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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898210/metabolic-effects-of-antipsychotics-on-adiposity-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-youths-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Ginger E Nicol, Michael D Yingling, Karen S Flavin, Julia A Schweiger, Bruce W Patterson, Kenneth B Schechtman, John W Newcomer
Importance: Antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat nonpsychotic disruptive behavioral disorders in youths. Objective: To characterize the metabolic effects of first exposure to antipsychotics in youths using criterion standard assessments of body composition and insulin sensitivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial recruited antipsychotic-naive youths aged 6 to 18 years in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were diagnosed with 1 or more psychiatric disorders and clinically significant aggression and in whom antipsychotic treatment was considered...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892562/impact-of-vitamin-d-treatment-on-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-levels-and-insulin-homeostasis-in-obese-african-american-adolescents-in-a-randomized-trial
#2
Usha Sethuraman, Marwan A Zidan, Lynae Hanks, Minoo Bagheri, Ambika Ashraf
Background: Obesity is affecting children in epidemic proportions in the United States with nearly 25% of children being obese. Consequences of obesity including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are leading to morbidity at younger ages. Parallel to the obesity and diabetes epidemics, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has reached very high levels and has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Studies exploring the impact of vitamin D repletion on insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in children are sparse...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879890/pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Badhma Valaiyapathi, Barbara Gower, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in children is disturbingly increasing in parallel with increasing childhood obesity. Better knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children is paramount to devise an effective management plan. OBJECTIVE: Discuss the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children and adolescents Methods and results: This is a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. Type 2 DM in childhood is viewed as a continuum of insulin resistance (IR) which is determined by an underlying genetic predisposition, intrauterine environment, excessive food consumption, continued rapid weight gain, and poor lifestyle...
June 7, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795455/minor-diplotypes-of-fmo3-might-protect-children-and-adolescents-from-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#4
Anita Morandi, Chiara Zusi, Massimiliano Corradi, Francesca Olivieri, Claudia Piona, Elena Fornari, Claudio Maffeis
In order to assess whether flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (FMO3) might be involved in early cardiovascular risk, we assessed adiposity and traditional metabolic variables in children/adolescents grouped according to their genotypes in two FMO3 exonic polymorphisms, rs2266782 (E158K) and rs2266780 (E308G), which are in linkage disequilibrium and have been associated with decreased FMO3 activity. Among 776 children/adolescents (10.8 ± 2.2 years) recruited from the general population (452) and from our obesity outpatient clinic (324), the 68 carrying either the 158K-308G/158K-308E or the 158K-308G/158K-308G diplotype had lower mean z-BMI and prevalence of obesity compared to their 708 peers carrying any of the other diplotypes (0...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#5
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717377/a-systematic-review-of-sleep-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Aaron D Fobian, Lindsey Elliott, Tinnie Louie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many of the risk factors for heart disease have recently been shown to develop during childhood such as left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrous plaque lesions. As risk for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents has risen, sleep duration has decreased, and inadequate sleep in children and adolescents has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of this manuscript are to provide an updated systematic review of the literature assessing sleep, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk and evaluate the strength of the evidence based on the available research...
May 1, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649377/vitamin-d-status-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity-effect-of-physical-activity-in-nonvitamin-d-supplemented-adolescents
#7
Md Jobayer Hossain, Alexa Levinson, Donald George, Jose Canas, Seema Kumar, P Babu Balagopal
BACKGROUND: The relationship among inadequate vitamin D status, obesity, and cardiometabolic risk and the potential impact of physical activity-based interventions on vitamin D status are poorly characterized in children. This study aimed to address these issues. METHODS: We studied a total of 21 adolescents (15 obese and 6 normal weight; age: 14-18 years; Tanner stage>IV). Adolescents with obesity (n = 15) underwent a randomized controlled (8 in the intervention group and 7 in the control group) 3-month physical activity-based lifestyle intervention...
May 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617475/ultrasonographic-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-obese-children
#8
Karla Cristina Malta Costa, Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo, Patrícia Silveira Silva, Jailson Costa Lima, Wellington de Paula Martins, Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the obesity alters ultrasonographical markers of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated 80 children aged between 6 and 10 years, comparing 40 obese with 40 normal children. The following parameters were assessed: weight; height; body mass index; arterial blood pressure; body fat; basal metabolic rate; HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; fasting insulin and glucose; quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI); homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); basal diameter of the brachial artery; brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) and of pulsatility index change (PI-C)...
