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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916751/-autoantibodies-in-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies
#1
Ryo Yamasaki
Autoantibodies in chronic demyelinating neuropathies have been explored for several years. Recently, the peptides in the nodes of Ranvier have been the focus of attention in finding targets of autoantibodies. Until now, the most popular autoantibodies have been contactin-1 and neurofascin-155 for chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), GM1-ganglioside for multifocal motor neuropathy, and myelin-associated glycoprotein for polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914621/glycolipid-crosslinking-is-required-for-cholera-toxin-to-partition-into-and-stabilize-ordered-domains
#2
Krishnan Raghunathan, Tiffany H Wong, Daniel J Chinnapen, Wayne I Lencer, Michael G Jobling, Anne K Kenworthy
Current models of lipid rafts propose that lipid domains exist as nanoscale compositional fluctuations and these fluctuations can potentially be stabilized into larger domains, consequently better compartmentalizing cellular functions. However, the mechanisms governing stabilized raft assembly and function remain unclear. Here, we test the role of glycolipid crosslinking as a raft targeting and ordering mechanism using the well-studied raft marker cholera toxin B pentamer (CTxB) that binds up to five GM1 glycosphingolipids to enter host cells...
November 30, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908207/anti-sulfatide-reactivity-in-patients-with-celiac-disease
#3
Domenica Saccomanno, Carolina Tomba, Francesca Magri, Philippe Backelandt, Leda Roncoroni, Luisa Doneda, Maria Teresa Bardella, Giacomo Pietro Comi, Nereo Bresolin, Dario Conte, Luca Elli
OBJECTIVE: To explore a possible significance of the presence of anti-ganglioside and anti-sulfatide antibodies in sera of adult patients with celiac disease (CD) in different clinical scenario. METHODS: We selected 22 adult patients with newly diagnosed CD and 20 age-sex matched non-CD controls. Patients' serum was tested - before and after at least 6 months on a gluten-free diet (GFD) - for anti-GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b and sulfatide IgM, IgG and IgA auto-antibodies, by means of a dot blot technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870891/oxldl-and-eldl-induced-membrane-microdomains-in-human-macrophages
#4
Stefan Wallner, Margot Grandl, Gerhard Liebisch, Markus Peer, Evelyn Orsó, Alexander Sigrüner, Andrzej Sobota, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Extravasation of macrophages and formation of lipid-laden foam cells are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The degradation of atherogenic lipoproteins subsequently leads to alterations in cellular lipid metabolism that influence inflammatory signaling. Especially sphingolipids and ceramides are known to be involved in these processes. We therefore analyzed monocyte derived macrophages during differentiation and after loading with enzymatically (eLDL) and oxidatively (oxLDL) modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866299/localization-and-dynamics-of-the-anticarcinogenic-curcumin-with-gm1-and-other-miceller-assemblies
#5
Malay Patra, Manoj Mandal, Abhijit Chakrabarti, Chaitali Mukhopadhyay
Structural transitions involving shape changes play an important role in cellular physiology and enhance the bioavailability of the natural food like curcumin in surfactant aggregates. In this work, we have studied the localization, dynamics and stability of curcumin in various miceller assemblies using a combination of absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopic approaches. The measurements of absorption and fluorescence spectra of curcumin revealed that the nature of interactions of ionic and nonionic surfactants and the glycosphingolipid, GM1 with curcumin is significantly different with surfactant concentrations...
November 19, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836184/serological-study-using-glycoarray-for-detecting-antibodies-to-glycolipids-and-glycolipid-complexes-in-immune-mediated-neuropathies
#6
Miyuki Morikawa, Motoi Kuwahara, Rino Ueno, Makoto Samukawa, Yukihiro Hamada, Susumu Kusunoki
We performed a serological investigation using glycoarray in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Antibodies to 10 glycolipids and 45 glycolipid complexes were tested. Anti-GM1/sulfatide and anti-GA1/sulfatide IgG antibodies were common in GBS (20.0% and 19.0%, respectively). Anti-GQ1b/sulfatide IgG antibody was detected in 14.0% of GBS patients. IgG antibodies to antigens containing GQ1b were significantly correlated with ophthalmoplegia in GBS (p<0...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832917/immune-response-characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-a-recombinant-chimera-comprising-b-cell-epitope-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-outer-membrane-protein-c-and-ltb
#7
Mahima Sharma, Aparna Dixit
Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most virulent fish pathogens, causing colossal economic losses to the aquaculture industry annually. The absence of a safe and effective vaccine makes it very difficult to control this infection. Outer membrane proteins have been widely illustrated to confer protective immunity against a broad spectrum of gram negative bacteria. In the current study, we have analyzed the ability of B-cell epitopes of A. hydrophila's outer membrane protein C (OmpC) to confer protection against bacterial virulence...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832720/application-study-of-1-2-%C3%AE-l-fucosynthase-introduction-of-fuc%C3%AE-1-2gal-disaccharide-structures-on-n-glycan-ganglioside-and-xyloglucan-oligosaccharide
#8
Yuta Sugiyama, Toshihiko Katoh, Yuji Honda, Aina Gotoh, Hisashi Ashida, Shin Kurihara, Kenji Yamamoto, Takane Katayama
We have recently generated a highly efficient 1,2-α-l-fucosynthase (BbAfcA N423H mutant) by protein engineering of 1,2-α-l-fucosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254. This synthase could specifically introduce H-antigens (Fucα1-2Gal) into the non-reducing ends of oligosaccharides and in O-linked glycans in mucin glycoprotein. In the present study, we show an extended application of the engineered 1,2-α-l-fucosynthase by demonstrating its ability to insert Fuc residues into N- and O-glycans in fetuin glycoproteins, GM1 ganglioside, and a plant-derived xyloglucan nonasaccharide...
