner
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychiatric disorders are common in juvenile detainees. Emotional dysregulation resulting from cumulated ACEs may be characterized by symptoms of irritability. The present study examined whether the accumulation of ACEs, irritability, or both predicted mental disorders in incarcerated adolescents with and without controlling for one another and for socio-demographic factors. METHODS: One hundred thirty male detained juvenile offenders (aged 13...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107822/psychopathic-traits-and-maltreatment-relations-with-aggression-and-mental-health-problems-in-detained-boys
#10
Pauline Vahl, Olivier F Colins, Henny P B Lodewijks, Ramon Lindauer, Monica T Markus, Theo A H Doreleijers, Robert R Vermeiren
Psychopathic traits and a history of maltreatment are well-known risk factors for mental health problems and aggression. A better insight in the impact of such risk factors on juvenile delinquents is likely to help tailoring treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to examine mental health problems and aggression in detained delinquent youths with various levels of psychopathic traits and maltreatment. Standardized questionnaires were used to assign 439 detained male adolescents (N = 439; from 13 to 18years of age) to one of six mutually exclusive groups: adolescents with (1) low psychopathic traits without maltreatment; (2) low psychopathic traits and one type of maltreatment; (3) low psychopathic traits and multiple types of maltreatment; (4) high psychopathic traits without maltreatment; (5) high psychopathic traits and one type of maltreatment and finally (6) high psychopathic traits and multiple types of maltreatment...
May 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997851/polysubstance-use-among-minority-adolescent-males-incarcerated-for-serious-offenses
#11
Sarah Jensen Racz, Shonali Saha, Maria Trent, Hoover Adger, Catherine P Bradshaw, Asha Goldweber, Elizabeth Cauffman
BACKGROUND: Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. OBJECTIVE: This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth incarcerated for serious offenses. We examined several risk factors for substance use and delinquency (i.e., early and frequent substance use, prior history of arrests, school expulsion, Black ethnicity), as well as the association between aggression and polysubstance use...
April 16, 2015: Child & Youth Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26834795/comparison-of-family-power-structure-and-identity-style-between-delinquent-and-non-delinquent-juveniles
#12
Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Masoumeh Rahmatizadeh, Hossein Shaghelanilor, Lesley Pocock
BACKGROUND: Adolescence denotes a time in which youth begins to experience dangerous behaviors like substance use and delinquency. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the family power structure and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles residing in Tehran, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the correction and rehabilitation centers aged between 15 and 18 years were selected with convenience sampling method and 80 students of secondary school age between 15 and 18 years in Tehran, Iran in 2012...
December 2015: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594920/responding-to-the-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-needs-of-youth-in-the-juvenile-justice-system-ohio-s-behavioral-health-juvenile-justice-initiative
#13
Jeff M Kretschmar, Fredrick Butcher, Patrick J Kanary, Rebecca Devens
Discusses how Ohio's responded to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system by establishing the Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative. The consequences of a willful neglect of some of our most vulnerable citizens were significant and severe. Many individuals ended up on the streets, and many more found themselves in local jails. Over time, jails became de facto mental health facilities. Unfortunately, jails were, and often continue to be, ill-prepared to effectively screen, assess, and treat individuals with mental health concerns...
November 2015: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26413463/caregiver-involvement-in-sexual-risk-reduction-with-substance-using-juvenile-delinquents-overview-and-preliminary-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#14
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Michael R McCart, Kammarauche Asuzu, Pia M Mauro, Ashli J Sheidow
BACKGROUND: Substance using juvenile offenders have some of the highest rates for engaging in risky sexual behaviors compared to other adolescent subgroups. METHODS: An overview of the literature on sexual risk behaviors among these youth is provided, including the empirical support for including caregivers/parents as critical partners in sexual risk reduction efforts with this population. In particular, there is (a) evidence that family factors contribute to adolescent sexual risk, (b) emerging support for caregiver focused interventions that target adolescent sexual risk, and (c) established support for caregiver focused interventions that target other complex adolescent behavior problems...
