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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#1
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#2
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135988/evolution-of-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-large-european-city-trends-and-new-patterns
#3
César Garriga, Sandra Manzanares-Laya, Patricia García de Olalla, Pilar Gorrindo, Sabela Lens, Ricard Solà, María Martínez-Rebollar, Montserrat Laguno, Jordi Navarro, Xavier Torras, Mercè Gurguí, María-Jesús Barberá, Josep Quer, Eva Masdeu, Pere Simón, Miriam Ros, Anna de Andrés, Joan A Caylà
The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections since 2004 and to determine its associated factors. Acute HCV infections diagnosed in Barcelona from 2004 to 2015 were included. Incidence ratios (IR) were then estimated for sex and age groups. Cases were grouped between 2004-2005, 2006-2011 and 2012-2015, and their incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated. In addition, risk factors for acute HCV infection were identified using multinomial logistic regression for complete, available and multiple imputed data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135773/tree-based-claims-algorithm-for-measuring-pretreatment-quality-of-care-in-medicare-disabled-hepatitis-c-patients
#4
Viktor V Chirikov, Fadia T Shaya, Ebere Onukwugha, C Daniel Mullins, Susan dosReis, Charles D Howell
BACKGROUND: To help broaden the use of machine-learning approaches in health services research, we provide an easy-to-follow framework on the implementation of random forests and apply it to identify quality of care (QC) patterns correlated with treatment receipt among Medicare disabled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Using Medicare claims 2006-2009, we identified 1936 patients with 6 months continuous enrollment before HCV diagnosis. We ran a random forest on 14 pretreatment QC indicators, extracted the forest's representative tree, and aggregated its terminal nodes into 4 QC groups predictive of treatment...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135056/a-systematic-review-of-the-associations-between-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Olatokunbo Osibogun, Oluseye Ogunmoroti, Erin D Michos, Erica S Spatz, Babatunde Olubajo, Khurram Nasir, Wasim Maziak
The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection has been increasing with over 10 million people affected globally. The role biomarkers play as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among coinfected individuals is not well defined. We aimed to systematically review current evidence describing CVD biomarkers among individuals with HIV/HCV coinfection. We searched EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science from inception to June 2017. MeSH terms and keywords were used to identify studies with information on HIV/HCV coinfection and CVD biomarkers (structural, functional, and serological) such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), endothelial markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and lipids...
November 14, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133639/comparison-of-seropositivity-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-and-syphilis-among-hospital-cornea-retrieval-programme-donors-versus-voluntary-cornea-donors-at-a-large-eye-bank-in-eastern-india
#6
Soham Basak, Samar K Basak, Bani Biswas
PURPOSE: To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D) and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D) from a large eye bank in Eastern India. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132760/hepatitis-c-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-current-status-and-recommendations-for-achieving-elimination-by-2030
#7
REVIEW
Mark W Sonderup, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Phillip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olesegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Chris Kassianides, C Wendy Spearman
In 2016, WHO adopted a strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Africa, and more specifically, sub-Saharan Africa, carries a substantial portion of the global burden of viral hepatitis, especially chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. The task that lies ahead for sub-Saharan Africa to achieve elimination is substantial, but not insurmountable. Major developments in the management of hepatitis C have put elimination within reach, but several difficulties will need to be navigated on the path to elimination...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132303/prevalence-of-naturally-occurring-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-subtype-1a-1b-and-3a-co-infected-or-not-with-hiv-in-brazil
#8
Fernanda Malta, Karine Vieira Gaspareto, Gaspar Lisboa-Neto, Flair José Carrilho, Maria Cássia Mendes-Correa, João Renato Rebello Pinho
BACKGROUND: Non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) have been identified in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even prior to exposure to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Selection for these variants occurs rapidly during treatment and, in some cases, leads to antiviral treatment failure. DAAs are currently the standard of care for hepatitis C treatment in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, in Brazil, the prevalence of pre-existing NS5A RASs is largely unknown...
November 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123368/atherosclerosis-is-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#9
REVIEW
A Zizza, M Guido, M R Tumolo, A De Donno, F Bagordo, P Grima
Introduction: Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV population. Some studies have reported higher carotid Intima Media Thickness (c-IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis (AT), in this cohort of patients. Methods: Here, we evaluate the role of Hepatic Steatosis (HS) as likely marker for AT in 128 HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C infection. c-IMT has been detected non-invasively by carotid ultrasonography to assess the progression of AT...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120906/efficacy-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-for-12-weeks-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-and-compensated-liver-disease
#10
Stephan Moser, Karin Kozbial, Hermann Laferl, Angelika Schütz, Thomas Reiberger, Philipp Schwabl, Enisa Gutic, Cornelia Schwanke, Raphael Schubert, Julian Luhn, Tobias Lang, Michael Schleicher, Petra Steindl-Munda, Hans Haltmayer, Peter Ferenci, Michael Gschwantler
INTRODUCTION: In the era of direct-acting antivirals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 3 remains as the most difficult-to-treat HCV-GT. Currently, data on the efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF/LDV+RBV) in GT3-infected patients are limited. We investigated the efficacy of this regimen in a real-life cohort from Austria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 55 patients with HCV-GT3 and compensated liver disease (20% treatment-experienced, 33% with cirrhosis, 7% with HIV coinfection) from four Austrian hepatitis centers received treatment with SOF/LDV+RBV for 12 weeks...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120899/association-of-a-3-untranslated-region-polymorphism-in-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-with-hiv-viral-load-and-cd4-levels-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfected-women
#11
Mark H Kuniholm, Hua Liang, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Seble Kassaye, Marek Nowicki, Beverly E Sha, Emilia J Pawlowski, Stephen J Gange, Bradley E Aouizerat, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Michael I Bukrinsky, Vinayaka R Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: We examined 2050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1066 antiretroviral therapy-naive women...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120307/preliminary-investigation-of-the-stbbi-stigma-scale-description-and-pilot-results
