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insulin sensitive obese children

Nayely Garibay-Nieto, Gloria Queipo-Garcia, Flor Alvarez-Huerta, Mayra Bustos-Esquivel, Erendira Villanueva-Ortega, Fernando Ramirez, Mireya Leon, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje, Ravindranath Duggirala, Teresa Macias, Sergio Cuevas, Abel Jalife, Miguel Fonseca-Sanchez, Fabiola Serratos, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance precedes metabolic syndrome abnormalities and may promote cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in children with obesity. Results of lifestyle modification programs have been discouraging, and the use of adjuvant strategies has been necessary. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on insulin sensitivity, measured via euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and insulin pathway expression molecules in muscle biopsies of children with obesity...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tarig Ali-Dinar, Jason E Lang
Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including atherosclerotic disease, metabolic syndrome, and upper airway dysfunction. However, the purported link between obesity and asthma has remained more difficult to define, in part due to limitations in past epidemiologic studies and the inherent challenge in accurately defining asthma in children. It is possible that obesity leads to asthma only in the presence of a mediating variable such as an obesity-related conditions such as esophageal reflux or insulin resistance...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Enrique Carmona-Montesinos, Raul Velazquez-Perez, Edna Pichardo Aguirre, Selva Rivas-Arancibia
BACKGROUND: Obesity during early stages of life may condition states of oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme involved in oxidative metabolism; it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions and is related in sensitivity to insulin. However, a high concentration of this enzyme has been described to cause alterations such as insulin resistance. The objective of this work was to study the relationship between obesity, oxidative stress, HO-1, and insulin in children aged 3 to 5 years...
October 11, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Pascal Barat, Marie-Claire Meiffred, Julie Brossaud, Dietmar Fuchs, Jean-Benoit Corcuff, Helene Thibault, Lucile Capuron
Alterations in endocrine functions and low-grade systemic inflammation represent fundamental characteristics of obesity. These biological systems have been repeatedly linked to fatigue symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between fatigue dimensions and metabolic/inflammatory markers in a sample of non-diabetic obese children. The possibility that inflammation-induced alterations in tryptophan metabolism relates to specific dimensions of fatigue was also investigated in a subsample of patients...
September 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Clare Chung-Wah Yu, Alison Mary McManus, Hung-Kwan So, Ping Chook, Chun-Ting Au, Albert Martin Li, Jack Tat-Chi Kam, Raymond Chi-Hung So, Christopher Wai-Kei Lam, Iris Hiu-Shuen Chan, Rita Yn-Tz Sung
AIM: To determine the benefits of a 10-wk resistance training programme on cardiovascular health in non-obese and active adolescents. METHODS: This is a pragmatic randomised controlled intervention. The study was carried out in a Hong Kong Government secondary school. Thirty-eight lean and active boys and girls were randomised to either the resistance training group or the control group. Students in the resistance training group received in-school 10-wk supervised resistance training twice per week, with each session lasting 70 min...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Isabel Madeira, Maria Alice Bordallo, Nádia Cristina Rodrigues, Cecilia Carvalho, Fernanda Gazolla, Paulo Collett-Solberg, Clarice Medeiros, Ana Paula Bordallo, Marcos Borges, Claudia Monteiro, Rebeca Ribeiro
Objective: Leptin has been suggested as a potential biomarker of cardiovascular risk. This paper aims to ascertain, based on a sample of prepubertal children, which serum leptin value best suited to identify metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects and methods: This observational, cross-sectional study recruited children from the outpatient pediatrics clinic, with the purpose of validating serum leptin level cutoffs to identify MS. All obese and overweight children who met eligibility criteria were included in the study, as was a sample of normal-weight children...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Anita Morandi, Amélie Bonnefond, Stéphane Lobbens, Loïc Yengo, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Anna Grandone, Claire Lévy-Marchal, Jacques Weill, Claudio Maffeis, Philippe Froguel
CONTEXT: Young onset obesity is strongly associated with the early development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic risk scores (GRSs) related to T2D might help predicting the early impairment of glucose homeostasis in obese youths. OBJECTIVE: Investigating the contributions of four GRSs (associated with: T2D [GRS-T2D], beta-cell function [GRS-β], insulin resistance [GRS-IR] and BMI [GRS-BMI]) to the variation of traits derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in obese and normal-weight children and young adults...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pilar Navarro, Olaya de Dios, Teresa Gavela-Pérez, Asha Jois, Carmen Garcés, Leandro Soriano-Guillén
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy school children, and to evaluate whether changes in body mass index (BMI) category throughout childhood affect hs-CRP levels. STUDY DESIGN: We measured serum hs-CRP levels, lipid profile, insulin levels, and leptin levels in 683 prepubertal children and 748 adolescents. A total of 272 children participated in the study in both cohorts, prepubertal (baseline; age 6-8 years) and adolescents (follow-up; age 12-16 years)...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Giorgio Bedogni, Andrea Mari, Alessandra De Col, Nicoletta Marazzi, Claudio Tiribelli, Melania Manco, Alessandro Sartorio
BACKGROUND: No study so far has evaluated the relationship between insulin secretion (ISEC) and insulin sensitivity (ISEN) in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the relationship between ISEC and ISEN in young obese patients with and without NAFLD. METHODS: We matched 401 NAFLD(+) and 595 NAFLD(-) children by sex (same), age (≤1 year), pubertal status (same), and body mass index (BMI; ≤0.05 standard deviation scores) using coarsened exact matching...
