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Zachary B Rodriguez, Susan L Perkins, Christopher C Austin
Several species of lizards from the megadiverse island of New Guinea have evolved green blood. An unusually high concentration of the green bile pigment biliverdin in the circulatory system of these lizards makes the blood, muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissues bright green in color, eclipsing the crimson color from their red blood cells. This is a remarkable physiological feature because bile pigments are toxic physiological waste products of red blood cell catabolism and, when chronically elevated, cause jaundice in humans and all other vertebrates...
May 2018: Science Advances
Mingyi Zhao, Minghua Yang, Weitao Que, Lin Zhong, Masayuki Fujino, Xiao-Kang Li
An increasing amount of evidence reveals that an orchestrated interplay between myeloid subpopulations in the hematopoietic system plays a significant role in supporting normal functions of the immune system and facilitating homeostatic restoration upon exogenous or endogenous insults. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a microsomal enzyme discovered decades ago, can metabolize pro-oxidant heme into biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide. This enzymatic reaction produces biological materials, contributing to major immunomodulatory effects...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Nisha Singh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Navin Baid, Ashwani Kumar
Infectious diseases are a major challenge in management of human health worldwide. Recent literature suggests that host immune system could be modulated to ameliorate the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Heme oxygenase (HMOX1) is a key regulator of cellular signaling and it could be modulated using pharmacological reagents. HMOX1 is a cytoprotective enzyme that degrades heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and molecular iron. CO and biliverdin (or bilirubin derived from it) can restrict the growth of a few pathogens...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
Makini K Cobourne-Duval, Equar Taka, Patricia Mendonca, Karam F A Soliman
Neuroinflammation and microglial activation are pathological markers of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Chronic activation of microglia induces the release of excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, chronic microglial activation has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been identified as one of the major active components of the natural product Nigella sativa seed oil...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Cong Li, Lijuan Li, Ling Jin, Junfa Yuan
Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is the etiological agent of spring viremia of carp (SVC) and causes mass mortality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Currently, no effective treatments or commercial vaccines against SVCV are available. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme to produce carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and ferrous iron (Fe2+), exerts anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) functions as an important upstream regulator of HO-1 and exhibits robust activity against SVCV infection...
May 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Eri Iijima, Matthew Paul Gleeson, Masaki Unno, Seiji Mori
Herein we report quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) studies to investigate the most probable protonation states of active site amino acids and bound substrate based on a recently reported neutron diffraction structure of phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) by Unno et al. This structure was considered to be bound in its initial state of biliverdin IXɑ (BV), which has the C-pyrrole ring in the deprotonated state. The protonation state of BV suggested by neutron and spectroscopic studies is a stable, two-electron reduced complex with a bound hydronium ion...
May 7, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Christopher S Spencer, Cristina Yunta, Glauber Pacelli Gomes de Lima, Kay Hemmings, Lu-Yun Lian, Gareth Lycett, Mark J I Paine
The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The ability of A. gambiae to transmit malaria is strictly related to blood feeding and digestion, which releases nutrients for oogenesis, as well as substantial amounts of highly toxic free heme. Heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) is a common protective mechanism, and a gene for HO exists in the An. gambiae genome HO (AgHO), although it has yet to be functionally examined. Here, we have cloned and expressed An. gambiae HO (AgHO) in E...
May 2, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
James H Campbell, John J Heikkila
Cadmium is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that can cause many adverse effects including cancer, neurological disease and kidney damage. Aquatic amphibians are particularly susceptible to this toxicant as it was shown to cause developmental abnormalities and genotoxic effects. In mammalian cells, the accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the breakdown of heme into CO, free iron and biliverdin, was reported to protect cells against potentially lethal concentrations of CdCl2 . In the present study, CdCl2 treatment of A6 kidney epithelial cells, derived from the frog, Xenopus laevis, induced the accumulation of HO-1, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP30 as well as an increase in the production of aggregated protein and aggresome-like structures...
April 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ajaz Ahmad Waza, Zeenat Hamid, Sajad Ali, Shabir Ahmad Bhat, Musadiq Ahmad Bhat
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is considered to be the main protein in diseases arising as a result of oxidative and inflammatory insults. Tremendous research has been carried out on HO-1 since years, pertaining its cytoprotective effect against oxidative injury and other cellular stresses. HO-1, by regulating intracellular levels of pro-oxidant heme, or by other benefits of its by-products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin (BV) had become an important candidate protein to be up-regulated to combat diverse stressful events...
April 24, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Yiting Zhang, Yan Ding, Tai Lu, Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Devin W McBride, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a common neurologic event with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Spleen has been reported to play a critical role in inflammatory responses by regulating peripheral immune cells which contributes to secondary brain injury. METHODS: The current study investigated the mechanistic role of biliverdin reductase-A (BLVRA) in the splenic response and brain damage in neonates following a collagenase GMH model...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Paulina Podkalicka, Olga Mucha, Alicja Józkowicz, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1 ) through degradation of pro-oxidant heme into carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions (Fe2+ ) and biliverdin, exhibits cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. All of these potentially beneficial functions of HO-1 may play an important role in tumors' development and progression. Moreover, HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumors in comparison to healthy tissues, and its expression is further induced upon chemo-, radio- and photodynamic therapy, what results in decreased effectiveness of the treatment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Fawad Mansoor, Simon Doherty, Olivier P Chevallier, Christopher T Elliott, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a major source of economic loss within the agricultural industry. Vaccination against BRD-associated viruses does not offer complete immune protection and vaccine failure animals present potential routes for disease spread. Serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is possible using antigen-deleted vaccines, but during virus outbreaks DIVA responses are masked by wild-type virus preventing accurate serodiagnosis. Previous work by the authors has established the potential for metabolomic profiling to reveal metabolites associated with systemic immune responses to vaccination...
