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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635082/targeting-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-in-american-indian-youth-the-tribal-turning-point-pilot-study
#1
K A Sauder, D Dabelea, R Bailey-Callahan, S Kanott Lambert, J Powell, R James, C Percy, B F Jenks, L Testaverde, J M Thomas, R Barber, J Smiley, C W Hockett, V W Zhong, L Letourneau, K Moore, A M Delamater, E Mayer-Davis
BACKGROUND: American Indian (AI) youth are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To partner with Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Navajo Nation to develop a culturally sensitive behavioural intervention for youth (Tribal Turning Point; TTP) and assess feasibility in an 8-month randomized pilot study. METHODS: We enrolled 62 overweight/obese AI children (7-10 years) who participated with ≥1 parent/primary caregiver. Intervention participants (n = 29) attended 12 group classes and five individual sessions...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588306/metabolomics-allow-the-discrimination-of-the-pathophysiological-relevance-of-hyperinsulinism-in-obese-prepubertal-children
#2
G Á Martos-Moreno, A Mastrangelo, V Barrios, A García, J A Chowen, F J Rupérez, C Barbas, J Argente
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) is the cornerstone of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements observed in obese children. Targeted metabolomics was employed to explore the pathophysiological relevance of hyperinsulinemia in childhood obesity in order to identify biomarkers of IR with potential clinical application. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred prepubertal obese children (50 girls/50 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR in each group), underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for usual carbohydrate and lipid metabolism determinations...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585193/the-definition-and-prevalence-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Atilla Engin
Increase in prevalence of obesity has become a worldwide major health problem in adults, as well as among children and adolescents. Furthermore, total adiposity and truncal subcutaneous fat accumulation during adolescence are positively and independently associated with atherosclerosis at adult ages. Centrally accumulation of body fat is associated with insulin resistance, whereas distribution of body fat in a peripheral pattern is metabolically less important. Obesity is associated with a large decrease in life expectancy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571015/insulin-like-growth-factors-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-children
#4
Elena Inzaghi, Barbara Baldini Ferroli, Danilo Fintini, Armando Grossi, Valerio Nobili, Stefano Cianfarani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is related to cardiometabolic risk in adults, whereas the metabolic role of IGF-II is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess IGFs in obese children and correlate them with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including 574 obese children (11.34 ± 3.16 years). All subjects underwent complete anthropometry and biochemical assessment. In a subgroup of 136 subjects, body composition was evaluated...
June 1, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493411/insulinaemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-caucasian-general-paediatric-population-aged-2-to-10-years-associated-risk-factors
#5
Irene Alías-Hernández, Rafael Galera-Martínez, Emilio García-García, Francisco Javier Muñoz-Vico, María Ángeles Vázquez Lopez, María Carmen Olvera-Porcel, Antonio Bonillo Perales
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine values of insulinaemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) among a population of prepubertal Caucasian children, to analyse factors associated with insulin resistance (IR), and to study its association with cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population-based study conducted on a randomly selected sample of prepubescent Caucasian subjects aged 2...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489766/sex-difference-determined-the-role-of-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-in-obese-children-during-short-term-weight-reduction-program
#6
Fu-Min Wang, Chien-Ming Lin, Shao-Hung Lien, Li-Wei Wu, Ching-Feng Huang, Der-Ming Chu
The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels has been observed in obese adults and children. Weight reduction not only increased insulin sensitivity but also elevated serum SHBG levels in obese adults and children. However, the correlation between the changes in insulin resistance indices and serum SHBG concentration during weight reduction program (WRP) is not fully understood, particularly in obese children. This study is to evaluate whether SHBG level is a potential biomarker that can be used to assess insulin resistance in obese children during a short-term WRP...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472948/noninvasive-assessment-of-liver-steatosis-in-children-the-clinical-value-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter
#7
Giovanna Ferraioli, Valeria Calcaterra, Raffaella Lissandrin, Marinella Guazzotti, Laura Maiocchi, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Corrado Regalbuto, Gloria Pelizzo, Daniela Larizza, Carlo Filice
BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical validity of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in a series of overweight or obese children by using the imperfect gold standard methodology. METHODS: Consecutive children referred to our institution for auxological evaluation or obesity or minor elective surgery were prospectively enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were recorded. Ultrasound (US) assessment of steatosis was carried out using ultrasound systems...