August 19, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Gönül Çatlı, Tuncay Küme, Hale Ünver Tuhan, Ahmet Anık, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abacı
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum irisin level and metabolic and anthropometric parameters in obese children. METHODS: The study included 36 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥95th percentile and 30 healthy children with a BMI ranging from the 5th to the 85th percentile. Healthy and obese children had similar age, gender and pubertal stage distribution. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and irisin levels) were measured...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
N Honzíková, E Závodná
The increased prevalence of obesity in children and its complications have led to a greater interest in studying baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in children. This review of BRS in children and adolescents includes subtopics on: 1. Resting values of BRS and their reproducibility, 2. Genetics of BRS, 3. The role of a primarily low BRS and obesity in the development of hypertension, and 4. Association of diabetes mellitus, BRS, and obesity. The conclusions specific to this age follow from this review: 1. The mean heart rate (HR) influences the measurement of BRS...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Mansa Krishnamurthy, Mia M Pingul
Insulin receptor mutations cause extreme insulin resistance resulting in acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. We report a pre-menarchal adolescent female with normal weight, with severe acanthosis nigricans, acne, and hirsutism. Initial investigation revealed elevated fasting and post-prandial insulin and high testosterone and androstenedione levels. Her father had frequent complaints of hypoglycemia. Coding sequence and splice junction analysis of the INSR gene, in our patient and her father, revealed a heterozygous missense mutation in the β subunit of the insulin receptor (Arg1131Trp), resulting in receptor loss of function...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Lisa Chu, Katherine M Morrison, Michael C Riddell, Sandeep Raha, Brian W Timmons
The capacity to match carbohydrate (CHO) utilization with availability is impaired in insulin-resistant, obese adults at rest. Understanding exogenous carbohydrate (CHOexo) oxidation during exercise and its association to insulin resistance (IR) is important, especially in children at risk for type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to examine the oxidative efficiency of CHOexo during exercise in obese children with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Children attended two visits and were identified as NGT (n = 22) or IGT (n = 12) based on 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose levels of <7...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Luigia Nunziata, Grazia Cirillo, Laura Perrone, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Anna Grandone
BACKGROUND: The N-acetyltransferase 2 ( NAT2 ) A803G polymorphism has been associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in a large adult population with the A allele associated with insulin-resistance-related traits. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of this polymorphism with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents. SUBJECTS: A total of 748 obese children and adolescents were enrolled. METHODS: Anthropometric and laboratory data were collected...
August 2, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Liane Correia-Costa, Teresa Sousa, Manuela Morato, Dina Cosme, Joana Afonso, José C Areias, Franz Schaefer, António Guerra, Alberto C Afonso, Ana Azevedo, António Albino-Teixeira
Oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) appear to represent important links between obesity and cardiovascular, metabolic and/or renal disease. We investigated whether oxidative stress and NO production/metabolism are increased in overweight and obese prepubertal children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of 313 children aged 8-9 years. Anthropometrics, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), insulin resistance (homoeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR)), inflammatory/metabolic biomarkers, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma and urinary isoprostanes (P-Isop, U-Isop), urinary hydrogen peroxide (U-H2O2), and plasma and urinary nitrates and nitrites (P-NOx, U-NOx) were compared among normal weight, overweight and obese groups, according to WHO BMI z-score reference...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Jae Hwa Jung, Mo Kyung Jung, Ki Eun Kim, Ah Reum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Choon Sik Yoon, Ho Seong Kim, Duk-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Abdominal obesity is a fundamental factor underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Because of radiation exposure and cost, computed tomography or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate abdominal adiposity are not appropriate in children. Authors evaluated whether ultrasound results could be an indicator of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We enrolled 73 subjects (aged 6-16 years) who were evaluated abdominal adiposity by ultrasound...
June 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Swapna Dharashivkar, Lawrence Wasser, Richard N Baumgartner, Jeffrey C King, Stephen J Winters
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), a glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes that transports testosterone and other steroids in plasma, is a marker for developing metabolic syndrome and T2DM. SHBG is present in umbilical cord blood where it may be epigenetically regulated. This study was conducted to investigate whether the fetal environment, based on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain or smoking during pregnancy, influence SHBG in newborns. METHODS: Maternal and newborn characteristics and SHBG levels and other variables were measured in cord and day 2 heel-stick blood samples in 60 healthy full-term singleton babies (31 F, 29 M)...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Alejandro Gugliucci, Robert H Lustig, Russell Caccavello, Ayca Erkin-Cakmak, Susan M Noworolski, Viva W Tai, Michael J Wen, Kathleen Mulligan, Jean-Marc Schwarz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary fructose may play a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a recently published study of obese children with MetS, we showed that isocaloric fructose restriction reduced fasting triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). In these ancillary analyses, we tested the hypothesis that these effects were also accompanied by improved quantitative and qualitative changes in LDL and HDL subclasses and their apolipoproteins; as well as change in VLDL, particularly apoC-III...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
Cosimo Giannini, Nicoletta Pietropaoli, Nella Polidori, Francesco Chiarelli, Maria Loredana Marcovecchio, Angelika Mohn
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related complications. However, few data are available in youth. The objective of this study was to investigate the GLP-1 response to oral glucose load in obese pre-pubertal children and its relationship with insulin secretion. METHODS: Ten pre-pubertal obese children [five boys; 10.5±1.6 years; body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS): 2...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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