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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428013/-the-monophasic-pattern-in-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-as-a-predictive-risk-factor-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-paediatric-patients
#1
Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Patricia Enes, María Martín-Frías, Belén Roldán, Rosa Yelmo, Raquel Barrio
INTRODUCTION: The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. METHODS: Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11...
April 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400207/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-growth-hormone-secretagogues
#2
REVIEW
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone (GH) increases lean body mass, decreases fat mass, increases exercise tolerance and maximum oxygen uptake, enhances muscle strength, and improves linear growth. Long-term studies of GH administration offer conflicting results on its safety, which has led to strict Food and Drug Administration criteria for GH use. The potential drawbacks of exogenous GH use are believed to be due in part to impaired regulatory feedback. AIM: To review the literature on GH secretagogues (GHSs), which include GH-releasing peptides and the orally available small-molecule drug ibutamoren mesylate...
April 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391281/inside-out-the-ragbag-of-glucose-intolerance-in-obese-adolescents
#3
Claudia Brufani, Andrea Tura, Giorgio Bedogni, Rosa Luciano, Stefano Sbrignadello, Danilo Fintini, Marco Cappa, Ram Weiss, Melania Manco
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is rising among obese adolescents in parallel with epidemic obesity. In some cases, IGT reverts to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) by the end of puberty. The aims of the present study were to investigate metabolic factors determining changes over time of glucose at 120 min (Glu120) following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and to verify whether preserved β-cell glucose sensitivity (βCGS) protects against persistent IGT...
April 7, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318371/p-selectin-endocan-and-some-adhesion-molecules-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Ala Ustyol, Esra Aycan Ustyol, Figen Gurdol, Funda Kokali, Seldag Bekpınar
There is increasing evidence for a direct relationship between the vascular system and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate endocan and adhesion molecules such as P-selectin derived from the endothelium and platelets in obese children and adolescents with NAFLD. One hundred obese patients and 40 lean controls were enrolled. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver. Blood samples were assayed for endocan, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255821/one-hour-post-load-plasma-glucose-levels-associated-with-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-and-early-makers-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#5
M L Marcovecchio, M Bagordo, E Marisi, T de Giorgis, V Chiavaroli, F Chiarelli, A Mohn
PURPOSE: Obese adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) but with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose (1hPG) ≥ 155 mg/dl are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiometabolic complications. Little information is available for the pediatric population, where recently, a lower cutoff, 132.5 mg/dl, has been suggested as being more sensitive to identify subjects at risk of T2D. Our aim was to assess whether obese Caucasian youth with 1hPG ≥ 132.5 mg/dl have worse insulin sensitivity and secretion and a worse cardiometabolic profile compared to obese youth with 1hPG < 132...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216642/high-fat-meal-systemic-inflammation-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#6
A Morandi, E Fornari, F Opri, M Corradi, M Tommasi, R Bonadonna, C Maffeis
We aimed to assess in obese youths the relationships between interleukin-6 (IL-6), fat meal-induced endotoxemia and glucose homeostasis. Twenty obese children/adolescents (9-17 years old, 11 boys) underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test and, 7-14 days later, a 5-h fat meal test (fat=69% of energy, saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids=31.5%/35%/33.5%), with serial measures of IL-6 and two markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and translocation, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212289/the-effects-of-myo-inositol-and-b-and-d-vitamin-supplementation-in-the-db-mouse-model-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Jasmine F Plows, Florence Budin, Rebecka A M Andersson, Valerie J Mills, Katherine Mace, Sandra T Davidge, Mark H Vickers, Philip N Baker, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Joanna L Stanley
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing concern, affecting an increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. By predisposing both the affected mothers and children to future disease, GDM contributes to an intergenerational cycle of obesity and diabetes. In order to stop this cycle, safe and effective treatments for GDM are required. This study sought to determine the treatment effects of dietary supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) and vitamins B2, B6, B12, and D in a mouse model of GDM (pregnant db/+ dams)...
February 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203453/association-of-osteoprotegerin-with-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#8
Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Ozgul Yigit, Oguzhan Zengi, Mehmet Salih Akkurt, Mehmet Tasdemir
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183786/extracellular-rnas-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-phenotypes
#9
Ravi Shah, Venkatesh Murthy, Michael Pacold, Kirsty Danielson, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Martin G Larson, Kristina Hanspers, Alexander Pico, Eric Mick, Jared Reis, Sarah de Ferranti, Elizaveta Freinkman, Daniel Levy, Udo Hoffmann, Stavroula Osganian, Saumya Das, Jane E Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of obesity and metabolic disease. Circulating extracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs), stable RNA molecules in plasma, may play a role in IR, though most studies on ex-RNAs in IR are small. We sought to characterize the relationship between ex-RNAs and metabolic phenotypes in a large community-based human cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured circulating plasma ex-RNAs in 2,317 participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort at cycle 8 and defined associations between ex-RNAs and IR (measured by circulating insulin level)...
April 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154244/fetuin-a-as-an-alternative-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-prepubertal-children
#10
Young Suk Shim, Min Jae Kang, Yeon Jeong Oh, Joon Woo Baek, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang
AIM: Fetuin-A plays a role in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to determine the relationship between fetuin-A levels and cardiometabolic risk factors, as well as to investigate the effect of serum fetuin-A on insulin resistance indices to determine whether fetuin-A is an additional marker for insulin resistance in prepubertal children. METHODS: A total of 99 prepubertal Korean children (59 males) aged from 6.0 to 10.0 years was included in this study...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137791/longitudinal-associations-between-ambient-air-pollution-with-insulin-sensitivity-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-adiposity-in-los-angeles-latino-children
#11
Tanya L Alderete, Rima Habre, Claudia M Toledo-Corral, Kiros Berhane, Zhanghua Chen, Frederick W Lurmann, Marc J Weigensberg, Michael I Goran, Frank D Gilliland
Evidence suggests that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) had adverse effects on longitudinal measures of insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and obesity in children at high risk for developing diabetes. Overweight and obese Latino children (8-15 years; n=314) were enrolled between 2001-2012 from Los Angeles, California and followed for an average of 3...