May 4, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452835/vitamin-d-status-cardiometabolic-liver-and-mental-health-status-in-obese-youth-attending-a-pediatric-weight-management-centre
#8
Krista MacDonald, Kristine Godziuk, Jason Yap, Rena LaFrance, Mohammad Ansarian, Andrea Haqq, Diana R Mager
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency and obesity are reaching epidemic proportions in North America, particularly in those with co-morbid conditions such as diabetes or liver disease. The study objective was to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitD status and interrelationships with anthropometric, cardio-metabolic, liver, mental health and lifestyle (sleep/screen time) parameters in an ambulatory population of obese children. METHODS: Children (2-18 years) old attending a pediatric weight management clinic (n = 217) were retrospectively reviewed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439217/pediatric-metabolic-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-laboratory-assessment
#9
Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Pediatric overweight and obesity is an emerging public health priority as rates have rapidly increased worldwide. Obesity is often clustered with other metabolic abnormalities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This cluster of risk factors, termed the metabolic syndrome, has traditionally been reported in adults. However, with the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity, the metabolic syndrome is now evident in children and adolescents...
March 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428013/-the-monophasic-pattern-in-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-as-a-predictive-risk-factor-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-paediatric-patients
#10
Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Patricia Enes, María Martín-Frías, Belén Roldán, Rosa Yelmo, Raquel Barrio
INTRODUCTION: The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. METHODS: Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11...
April 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400207/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-growth-hormone-secretagogues
#11
REVIEW
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone (GH) increases lean body mass, decreases fat mass, increases exercise tolerance and maximum oxygen uptake, enhances muscle strength, and improves linear growth. Long-term studies of GH administration offer conflicting results on its safety, which has led to strict Food and Drug Administration criteria for GH use. The potential drawbacks of exogenous GH use are believed to be due in part to impaired regulatory feedback. AIM: To review the literature on GH secretagogues (GHSs), which include GH-releasing peptides and the orally available small-molecule drug ibutamoren mesylate...
April 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391281/inside-out-the-ragbag-of-glucose-intolerance-in-obese-adolescents
#12
Claudia Brufani, Andrea Tura, Giorgio Bedogni, Rosa Luciano, Stefano Sbrignadello, Danilo Fintini, Marco Cappa, Ram Weiss, Melania Manco
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is rising among obese adolescents in parallel with epidemic obesity. In some cases, IGT reverts to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) by the end of puberty. The aims of the present study were to investigate metabolic factors determining changes over time of glucose at 120 min (Glu120) following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and to verify whether preserved β-cell glucose sensitivity (βCGS) protects against persistent IGT...
