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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223130/antitumor-and-antimetastatic-activities-of-rhamnogalacturonan-ii-type-polysaccharide-isolated-from-mature-leaves-of-green-tea-via-activation-of-macrophages-and-natural-killer-cells
#1
Hye-Ryung Park, Dahyun Hwang, Hyung-Joo Suh, Kwang-Won Yu, Tae Young Kim, Kwang-Soon Shin
To investigate the antitumor and antimetastatic polysaccharide from the mature leaves of green tea, GTE-II was purified using size exclusion chromatography. GTE-II consisted of 15 different sugars including rarely observed sugars such as 2-O-methyl-fucose, 2-O-methyl-xylose, apiose, aceric acid, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid, and 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid, which were characteristic of pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II. Treatment of peritoneal macrophages with GTE-II not only increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12 production, but also had significantly increased tumoricidal activity against Yac-1 tumor cells than those obtained from untreated mice...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192199/viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-glycoprotein-production-in-tobacco
#2
Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien, Tae-Jung Kim, Tae-Geum Kim
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater fish species resulting in heavy losses in fish farming. The glycoprotein gene of VHSV was fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and expressed transiently in leaf tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana via the agroinfiltration method. The glycoprotein gene was divided into two parts to improve assembly of CTB fusion proteins (CTB-VHSV99-235 and CTB-VHSV258-417). Production of CTB fusion proteins was confirmed in the agroinfiltrated leaf tissue by western blot analysis...
February 9, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179425/structural-insights-into-the-broad-substrate-specificity-of-a-novel-endo-glycoceramidase-i-belonging-to-a-new-subfamily-of-gh5-glycosidase
#3
Yun-Bin Han, Liu-Qing Chen, Zhuo Li, Yu-Meng Tan, Yan Feng, Guang-Yu Yang
Endoglycoceramidases (EGCases) specifically hydrolyze the glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide and the ceramide moieties of various glycosphingolipids, and they have received substantial attention in the emerging field of glycosphingolipidology. However, the mechanism regulating the strict substrate specificity of these GH5 glycosidases has not been identified. In this study, we report a novel EGCase I from Rhodococcus equi 103S (103S_EGCase I) with remarkably broad substrate specificity. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the enzyme may represent a new subfamily of GH5 glycosidases...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160289/melanopsin-expressing-human-retinal-ganglion-cells-subtypes-distribution-and-intraretinal-connectivity
#4
Jens Hannibal, Anders Tolstrup Christensen, Steffen Heegaard, Jan Fahrenkrug, Jens Folke Kiilgaard
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem to be associated to different subtypes of melanopsin cells. In rodents, subtype classification has associated subtypes to function. In primate and human retina such classification has so far, not been applied. In the present study using antibodies against N- and C-terminal parts of human melanopsin, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction of melanopsin immunoreactive (-ir) RGCs, we applied the criteria used in mouse on human melanopsin-ir RGCs...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143757/long-chain-gm1-gangliosides-alter-transmembrane-domain-registration-through-interdigitation
#5
Moutusi Manna, Matti Javanainen, Hector Martinez-Seara Monne, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Tomasz Rog, Ilpo Vattulainen
Extracellular and cytosolic leaflets in cellular membranes are distinctly different in lipid composition, yet they contribute together to signaling across the membranes. Here we consider a mechanism based on long-chain gangliosides for coupling the extracellular and cytosolic membrane leaflets together. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we find that long-chain GM1 in the extracellular leaflet exhibits a strong tendency to protrude into the opposing bilayer leaflet. This interdigitation modulates the order in the cytosolic monolayer and thereby strengthens the interaction and coupling across a membrane...
January 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124591/brain-gangliosides-in-alzheimer-s-disease-increased-expression-of-cholinergic-neuron-specific-gangliosides
#6
Yuki Fukami, Toshio Ariga, Mitsunori Yamada, Nobuhiro Yuki
BACKGROUND: Gangliosides are enriched in the neuronal membranes. Gangliosides are shown to interact with amyloid-β proteins, leading to formation of amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Several earlier studies indicated that the alterations of ganglioside metabolism could contribute the pathogenesis of AD. METHODS: Gangliosides were isolated from the frontal lobes in five patients with AD and three control subjects. Gangliosides were assessed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with resorcinol staining and immunostaining using mouse monoclonal antibodies against cholinergic neuron-specific (Chol-1α) gangliosides...