2013: Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26084593/aggressive-behaviors-in-young-siblings-associations-with-executive-functions-and-maternal-characteristics
#15
Catherine A Spann, Jeffrey R Gagne
Aggressive behaviors in early childhood are associated with multiple undesirable outcomes, including juvenile delinquency, academic failure, and substance abuse. This investigation employed a family study design to examine child, mother and sibling predictors of early-emerging aggressive behaviors. These predictors included several indices of executive functioning within children, depression symptoms and education level of mothers, and inhibitory control (IC) of siblings. The sample consisted of 95 families (191 children; boys = 100) with at least two, typically developing children between 30 and 66 months of age (M(age) = 45...
April 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25977595/staff-perspectives-on-juvenile-drug-court-operations-a-multi-site-qualitative-study
#16
Amy A Mericle, Steven Belenko, David Festinger, Jaymes Fairfax-Columbo, Michael R McCart
Substance use is pervasive among youth, particularly among those involved in the juvenile justice system. Juvenile drug courts (JDCs) are a promising approach for delinquent youth with substance abuse issues. However, research regarding JDCs has shown inconsistent effects, and little is known about the specific components associated with positive outcomes. The current study examines data from interviews of JDC judges and team member focus groups in six JDCs from two contiguous southeastern states to identify stakeholders' perceptions about what places youth at risk for involvement in JDC and the factors that may contribute to successful outcomes...
September 2014: Criminal Justice Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973804/behavioral-health-care-needs-detention-based-care-and-criminal-recidivism-at-community-reentry-from-juvenile-detention-a-multisite-survival-curve-analysis
#17
Matthew C Aalsma, Laura M White, Katherine S L Lau, Anthony Perkins, Patrick Monahan, Thomas Grisso
OBJECTIVES: We examined the provision of behavioral health services to youths detained in Indiana between 2008 and 2012 and the impact of services on recidivism. METHOD: We obtained information about behavioral health needs, behavioral health treatment received, and recidivism within 12 months after release for 8363 adolescents (aged 12-18 years; 79.4% male). We conducted survival analyses to determine whether behavioral health services significantly affected time to recidivating...
July 2015: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25935749/the-puzzle-of-intrafamilial-child-sexual-abuse-a-meta-analysis-comparing-intrafamilial-and-extrafamilial-offenders-with-child-victims
#18
REVIEW
Michael C Seto, Kelly M Babchishin, Lesleigh E Pullman, Ian V McPhail
Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is a serious social and health problem, yet explanations of sexual offending against children that emphasize antisocial tendencies and atypical sexual interests do not adequately explain intrafamilial offending. In this meta-analysis, we tested other explanations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse by examining 78 independent samples that compared a total of 6605 intrafamilial offenders to a total of 10,573 extrafamilial offenders, in studies disseminated between 1978 and 2013 (Mdn=2000)...
July 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844994/comorbid-adolescent-difficulties-social-work-prevention-of-delinquency-and-serious-youthful-offending
#19
REVIEW
Christopher A Mallett, Joshua Kirven
A majority of adolescents who are formally involved with the juvenile courts and detained or incarcerated are dealing with past or present maltreatment victimization, learning disabilities, and/or mental health/substance abuse difficulties. Addressing these problems and traumas is an integral part of preventing delinquency and breaking a youthful offender's recidivist cycle, a pattern that often predicts adult offending and incarceration. Fortunately, there are effective programs across the social work profession that decrease or may even eliminate delinquent behaviors, both for low-level and more serious youthful offenders...
2015: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844416/-psychometric-properties-of-the-polish-version-of-the-brief-version-of-kutcher-adolescent-depression-scale-assessment-of-depression-among-students
#20
Ewa Mojs, Weronika Bartkowska, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Michał Ziarko, Aleksandra Bujacz, Katarzyna Warchoł-Biedermann
AIM: Depressive disorders, which remain one of the most common and recurrent mood disorders worldwide, presently affect up to 15% of the population under age 25. Adolescent depression is related to a number of adverse phenomena such as scholastic/academic failure, juvenile delinquency, illicit substance abuse or suicide. Studies show that students are at a high risk of developing this disorder but depression in this population is often misdiagnosed and undertreated. Consequently, it is important to develop reliable diagnostic tools to evaluate symptoms of depression in students...
January 2015: Psychiatria Polska
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