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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768373/acute-myelitis-of-children-with-positive-anti-gm1-antibody-case-series-and-literature-review
#1
Zhiling Wang, Di Qie, Hui Zhou, Xiao Tang Cai
RATIONALE: To explore the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of acute myelitis (AM) of children with positive blood anti- ganglioside (GM1) antibodies. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two cases of AM of children with positive anti-GM1 antibody were retrospectively collected and followed up for 6 months. Two cases had positive helicobacter pylori IgG antibody, and Case 2 also had positive mycoplasma IgM antibody. DIAGNOSES: Two cases had typical symptoms of myelitis, abnormal spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positive serum anti-GM1 IgM...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760097/the-glycolipid-gm1-reshapes-asymmetric-biomembranes-and-giant-vesicles-by-curvature-generation
#2
Raktim Dasgupta, Markus S Miettinen, Nico Fricke, Reinhard Lipowsky, Rumiana Dimova
The ganglioside GM1 is present in neuronal membranes at elevated concentrations with an asymmetric spatial distribution. It is known to generate curvature and can be expected to strongly influence the neuron morphology. To elucidate these effects, we prepared giant vesicles with GM1 predominantly present in one leaflet of the membrane, mimicking the asymmetric GM1 distribution in neuronal membranes. Based on pulling inward and outward tubes, we developed a technique that allowed the direct measurement of the membrane spontaneous curvature...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747825/gangliosides-in-membrane-organization
#3
Sandro Sonnino, Elena Chiricozzi, Sara Grassi, Laura Mauri, Simona Prioni, Alessandro Prinetti
Since the structure of GM1 was elucidated 55years ago, researchers have been attracted by the sialylated glycans of gangliosides. Gangliosides head groups, protruding toward the extracellular space, significantly contribute to the cell glycocalyx; and in certain cells, such as neurons, are major determinants of the features of the cell surface. Expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the de novo biosynthesis of gangliosides is tightly regulated along cell differentiation and activation, and is regarded as the main metabolic mechanism responsible for the acquisition of cell-specific ganglioside patterns...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747824/congenital-disorders-of-ganglioside-biosynthesis
#4
T August Li, Ronald L Schnaar
Gangliosides are expressed on all vertebrate cells and tissues, but are particularly abundant in the mammalian brain, where they constitute major cell-surface determinants on all nerve cells. The same four ganglioside structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, constitute the great majority of brain gangliosides in all mammals. Biosynthesis of these major brain gangliosides starts with addition of glucose to the ceramide lipid carrier followed by stepwise addition of up to six additional monosaccharides. This primarily involves the sequential action of seven glycosyltransferases, many of which appear to act specifically on glycolipid (rather than glycoprotein) acceptors...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747823/gangliosides-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Robert W Ledeen, Gusheng Wu
This review addresses the role of α-synuclein (αSyn) in the etiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), with emphasis on its interaction with GM1 ganglioside. We begin with a brief review of some of the milestone discoveries that helped to elucidate PD neuropathology, including the fibrous inclusions of Lewy that characterize the degenerating dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the presence of αSyn as a major constituent of these Lewy bodies and neurites. This enabled Braak et al. to define the progressive nature of PD in developing their staging hypothesis which described the topographically predictable sequence of neuropathological changes giving rise to prodromal nonmotor symptoms that precede the classical motor dysfunctions...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747820/gangliosides-and-autoimmune-peripheral-nerve-diseases
#6
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
A wide range of neuroimmunological diseases, referred to as autoimmune neuropathies, affect the peripheral nervous systems (PNS). The PNS is structurally diverse with complex anatomical compartments enriched in many different myelin and neuronal glycolipids, notably gangliosides. Autoimmune neuropathies are a proportion of autoimmune neuropathies mediated by autoimmune attack due to antibodies reactive with these compartmentally localized gangliosides. Antiganglioside antibodies are principally associated with the acute paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and are also found in several chronic autoimmune neuropathy syndromes...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747818/glycan-chains-of-gangliosides-functional-ligands-for-tissue-lectins-siglecs-galectins
#7
Robert W Ledeen, Jürgen Kopitz, José Abad-Rodríguez, Hans-Joachim Gabius
Molecular signals on the cell surface are responsible for adhesion and communication. Of relevance in this respect, their chemical properties endow carbohydrates with the capacity to store a maximum of information in a minimum of space. One way to present glycans on the cell surface is their covalent conjugation to a ceramide anchor. Among the resulting glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are special due to the presence of at least one sialic acid in the glycan chains. Their spatial accessibility and the dynamic regulation of their profile are factors that argue in favor of a role of glycans of gangliosides as ligands (counterreceptors) for carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins)...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747816/gangliosides-in-nerve-cell-specification