January 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112258/restoring-gm1-ganglioside-expression-ameliorates-axonal-outgrowth-inhibition-and-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-blast-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Vardit Rubovitch, Yael Zilberstein, Joab Chapman, Shaul Schreiber, Chaim G Pick
Blast induced traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) may cause various degrees of cognitive and behavioral disturbances but the exact brain pathophysiology involved is poorly understood. It was previously suggested that ganglioside alteration on the axon surface as well as axonal regenerating inhibitors (ARIs) such as myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) were involved in axonal outgrowth inhibition (AOI), leading to brain damage. GM1 ganglioside content in the brain was significantly reduced while GD1 ganglioside was not affected...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092877/peripheral-blood-findings-in-gm1-gangliosidosis
#8
David T Lynch, David R Czuchlewski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088446/identification-and-characterization-of-cell-bound-membrane-vesicles
#9
Qisheng Tang, Xiaojun Zhang, Wendiao Zhang, Siyuan Zhao, Yong Chen
In contrast to the released/circulating membrane vesicles (extracellular vesicles), cell-bound membrane vesicles are poorly identified and characterized. In this study, cell-bound membrane vesicles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatoma HepG-2 cells were investigated. We identified that cell-bound membrane vesicles are not co-localized with the major markers for extracellular vesicles (e.g. phosphatidylserine, CD63, CD107α, CD31, and DNA fragments for the three well-known types of extracellular vesicles) and for intracellular organelles with similar sizes (e...
January 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064276/mongolian-spots-in-gm1-gangliosidosis
#10
Naveen Kumar Bhardwaj, Daisy Khera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064049/anti-diarrhoeal-therapeutic-potential-and-safety-assessment-of-sulphated-polysaccharide-fraction-from-gracilaria-intermedia-seaweed-in-mice
#11
Ana Carolina M Leódido, Luis E C Costa, Thiago S L Araújo, Douglas S Costa, Nayara A Sousa, Luan K M Souza, Francisca B M Sousa, Manoel D S Filho, Daniel F P Vasconcelos, Felipe R P Silva, Kerolayne M Nogueira, Alyne R Araújo, Francisco Clark N Barros, Ana Lúcia P Freitas, Jand Venes R Medeiros
Sulphated polysaccharides extracted from algae have been extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, the anti-diarrhoeal effect and acute toxicity of a sulphated polysaccharide fraction obtained from Gracilaria intermedia (SP-Gi). Initially, the FT-IR of SP-Gi revealed to be an agaran with sulphation at C-6 of the l-galactosyl residues. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of SP-Gi was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032600/the-function-of-cancer-shed-gangliosides-in-macrophage-phenotype-involvement-with-angiogenesis
#12
Tae-Wook Chung, Hee-Jung Choi, Mi-Ju Park, Hee-Jin Choi, Syng-Ook Lee, Keuk-Jun Kim, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Changwan Hong, Kyun-Ha Kim, Myungsoo Joo, Ki-Tae Ha
Tumor-derived gangliosides in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the malignant progression of cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of gangliosides shed from tumors on macrophage phenotype remain unknown. Here, we showed that ganglioside GM1 highly induced the activity and expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1), a major M2 macrophage marker, compared to various gangliosides in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), peritoneal macrophages and Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We found that GM1 bound to macrophage mannose receptor (MMR/CD206) and common gamma chain (γc)...
December 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025886/comparative-analysis-of-the-rats-gut-microbiota-composition-in-animals-with-different-ginsenosides-metabolizing-activity
#13
Wei-Wei Dong, Fang-Ling Xuan, Fei-Liang Zhong, Jun Jiang, Songquan Wu, Donghao Li, Lin-Hu Quan
Following oral intake of Panax ginseng, major ginsenosides are metabolized to deglycosylated ginsenosides by gut microbiota before absorption into the blood. As the composition of gut microbiota varies between individuals, metabolic activities are significantly different. We selected 6 rats with low efficiency metabolism (LEM) and 6 rats with high efficiency metabolism (HEM) from 60 rats following oral administration of Panax ginseng extract, and analyzed their gut microbiota composition using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025664/characterization-of-the-neurological-diseases-associated-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-and-anti-glycolipid-antibodies
#14
Motoi Kuwahara, Makoto Samukawa, Tae Ikeda, Miyuki Morikawa, Rino Ueno, Yukihiro Hamada, Susumu Kusunoki
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection often causes various neurological complications of both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. We retrospectively investigated the IgM and IgG antibodies to nine glycolipids [GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, GT1b, GQ1b, and Gal-C (galactocerebroside)] and clinical features in neurological diseases associated with M. pneumoniae infection diagnosed in multiple hospitals throughout Japan between September 2010 and March 2012. Of the 46 patients with neurological diseases associated with M...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006835/cramp-fasciculation-syndrome-associated-with-monofocal-motor-neuropathy
#15
Nicolas J Dubuisson, Vincent Van Pesch, Peter Y K Van den Bergh
INTRODUCTION: Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorder (PNH), which could be caused by inflammatory neuropathy. CASE REPORT: We describe a 51-year-old woman who presented with a 4-5 year history of fasciculations and painful cramping of the right thenar eminence. Electrophysiological studies showed motor conduction block in the right median nerve between the axilla and the elbow with fasciculation potentials and cramp discharges on EMG in the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle...