March 29, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565153/inflammatory-cytokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#9
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565148/physical-fitness-cardiometabolic-risk-and-heart-rate-recovery-in-chilean-children
#10
María José Arias Téllez, Johana Patricia Soto-Sánchez, Sergio Gerardo Weisstaub
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of physical fitness (PF) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) with heart rate recovery time (ΔHRR) in Chilean school aged children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 478 6-9 years old children participants. We measured weight, height and abdominal circumference. Fitness was measured using the 6MWT, grip strength and leap forward without impulse tests; PF z-scores were calculated. Heart rate (HR) was monitored and recorded during the 6MWT...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523875/insulin-sensitivity-is-reduced-in-children-with-high-body-fat-regardless-of-bmi
#11
Timothy J Fairchild, Heidi Klakk, Malene Heidemann, Anders Grøntved, Niels Wedderkopp
PURPOSE: To examine the association between insulin sensitivity and adiposity in children stratified according to their body mass index (BMI: normal weight, NW; overweight or obese, OW/OB) and body-fat percentage (BF%: adipose or NonAdipose), and determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) ameliorates any deleterious associations. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprises a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data collected at baseline and 2 years later on children (7...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505614/high-normal-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-hyperuricemia-positively-correlate-with-metabolic-impairment-in-pediatric-obese-patients
#12
Roberta Ricotti, Giulia Genoni, Enza Giglione, Alice Monzani, Martina Nugnes, Sara Zanetta, Matteo Castagno, Agostina Marolda, Giorgio Bellomo, Gianni Bona, Simonetta Bellone, Flavia Prodam
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity represents a major health concern worldwide due to its well established detrimental effect on cardiovascular and its potential negative effect on kidney functions. However, biomarkers that can help diagnose early stages of kidney damage in obese children represent an unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we asked whether the prevalence of microalbuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or hyperuricemia recorded in a wide cohort of obese children and adolescents would positively correlate with cardiometabolic dysfunction in these subjects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493116/serum-igfbp-2-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-children
#13
S W Yau, B E Harcourt, K-T Kao, E J Alexander, V C Russo, G A Werther, M A Sabin
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may represent a critical link between body composition and insulin sensitivity. We investigated the relationship between circulating IGFBP-2 levels, body composition, insulin sensitivity, energy intake and physical activity in children with obesity. Children were recruited via the Weight Management Service at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, as part of the Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia (COBRA). Comprehensive anthropometric, biochemical and environmental data were collected and compared to serum IGFBP-2 levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)...
June 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485130/the-rs626283-variant-in-the-mboat7-gene-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-fatty-liver-in-caucasian-obese-youth
#14
Giuseppina R Umano, Sonia Caprio, Anna Di Sessa, Naga Chalasani, Daniel J Dykas, Bridget Pierpont, Allen E Bale, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver damage in childhood, its occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene has been found to be associated with alcoholic liver disease and NAFLD in adults. METHODS: In a multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents we genotyped the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene, evaluated insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured the intra-hepatic fat content (HFF%) by magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411326/plasma-adrenomedullin-level-in-children-with-obesity-relationship-to-left-ventricular-function
#15
Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Hekma Saad Farghaly, Tahra Sherief
BACKGROUND: Obese children are at increased risk for abnormal cardiac structure and function. Little is known about adrenomedullin (AM), a cytokine produced in various organs and tissues, as a biomarker of cardiac hypertrophy in obese children. This study aimed to assess the plasma AM levels in a cohort of obese children and its relationship to left ventricular (LV) functions. METHODS: The study included 60 obese children and 60 non-obese children matched for age and gender as control group...
February 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390101/breastfeeding-and-maternal-hypertension
#16
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between breastfeeding and hypertension. We performed this study to identify whether breastfeeding itself influenced maternal hypertension and whether degree of obesity or insulin sensitivity would contribute to the relationship between breastfeeding and hypertension in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Our study population comprised 3,119 nonsmoking postmenopausal women aged 50 years or above in the 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381651/exercise-effects-on-adipose-tissue-postprandial-lipolysis-and-blood-flow-in-children
#17
Huimin Yan, Joseph R Pierce, Kimberly B Myers, Katrina D DuBose, Gabriel S Dubis, Charles J Tanner, Robert C Hickner
Poor suppression of lipolysis and blunted increase in blood flow following meal ingestion in obese adults may indicate resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin. Exercise may be used to normalize lipolytic responses to food intake by increasing insulin sensitivity. PURPOSE: To determine if acute bouts of aerobic exercise and/or excise training alter lipolytic and blood flow responses to food intake in lean (LN) and obese (OB) children. METHODS: Sixty-five children (9-11 yrs) were randomized into acute exercise (EX: 16 LN and 28 OB) or control (CON: 9 LN and 12 OB) groups that exercised (EX), or rested (CON) between standardized breakfast and lunch...
January 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357498/validity-and-reliability-of-a-novel-metabolic-flexibility-test-in-children-with-obesity
#18
Lisa Chu, Katherine M Morrison, Michael C Riddell, Sandeep Raha, Brian W Timmons
PURPOSE: Existing methods for diagnosing diabetes and for identifying risk of diabetes development are completed under resting conditions and based on adult data. Studying additional methods to identify metabolic risk in children is warranted. Our objective was to examine the validity and reliability of a metabolic flexibility (MetFlex) test for screening glycemia and insulin resistance (IR) in children. We hypothesized higher MetFlex during exercise would be correlated with lower fasting glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and higher whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) and insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319392/the-association-between-serum-vaspin-and-omentin-1-levels-in-obese-children-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Muammer Buyukinan, Muge Atar, Ummugulsum Can, Ozgur Pirgon, Asuman Guzelant, Isa Deniz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Excess visceral fat accumulation results in altered release of adipokines. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between new adipokines (omentin-1 and vaspin), insulin resistance, and serum inflammatory markers in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included a total of 121 obese children (79 females and 42 males, aged 12-17 years old). The obese subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of MS criteria (MS group and non-MS group)...
March 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285449/carotid-intima-medial-thickness-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-indian-obese-children-and-adolescents
#20
Aashima Dabas, Thushanth Thomas, Monita Gahlot, Nandita Gupta, K Devasenathipathy, Rajesh Khadgawat
Objective: To evaluate for subclinical atherosclerosis and its risk factors in Indian obese children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, case-control study was conducted to recruit 80 children aged 6-17 years with constitutional obesity as cases and 23 age- and gender-matched controls with normal body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric and clinical evaluation was followed by biochemical analysis and body fat estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in cases...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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