January 30, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090470/acanthosis-nigricans-as-a-clinical-predictor-of-insulin-resistance-in-obese-children
#12
Young Kwon Koh, Jae Hee Lee, Eun Young Kim, Kyung Rye Moon
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the utility of acanthosis nigricans (AN) severity as an index for predicting insulin resistance in obese children. METHODS: The subjects comprised 74 obese pediatric patients who attended the Department of Pediatrics at Chosun University Hospital between January 2013 and March 2016. Waist circumference; body mass index; blood pressure; fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels; lipid profile; aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glycated hemoglobin, C-peptide, and uric acid levels; and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin check sensitivity index (QUICKI) scores were compared between subjects with AN and those without AN...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007534/fkbp5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#13
Marta Fichna, Izabela Krzyśko-Pieczka, Magdalena Żurawek, Bogda Skowrońska, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Piotr Fichna
OBJECTIVE: Since metabolic syndrome shares several clinical features with hypercortisolism, it was hypothesised that genes altering individual glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity might be implicated in pathogenesis of obesity and its adverse outcomes. FKBP5 gene encodes a chaperon protein in the GC receptor (GR) complex, which modulates steroid action upon target genes. Its functional variant, rs1360780, may enhance FKBP5 gene transcription, affect GR signalling and thereby influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis...
December 19, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991966/genotypic-carriers-of-the-obesity-associated-fto-polymorphism-exhibit-different-cardiometabolic-profiles-after-an-intervention
#14
Greice G Moraes, Cézane P Reuter, Jane D P Renner, Elisa I Klinger, Michele B Ferreira, Elza D DE Mello, Andréia DE M Valim, Miria S Burgos
Background: Children and adolescents with at-risk genotypes (AA/AT) of the rs9939609 polymorphism in FTO, a fat mass and obesity-associated gene, may exhibit different cardiometabolic profile responses than subjects with the TT genotype after an interdisciplinary intervention. Methods: The sample consisted of 36 school children from southern Brazil. We used DNA quantitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for polymorphism genotyping. We measured anthropometric parameters (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage and skinfold sum), biochemical parameters (glucose, lipid profile, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin and adiponectin) and blood pressure...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984205/definition-of-insulin-resistance-affects-prevalence-rate-in-pediatric-patients-a-systematic-review-and-call-for-consensus
#15
Marloes P van der Aa, Catherijne A J Knibbe, Anthonius de Boer, Marja M J van der Vorst
BACKGROUND: As a result of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity, there is an increasing interest in the type 2 diabetes mellitus precursor insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study is to review definitions (methods and cutoff values) to define IR in children and to apply these definitions to a previously described obese pediatric population. METHODS: A systematic literature review on prevalence and/or incidence rates in children was performed. The extracted definitions were applied to an obese pediatric population...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977406/vitamin-d-supplementation-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-oxidative-stress-in-obese-children
#16
Tal Grunwald, Shruti Fadia, Bruce Bernstein, Matthew Naliborski, Shufang Wu, Francesco De Luca
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the occurrence of oxidative stress. This study aimed to determine whether treatment and correction of vitamin D deficiency in obese children led to changes in their metabolic profile, independent of changes in adiposity. In addition, we aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency and oxidative stress are causally related in obese children...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923100/effects-of-air-pollution-exposure-on-glucose-metabolism-in-los-angeles-minority-children
#17
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905649/-hyperinsulinemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-children
#18
Ana Beatriz Rosas-Sumano, Francisco Javier Rodal-Canales, Margarita Barrientos Pérez, Beatriz Eugenia Cárdenas-Morales, Laura Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Eduardo Pérez-Campos
BACKGROUND: Obesity during childhood is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. AIM: To measure insulin and glucose levels and parameters of insulin resistance in obese, overweight and normal weight Mexican children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative study of 21 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) over percentile 95, aged 10 ± 1 years (10 males), 14 children aged 10 ± 2 (7 males) with a BMI between percentiles 85 and 94 and 16 children aged 9 ± 2 years (3 males) with a body mass index between percentiles 10 and 84...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889912/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-metabolic-parameters-are-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#19
Shuang Liang, Xiangdeng Cheng, Yanyan Hu, Ruxin Song, Guimei Li
AIM: Few studies have investigated the relationship between paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). This study, carried out from July 2013 to September 2015, aimed to fill the gap and added metabolic parameters to the analysis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 168 obese children and adolescents (84% male), divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 90) or absence (n = 78) of NAFLD. All participants underwent clinical examinations, anthropometric and laboratory examinations and liver ultrasonography...
February 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882052/myoinositol-and-d-chiro-inositol-in-improving-insulin-resistance-in-obese-male-children-preliminary-data
#20
Mario Mancini, Alice Andreassi, Michela Salvioni, Fiore Pelliccione, Gianna Mantellassi, Giuseppe Banderali
Myoinositol and D-chiro inositol, which are inositol isomers, have been shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to improve insulin resistance, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, it has not been determined if this relationship exists also in children. Based on these previous findings, we hypothesized that inositol could be effective in improving insulin sensitivity in children with insulin resistance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered both inositol formulations before carrying out an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a group of obese insulin-resistant male children with high basal insulin levels and compared the values obtained with an OGTT previously conducted without inositol, in the same group, with unchanged BMI...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
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