#8
Yutaka Itokazu, Jing Wang, Robert K Yu
The central nervous system is generated from progenitor cells that are recognized as neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are defined as undifferentiated neural cells that are characterized by the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Throughout neural development, NSCs undergo proliferation, migration, and cellular differentiation, and dynamic changes are observed in the composition of carbohydrate-rich molecules, including gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids with essential and multifaceted functions in brain development and NSC maintenance, which reflects the complexity of brain development...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733528/anti-pd-1-therapy-redirects-macrophages-from-an-m2-to-an-m1-phenotype-inducing-regression-of-os-lung-metastases
#9
Pooja Dhupkar, Nancy Gordon, John Stewart, Eugenie S Kleinerman
Osteosarcoma (OS) pulmonary metastasis translates into poor patient survival. The implication of PD-1-PD-L1 pathway in the context of NK cells and/or macrophages in OS is unknown. We investigated the effect of anti-PD-1 in OS lung metastasis and the role of NK cells and/or macrophages in anti-PD-1 responses. A human LM7 OS mouse model was used. Immunohistochemistry for tissues (PD-L1, caspase-3, Ki-67, NK cells, macrophages), and Western blotting for OS lung tumors (p-Stat3, p-Erk1/2) was performed. NK and macrophages were assessed using flow cytometry...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720806/cysts-in-white-matter-a-novel-neuroimaging-finding-in-infantile-gm1-gangliosidosis
#10
Mahesh Kamate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659246/membrane-nanotubes-increase-the-robustness-of-giant-vesicles
#11
Tripta Bhatia, Jaime Agudo-Canalejo, Rumiana Dimova, Reinhard Lipowsky
Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) provide a direct connection between the nano- and the microregime. On the one hand, these vesicles represent biomimetic compartments with linear dimensions of many micrometers. On the other hand, the vesicle walls are provided by single molecular bilayers that have a thickness of a few nanometers and respond sensitively to molecular interactions with small solutes, biopolymers, and nanoparticles. These nanoscopic responses are amplified by the GUVs and can then be studied on much larger scales...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626441/physiologically-relevant-levels-of-sphingomyelin-but-not-gm1-induces-a-%C3%AE-sheet-rich-structure-in-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-monomer
#12
Michael C Owen, Waldemar Kulig, Chetan Poojari, Tomasz Rog, Birgit Strodel
To resolve the contribution of ceramide-containing lipids to the aggregation of the amyloid-β protein into β-sheet rich toxic oligomers, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of cholesterol-containing bilayers comprised of POPC (70% POPC, and 30% cholesterol) and physiologically relevant concentrations of sphingomyelin (SM) (30% SM, 40% POPC, and 30% cholesterol), and the GM1 ganglioside (5% GM1, 70% POPC, and 25% cholesterol). The increased bilayer rigidity provided by SM (and to a lesser degree, GM1) reduced the interactions between the SM-enriched bilayer and the N-terminus of Aβ42 (and also residues Ser26, Asn27, and Lys28), which facilitated the formation of a β-sheet in the normally disordered N-terminal region...
April 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611693/a-lipid-modified-graphene-transistor-biosensor-for-monitoring-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation
#13
Chia-Jung Kuo, Hsu-Cheng Chiang, Chi-Ang Tseng, Chin-Fu Chang, Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Tzu-Ting Ling, Yu-Jen Chang, Chiao-Chen Chen, Yun-Ru Chen, Yit-Tsong Chen
A graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) with the spacious planar graphene surface can provide a large-area interface with cell membranes to serve as a platform for the study of cell membrane-related protein interactions. In this study, a G-FET device paved with a supported lipid bilayer (referred to as SLB/G-FET) was first used to monitor the catalytic hydrolysis of the SLB by phospholipase D. With excellent detection sensitivity, this G-FET was also modified with a ganglioside GM1 -enriched SLB (GM1 -SLB/G-FET) to detect cholera toxin B...
April 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601870/anti-gm1-ganglioside-antibodies-modulate-membrane-associated-sphingomyelin-metabolism-by-altering-neutral-sphingomyelinase-activity
#14
Akihiro Ueda, Sayuri Shima, Kenitiroh Murate, Kouichi Kikuchi, Ryunosuke Nagao, Toshiki Maeda, Eri Muto, Yoshiki Niimi, Yasuaki Mizutani, Tatsuro Mutoh
Previous studies have shown that patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome express autoantibodies against ganglioside GM1 (GM1), although its pathogenic significance for the development of the disease remains to be elucidated. nSMase2 is the best characterized neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) found in neuronal cells. Activation of this enzyme leads to ceramide production, which is a known second messenger of the cell-death program in neuronal cells. We have explored the effects of anti-GM1 antibodies on sphingomyelin metabolism of PC12 cells stably transfected with human trk cDNA (PCtrk cells) by determining their effects on nSMase2 activity...