2018: PloS One
Joshua A Mancini, Molly Sheehan, Goutham Kodali, Brian Y Chow, Donald A Bryant, P Leslie Dutton, Christopher C Moser
Bilins are linear tetrapyrrole chromophores with a wide range of visible and near-visible light absorption and emission properties. These properties are tuned upon binding to natural proteins and exploited in photosynthetic light-harvesting and non-photosynthetic light-sensitive signalling. These pigmented proteins are now being manipulated to develop fluorescent experimental tools. To engineer the optical properties of bound bilins for specific applications more flexibly, we have used first principles of protein folding to design novel, stable and highly adaptable bilin-binding four-α-helix bundle protein frames, called maquettes, and explored the minimal requirements underlying covalent bilin ligation and conformational restriction responsible for the strong and variable absorption, fluorescence and excitation energy transfer of these proteins...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
June Lee, Karabasappa Mailar, Ok-Kyung Yoo, Won Jun Choi, Young-Sam Keum
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the enzymatic degradation of heme to produce three anti-oxidant molecules: carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ion (Fe2+ ), and biliverdin. Induction of HO-1 is currently considered as a feasible strategy to treat oxidative stress-related diseases. In the present study, we identified marliolide as a novel inducer of HO-1 in human normal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Mechanism-based studies demonstrated that the induction of HO-1 by marliolide occurred through activation of NRF2/ARE via direct binding of marliolide to KEAP1...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Madasamy Thangamuthu, Willimann Eric Gabriel, Christian Santschi, Olivier J F Martin
Practice oriented point-of-care diagnostics require easy-to-handle, miniaturized, and low-cost analytical tools. In a novel approach, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPEs), which were functionalized with nanomaterials, are employed for selective measurements of bilirubin, which is an important biomarker for jaundice. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene separately deposited on SPEs provide the core of an electrochemical sensor for bilirubin. The electrocatalytic activity towards bilirubin oxidation (bilirubin to biliverdin) was observed at +0...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
Zongdong Li, Natasha M Nesbitt, Lisa E Malone, Dimitri V Gnatenko, Song Wu, Daifeng Wang, Wei Zhu, Geoffrey D Girnun, Wadie F Bahou
Bioenergetic requirements of hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) vary with lineage fate, and cellular adaptations rely largely on substrate (glucose/glutamine) availability and mitochondrial function to balance tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-derived anabolic and redox-regulated antioxidant functions. Heme synthesis and degradation converge in a linear pathway that utilizes TCA cycle-derived carbon in cataplerotic reactions of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, terminated by NAD(P)H-dependent biliverdin reductases (IXα, BLVRA and IXβ, BLVRB) that lead to bilirubin generation and cellular antioxidant functions...
March 29, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Lauren Weaver, Abdul-Rizaq Ali Hamoud, David E Stec, Terry D Hinds
The buildup of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) is the first step in a series of incidents that may drive hepatic disease. Obesity is the leading cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in which hepatic steatosis progresses to liver disease. Chronic alcohol exposure also induces fat accumulation in the liver and shares numerous similarities to obesity-induced NAFLD. Regardless, if hepatic steatosis is due to obesity or long-term alcohol use, it still may lead to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or possibly hepatocellular carcinoma...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Natasha M Nesbitt, Xiliang Zheng, Zongdong Li, José A Manso, Wan-Yi Yen, Lisa E Malone, Jorge Ripoll-Rozada, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, Timothy J Mantle, Jin Wang, Wadie F Bahou
Heme cytotoxicity is minimized by a two-step catabolic reaction that generates biliverdin (BV) and bilirubin (BR) tetrapyrroles. The second step is regulated by two non-redundant biliverdin reductases (IXα (BLVRA) and IXβ (BLVRB)), which retain isomeric specificity and NAD(P)H-dependent redox coupling linked to BR's antioxidant function. Defective BLVRB enzymatic activity with antioxidant mishandling has been implicated in metabolic consequences of hematopoietic lineage fate and enhanced platelet counts in humans...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vijith Vijayan, Frank A D T G Wagener, Stephan Immenschuh
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, plays a critical role in inflammation and iron homeostasis. Regulatory functions of HO-1 are mediated via the catalytic breakdown of heme, which is an iron-containing tetrapyrrole complex with potential pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects. In addition, the HO reaction produces the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, subsequently converted into bilirubin, along with iron, which is reutilized for erythropoiesis...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Melissa P Homsher, Michael T Astor, Justin K Hines, Michael W Butler
Most antioxidants have multiple functions; in addition to minimizing oxidative damage, many antioxidants have immune-modulating properties. For example, biliverdin is produced in the liver and spleen from the breakdown of heme, and has putative immune-suppressing and antioxidant properties. However, the majority of these properties have been investigated in vitro or in mammalian models, in which biliverdin reductase converts virtually all biliverdin to bilirubin. Thus, biliverdin's physiological roles remain largely untested...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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