December 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942463/multigene-panel-next-generation-sequencing-in-a-patient-with-cherry-red-macular-spot-identification-of-two-novel-mutations-in-neu1-gene-causing-sialidosis-type-i-associated-with-mild-to-unspecific-biochemical-and-enzymatic-findings
#16
Ulrike Mütze, Friederike Bürger, Jessica Hoffmann, Helmut Tegetmeyer, Jens Heichel, Petra Nickel, Johannes R Lemke, Steffen Syrbe, Skadi Beblo
BACKGROUND: Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) often manifest with cherry red macular spots. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and specific biochemical and enzymatic patterns. In uncertain cases, genetic testing with next generation sequencing can establish a diagnosis, especially in milder or atypical phenotypes. We report on the diagnostic work-up in a boy with sialidosis type I, presenting initially with marked cherry red macular spots but non-specific urinary oligosaccharide patterns and unusually mild excretion of bound sialic acid...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939129/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-is-induced-in-non-obese-diabetic-nod-mice-following-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-and-is-exacerbated-by-antibiotics
#17
J L St Charles, J A Bell, B J Gadsden, A Malik, H Cooke, L K Van de Grift, H Y Kim, E J Smith, L S Mansfield
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis linked to several serious autoimmune sequelae such as the peripheral neuropathies Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). We hypothesized that GBS and MFS can result in NOD wild type (WT) mice or their congenic interleukin (IL)-10 or B7-2 knockouts secondary to C. jejuni infection. Mice were gavaged orally with C. jejuni strains HB93-13 and 260.94 from patients with GBS or CF93-6 from a patient with MFS and assessed for clinical neurological signs and phenotypes, anti-ganglioside antibodies, and cellular infiltrates and lesions in gut and peripheral nerve tissues...
February 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933798/high-affinity-binding-of-monomeric-but-not-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-to-ganglioside-gm1-containing-nanodiscs
#18
Maren Thomaier, Lothar Gremer, Christina Dammers, Judith Fabig, Philipp Neudecker, Dieter Willbold
The interaction of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) with neuronal cell membranes plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ undergoes structural changes upon binding to ganglioside GM1 containing membranes leading to altered molecular characteristics of the protein. The physiological role of the Aβ interaction with the ganglioside GM1 is still unclear. In order to further elucidate the molecular requirements of Aβ membrane binding, we tested different nanodiscs varying in their lipid composition, regarding the charge of the headgroups as well as ganglioside GM1 concentration...
December 6, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916751/-autoantibodies-in-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies
#19
Ryo Yamasaki
Autoantibodies in chronic demyelinating neuropathies have been explored for several years. Recently, the peptides in the nodes of Ranvier have been the focus of attention in finding targets of autoantibodies. Until now, the most popular autoantibodies have been contactin-1 and neurofascin-155 for chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), GM1-ganglioside for multifocal motor neuropathy, and myelin-associated glycoprotein for polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914621/glycolipid-crosslinking-is-required-for-cholera-toxin-to-partition-into-and-stabilize-ordered-domains
#20
Krishnan Raghunathan, Tiffany H Wong, Daniel J Chinnapen, Wayne I Lencer, Michael G Jobling, Anne K Kenworthy
Current models of lipid rafts propose that lipid domains exist as nanoscale compositional fluctuations and these fluctuations can potentially be stabilized into larger domains, consequently better compartmentalizing cellular functions. However, the mechanisms governing stabilized raft assembly and function remain unclear. Here, we test the role of glycolipid crosslinking as a raft targeting and ordering mechanism using the well-studied raft marker cholera toxin B pentamer (CTxB) that binds up to five GM1 glycosphingolipids to enter host cells...
December 20, 2016: Biophysical Journal
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