March 27, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590593/toxic-hypf-n-oligomers-selectively-bind-the-plasma-membrane-to-impair-cell-adhesion-capability
#15
Reinier Oropesa-Nuñez, Sandeep Keshavan, Silvia Dante, Alberto Diaspro, Benedetta Mannini, Claudia Capitini, Cristina Cecchi, Massimo Stefani, Fabrizio Chiti, Claudio Canale
The deposition of fibrillar protein aggregates in human organs is the hallmark of several pathological states, including highly debilitating neurodegenerative disorders and systemic amyloidoses. It is widely accepted that small oligomers arising as intermediates in the aggregation process, released by fibrils, or growing in secondary nucleation steps are the cytotoxic entities in protein-misfolding diseases, notably neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that cytotoxicity is triggered by the interaction between nanosized protein aggregates and cell membranes, even though little information on the molecular details of such interaction is presently available...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545134/membrane-lipid-homeostasis-in-a-prodromal-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-characteristic-profiles-in-ganglioside-distributions-during-aging-detected-using-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#16
Sarah Caughlin, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Aaron J Harris, Kristina Jurcic, Ken K-C Yeung, David F Cechetto, Shawn N Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536735/analysis-of-physicochemical-interaction-of-a%C3%AE-40-with-a-gm1-ganglioside-containing-lipid-membrane
#17
Majid Vahed, Saburo Neya, Katsumi Matsuzaki, Tyuji Hoshino
The interaction of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides with the cell membrane is one of the factors enhancing Aβ aggregation, which is closely related to neurodegenerative disease. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the initial stage of adhesion of Aβ40 to a GM1 ganglioside-containing membrane. Conformational change of Aβ40 due to interaction with the membrane was monitored and compared with that of Aβ42 observed in the previous study. Multiple computational trials were executed to analyze the probability of Aβ binding using a calculation model consisting of a GM1-containing mixed lipid membrane, a water layer, ions, and Aβ40 ...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534927/nano-chemotherapy-using-cationic-liposome-that-strategically-targets-the-cell-membrane-potential-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-with-negative-charge
#18
Muneaki Motomura, Hideaki Ichihara, Yoko Matsumoto
Negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) and sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (GM1) were observed to be over represented on the cell membranes of pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3) as opposed to normal pancreatic cells. Cationic liposomes (CL) were also found to selectively accumulate into the negatively charged cell membranes of BxPC-3 cells and inhibited their growth but have no effect on the viability of normal pancreatic cells. CL induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 cells via activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and mitochondrial events and inhibited tumor enlargement in xenograft mouse models of pancreatic cancer...
April 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533843/influence-of-stabilizing-components-on-the-integrity-of-antitumor-liposomes-loaded-with-lipophilic-prodrug-in-the-bilayer
#19
Daria Tretiakova, Natalia Onishchenko, Ivan Boldyrev, Ilya Mikhalyov, Alexander Tuzikov, Nicolai Bovin, Evgeniy Evtushenko, Elena Vodovozova
Previously, we proposed a liposomal formulation of melphalan (Mlph)-a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent-incorporated in a fluid lipid bilayer in the form of dioleoylglyceride ester. In this work, we compared the stabilizing effect of different amphiphiles included in the Mlph-liposomes, such as phosphatidylinositol (PI), ganglioside GM1 , a conjugate of N-carboxymethyl-modified oligoglycine with dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (acidic lipopeptide), and polyethylene glycol (2000 Da) conjugated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-lipid), upon incubation in human serum...
June 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521463/timing-of-sperm-capacitation-varies-reproducibly-among-men
#20
G Charles Ostermeier, Cristina Cardona, Melissa A Moody, Alana J Simpson, Romeo Mendoza, Eric Seaman, Alexander J Travis
Sperm must mature functionally in the process of capacitation to become able to fertilize. Capacitation depends on membrane lipid changes, and can be quantitatively assessed by redistribution of the ganglioside GM1 , the basis of the Cap-Score™ sperm function test. Here, differences in Cap-Score were compared among and within men at two time points. Ejaculates were liquefied, washed, and incubated for 3 hr under capacitating (Cap) conditions, then fixed and analyzed immediately (Day0); after being incubated 3 hr under Cap conditions then maintained 22-24 hr in fix (Day1-fix); or after 22-24 hr incubation under Cap conditions prior to fixation (Day1)...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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