April 7, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318371/p-selectin-endocan-and-some-adhesion-molecules-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Ala Ustyol, Esra Aycan Ustyol, Figen Gurdol, Funda Kokali, Seldag Bekpınar
There is increasing evidence for a direct relationship between the vascular system and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate endocan and adhesion molecules such as P-selectin derived from the endothelium and platelets in obese children and adolescents with NAFLD. One hundred obese patients and 40 lean controls were enrolled. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver. Blood samples were assayed for endocan, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255821/one-hour-post-load-plasma-glucose-levels-associated-with-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-and-early-makers-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#14
M L Marcovecchio, M Bagordo, E Marisi, T de Giorgis, V Chiavaroli, F Chiarelli, A Mohn
PURPOSE: Obese adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) but with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose (1hPG) ≥ 155 mg/dl are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiometabolic complications. Little information is available for the pediatric population, where recently, a lower cutoff, 132.5 mg/dl, has been suggested as being more sensitive to identify subjects at risk of T2D. Our aim was to assess whether obese Caucasian youth with 1hPG ≥ 132.5 mg/dl have worse insulin sensitivity and secretion and a worse cardiometabolic profile compared to obese youth with 1hPG < 132...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216642/high-fat-meal-systemic-inflammation-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#15
A Morandi, E Fornari, F Opri, M Corradi, M Tommasi, R Bonadonna, C Maffeis
We aimed to assess in obese youths the relationships between interleukin-6 (IL-6), fat meal-induced endotoxemia and glucose homeostasis. Twenty obese children/adolescents (9-17 years old, 11 boys) underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test and, 7-14 days later, a 5-h fat meal test (fat=69% of energy, saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids=31.5%/35%/33.5%), with serial measures of IL-6 and two markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and translocation, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14)...
June 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212289/the-effects-of-myo-inositol-and-b-and-d-vitamin-supplementation-in-the-db-mouse-model-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Jasmine F Plows, Florence Budin, Rebecka A M Andersson, Valerie J Mills, Katherine Mace, Sandra T Davidge, Mark H Vickers, Philip N Baker, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Joanna L Stanley
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing concern, affecting an increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. By predisposing both the affected mothers and children to future disease, GDM contributes to an intergenerational cycle of obesity and diabetes. In order to stop this cycle, safe and effective treatments for GDM are required. This study sought to determine the treatment effects of dietary supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) and vitamins B2, B6, B12, and D in a mouse model of GDM (pregnant db/+ dams)...
February 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203453/association-of-osteoprotegerin-with-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#17
Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Ozgul Yigit, Oguzhan Zengi, Mehmet Salih Akkurt, Mehmet Tasdemir
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183786/extracellular-rnas-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-phenotypes
#18
Ravi Shah, Venkatesh Murthy, Michael Pacold, Kirsty Danielson, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Martin G Larson, Kristina Hanspers, Alexander Pico, Eric Mick, Jared Reis, Sarah de Ferranti, Elizaveta Freinkman, Daniel Levy, Udo Hoffmann, Stavroula Osganian, Saumya Das, Jane E Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of obesity and metabolic disease. Circulating extracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs), stable RNA molecules in plasma, may play a role in IR, though most studies on ex-RNAs in IR are small. We sought to characterize the relationship between ex-RNAs and metabolic phenotypes in a large community-based human cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured circulating plasma ex-RNAs in 2,317 participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort at cycle 8 and defined associations between ex-RNAs and IR (measured by circulating insulin level)...
April 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154244/fetuin-a-as-an-alternative-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-prepubertal-children
#19
Young Suk Shim, Min Jae Kang, Yeon Jeong Oh, Joon Woo Baek, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang
AIM: Fetuin-A plays a role in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to determine the relationship between fetuin-A levels and cardiometabolic risk factors, as well as to investigate the effect of serum fetuin-A on insulin resistance indices to determine whether fetuin-A is an additional marker for insulin resistance in prepubertal children. METHODS: A total of 99 prepubertal Korean children (59 males) aged from 6.0 to 10.0 years was included in this study...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137791/longitudinal-associations-between-ambient-air-pollution-with-insulin-sensitivity-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-adiposity-in-los-angeles-latino-children
#20
Tanya L Alderete, Rima Habre, Claudia M Toledo-Corral, Kiros Berhane, Zhanghua Chen, Frederick W Lurmann, Marc J Weigensberg, Michael I Goran, Frank D Gilliland
Evidence suggests that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) had adverse effects on longitudinal measures of insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and obesity in children at high risk for developing diabetes. Overweight and obese Latino children (8-15 years; n=314) were enrolled between 2001-2012 from Los Angeles, California and followed for an average of 3...
January 30, 2017: Diabetes
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