November 11, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815022/the-%C3%AF-1-receptor-regulates-accumulation-of-gm1-ganglioside-enriched-autophagosomes-in-astrocytes
#9
Rika Kasahara, Naoki Yamamoto, Kenji Suzuki, Kazuya Sobue
GM1 gangliosides (GM1) are acidic glycosphingolipids that are present in cell membranes and lipid raft domains, being particularly abundant in central nervous systems. GM1 participate in modulating cell membrane properties, intercellular recognition, cell regulation, and signaling. We previously demonstrated that GM1 are expressed inside astrocytes but not on the cell surface. We investigated whether the antipsychotic drug haloperidol induces GM1 expression in astrocytes, and found that the expression of GM1 was significantly upregulated by haloperidol in the intracellular vesicles of cultured astrocytes...
November 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806911/membrane-binding-endocytic-trafficking-and-intracellular-fate-of-high-affinity-antibodies-to-gangliosides-gd1a-and-gm1
#10
Fernando M Ruggiero, Aldo A Vilcaes, Nobuhiro Yuki, José L Daniotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806280/influence-of-ganglioside-gm1-concentration-on-lipid-clustering-and-membrane-properties-and-curvature
#11
Dhilon S Patel, Soohyung Park, Emilia L Wu, Min Sun Yeom, Göran Widmalm, Jeffery B Klauda, Wonpil Im
Gangliosides are a class of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with amphiphilic character that are found at the outer leaflet of the cell membranes, where their ability to organize into special domains makes them vital cell membrane components. However, a molecular understanding of GSL-rich membranes in terms of their clustered organization, stability, and dynamics is still elusive. To gain molecular insight into the organization and dynamics of GSL-rich membranes, we performed all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of bicomponent ganglioside GM1 in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers with varying concentrations of GM1 (10%, 20%, and 30%)...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806275/gm1-softens-popc-membranes-and-induces-the-formation-of-micron-sized-domains
#12
Nico Fricke, Rumiana Dimova
The influence of the glycolipid GM1 on the physical properties of POPC membranes was studied systematically by using different methods applied to giant and large unilamellar vesicles. The charge per GM1 molecule in the membrane was estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements. Optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to construct a partial phase diagram of the GM1/POPC system. At room temperature, phase separation in the membrane was detected for GM1 fractions at and above ∼5 mol %, whereby GM1-rich gel-like domains were observed by fluorescent microscopy...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805617/oral-administration-of-a-recombinant-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-promotes-mucosal-healing-in-the-colon
#13
K J Baldauf, J M Royal, J C Kouokam, B Haribabu, V R Jala, K Yaddanapudi, K T Hamorsky, G W Dryden, N Matoba
Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium...