#12
Anne C Wagner, Rachel MacLean
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) are associated with stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs, which can affect the quality of and access to health care, as well as mental health and quality of life. The current study describes the adaptation from an HIV-related stigma scale and pilot testing of a new STBBI Stigma Scale, assessing the stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs of health and social service providers in Canada. METHODS: 144 health and social service providers from across Canada completed the newly adapted scale assessing stigma associated with HIV, hepatitis C, other viral STBBIs and bacterial STBBIs, as well as demographic information, a scale of social desirability and measures of convergent and divergent validity...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119112/expression-and-immunogenicity-of-two-recombinant-fusion-proteins-comprising-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-structural-protein-vp1-and-dc-sign-binding-glycoproteins
#13
Xinsheng Liu, Jianliang Lv, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yanzhen Lu, Li Pan, Zhongwang Zhang, Junwu Ma, Yongguang Zhang, Yonglu Wang
Improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. In this study, the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane glycoprotein gp120 or C2-V3 domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2, both of which are DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins. After codon optimization, the VP1 protein and the two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the insect cell-baculovirus expression system...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116878/evaluation-of-methadone-treatment-in-malaysia-findings-from-the-malaysian-methadone-treatment-outcome-study-mytos
#14
Norsiah Ali, Salina Abd Aziz, Salmah Nordin, Norliza Che Mi, Norni Abdullah, V Paranthaman, Maimunah Mahmud, Anne Yee, Mahmoud Danaee
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence is a global issue with a huge negative impact. In Malaysia, heroin is still the main illicit drug used, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used since 2005. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of MMT. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 103 treatment centers between October and December 2014 using a set of standard questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116684/disparities-in-direct-acting-antivirals-uptake-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-co-infected-populations-in-canada
#15
Sahar Saeed, Erin C Strumpf, Erica Em Moodie, Jim Young, Roy Nitulescu, Joseph Cox, Alexander Wong, Sharon Walmsely, Curtis Cooper, Marie-Lousie Vachon, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Mark Hull, Brian Conway, Marina B Klein
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C (HCV) treatment with >90% cure rates even in real-world studies, giving hope that HCV can be eliminated. However, for DAAs to have a population-level impact on the burden of HCV disease, treatment uptake needs to be expanded. We investigated temporal trends in HCV treatment uptake and evaluated factors associated with second-generation DAA initiation and efficacy among key HIV-HCV co-infected populations in Canada...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116287/peginterferon-still-has-a-place-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-caused-by-genotype-3-virus
#16
Aline Vitali Grando, Paulo Roberto Abrão Ferreira, Mário Guimarães Pessôa, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Tânia Reuter, Ana de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli, Mário Peribanez Gonzalez, Ana Catharina Seixas-Santos Nastri, Aléia Faustina Campos, Max Igor Banks Ferreira Lopes, José David Urbaez Brito, Maria Cássia Mendes-Corrêa
Despite recent advances in therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the disease caused by genotype 3 virus (GEN3) is still considered a treatment challenge in certain patient subgroups. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the peginterferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) combination treatment for GEN3/CHC patients, and to evaluate sustained virological response (SVR) indicators and early treatment interruption due to serious adverse events (SAE). This was a retrospective observational study of GEN3/CHC patients, co-infected or not by HIV and treated with Peg-IFN/RBV in nine Brazilian healthcare centers...
November 6, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112294/internal-funding-required-to-improve-hiv-care
#17
Hannah Brownstein, Peter Higgs
In their recent review, O'Keefe et al. (2017) describe the ways in which people who inject drugs (PWID) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are confronted with particular challenges compared to PWID in upper-middle-income countries, including the increased risk of HIV and hepatitis C, greater stigma and discrimination, and greater interaction with the justice system.(1) To help manage the HIV burden among PWID and to help strengthen the public health responses to injecting drug use, LMICs have relied on substantial funding from international donors (PEPFAR, World Bank, DFID, and Global Fund)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109851/safety-and-efficacy-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-on-hepatitis-c-eradication-in-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infected-patients
#18
Xiaoping He, Lynne Hopkins, George Everett, Willie M Carter, Cynthia SchroppDyce, Khalid Abusaada, Vincent Hsu
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir on hepatitis C eradication in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in an urban HIV clinic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 40 subjects co-infected with HIV-1 and HCV treated with the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 wk from 2014 to 2016. All patients included were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV RNA values of 100 copies/mL or fewer regardless of baseline HCV RNA level...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109208/the-cedar-project-mortality-among-young-indigenous-people-who-use-drugs-in-british-columbia
#19
Kate Jongbloed, Margo E Pearce, Sherri Pooyak, David Zamar, Vicky Thomas, Lou Demerais, Wayne M Christian, Earl Henderson, Richa Sharma, Alden H Blair, Eric M Yoshida, Martin T Schechter, Patricia M Spittal
BACKGROUND: Young Indigenous people, particularly those involved in the child welfare system, those entrenched in substance use and those living with HIV or hepatitis C, are dying prematurely. We report mortality rates among young Indigenous people who use drugs in British Columbia and explore predictors of mortality over time. METHODS: We analyzed data collected every 6 months between 2003 and 2014 by the Cedar Project, a prospective cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, BC...
November 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108121/hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-no-longer-a-difficult-to-treat-population
#20
Cameron Sikavi, Phillip H Chen, Alex D Lee, Elena G Saab, Gina Choi, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: The treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) infected individuals has been historically marked by low sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in comparison to those without HIV infection, resulting in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling those coinfected as a "special population with an unmet medical need." OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed the treatment of chronic HCV infection in those infected with HIV...
November 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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