November 2, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790627/microarray-screening-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-sera-for-antibodies-to-glycolipid-complexes
#14
Susan K Halstead, Gabriela Kalna, Mohammad B Islam, Israt Jahan, Quazi D Mohammad, Bart C Jacobs, Hubert P Endtz, Zhahirul Islam, Hugh J Willison
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the patterns of autoantibodies to glycolipid complexes in a large cohort of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and control samples collected in Bangladesh using a newly developed microarray technique. METHODS: Twelve commonly studied glycolipids and lipids, plus their 66 possible heteromeric complexes, totaling 78 antigens, were applied to polyvinylidene fluoride-coated slides using a microarray printer. Arrays were probed with 266 GBS and 579 control sera (2 μL per serum, diluted 1/50) and bound immunoglobulin G detected with secondary antibody...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766070/impaired-levels-of-gangliosides-in-the-corpus-callosum-of-huntington-disease-animal-models
#15
Alba Di Pardo, Enrico Amico, Vittorio Maglione
Huntington Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by broad types of cellular and molecular dysfunctions that may affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations. Among all the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathogenesis of the disease, alteration of sphingolipids has been identified as one of the most important determinants in the last years. In the present study, besides the purpose of further confirming the evidence of perturbed metabolism of gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GT1b the most abundant cerebral glycosphingolipids, in the striatal and cortical tissues of HD transgenic mice, we aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal levels of these lipids may be found also in the corpus callosum white matter, a ganglioside-enriched brain region described being dysfunctional early in the disease...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750150/-5ar-5a-c-pentyl-4-epi-isofagomine-a-powerful-inhibitor-of-lysosomal-%C3%AE-galactosidase-and-a-remarkable-chaperone-for-mutations-associated-with-gm1-gangliosidosis-and-morquio-disease-type-b
#16
Sophie Front, Anna Biela-Banaś, Patricie Burda, Diana Ballhausen, Katsumi Higaki, Anna Caciotti, Amelia Morrone, Julie Charollais-Thoenig, Estelle Gallienne, Stéphane Demotz, Olivier R Martin
This report is about the identification, synthesis and initial biological characterization of derivatives of 4-epi-isofagomine as pharmacological chaperones (PC) for human lysosomal β-galactosidase. The two epimers of 4-epi-isofagomine carrying a pentyl group at C-5a, namely (5aR)- and (5aS)-5a-C-pentyl-4-epi-isofagomine, were prepared by an innovative procedure involving in the key step the addition of nitrohexane to a keto-pentopyranoside. Both epimers were evaluated as inhibitors of the human β-galactosidase: the (5aR)-stereoisomer (compound 1) was found to be a very potent inhibitor of the enzyme (IC50 = 8 nM, 30× more potent than 4-epi-isofagomine at pH 7...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733309/construction-and-immunogenic-properties-of-a-chimeric-protein-comprising-cfae-cfab-and-ltb-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#17
Seyed-Mohammad Gheibi Hayat, Seyed-Latif Mousavi Gargari, Shahram Nazarian
ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) is a major cause of diarrhea in developing countries and children. ETEC has two virulence factors including colonization factors antigen (CFA) and labile enterotoxins (LTs). CFA/I consists the major pilin subunit CfaB and a minor adhesive subunit, CfaE. In this study a tripartite fusion protein containing CfaB, CfaE and LTB was designed. In silico analysis of the tertiary structure of the chimeric protein showed a protein with three main domains linked together with linkers...
October 9, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725448/clostridium-perfringens-%C3%AE-toxin-impairs-lipid-raft-integrity-in-neutrophils
#18
Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Soshi Seike, Kyohei Oishi, Yoshino Fujihara, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens type A, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium, causes gas gangrene. Recently, we reported that C. perfringens α-toxin blocked neutrophil differentiation in an enzyme activity-dependent manner to impair host innate immunity, which should be crucial for the pathogenesis of C. perfringens. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Lipid rafts have been reported to be platforms for signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell differentiation in many different cell types...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687691/expression-of-b4galnt1-an-essential-glycosyltransferase-for-the-synthesis-of-complex-gangliosides-suppresses-bace1-degradation-and-modulates-app-processing
#19
Tokiaki Yamaguchi, Yoshio Yamauchi, Keiko Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Yuki Ohkawa, Qing Zhang, Tetsuya Okajima, Koichi Furukawa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which are produced by proteolytic cleavages of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Gangliosides are involved in AD pathophysiology including Aβ deposition and APP processing, yet the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examined how changes in the carbohydrate moiety of gangliosides alter APP processing in human melanoma cells, neuroectoderm-derived cells...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683876/anti-sulfoglucuronosyl-paragloboside-antibody-a-potential-serologic-marker-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Dongpei Li, Seigo Usuki, Brandy Quarles, Michael H Rivner, Toshio Ariga, Robert K Yu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology of ALS is obscure, genetic studies of familiar ALS suggest a multifactorial etiology for this condition. Similarly, there probably are multiple causes for sporadic ALS. Autoimmune-mediated motor neuron dysfunction is one proposed etiology for sporadic ALS. In the present study, anti-glycolipid antibodies including GM1, GD1b, GD3, and sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside (SGPG) were investigated in the sera of a large number of patient samples, including 113 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls, by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with affinity parametric complex criterion evaluation and thin-layer chromatography immunooverlay (immuno-TLC)...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
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