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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903560/commonly-prescribed-drugs-associate-with-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study-in-uk-biobank
#1
Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Chi-Hun Kim, Laura Winchester, John Gallacher, Simon Lovestone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate medications associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants aged 37-73 years who completed cognitive tests at the baseline visit in 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive test outcomes on verbal-numerical reasoning test (n=165 493), memory test (n=482 766) and reaction time test (n=496 813)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887948/s-allyl-cysteine-ameliorates-cognitive-deficits-in-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats-via-suppression-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-acetylcholinesterase
#2
Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Zahra Kiasalari, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Zahra Ghasemi, Mehrdad Roghani
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with learning, memory, and cognitive deficits. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is the main organosulfur bioactive molecule in aged garlic extract with anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and nootropic property. This research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of SAC on alleviation of learning and memory deficits in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats and to explore involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling cascade...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868798/neurochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-nigella-sativa-and-olea-europaea-oil-in-rats
#3
M Atif Raza Cheema, Shazia Nawaz, Sumera Gul, Tabinda Salman, Sabira Naqvi, Ahsana Dar, Darakhshan J Haleem
OBJECTIVES: In the last few decades, therapeutic uses of medicinal compounds present in food as a normal constituent has risen substantially, largely because of their fewer side effects and adequate efficacy. This study is designed to investigate a role of brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the potential nootropic, anxiolytic, and other beneficial effects of Nigella sativa (NS) and Olea europaea (OE) oil in rat models. METHODS: Animals were treated with NS and OE oil orally at doses of 0...
November 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845313/-cytoflavin-in-the-treatment-of-preschool-and-early-school-age-children-with-the-consequences-of-perinatal-hypoxic-brain-damages
#4
S Yu Lavrik, V V Shprakh, S V Domitrak, A S Borisov
AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of the complex metabolic neuroprotector cytoflavin in children with the consequences of perinatal hypoxic brain damages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients, aged 4-8 years, were stratified into three groups: 35 with infant cerebral palsy, 64 with the minimal brain dysfunction and 47 with sensorineural hearing loss. The control group consisted of 30 children. Monotherapy with cytoflavin was carried out in the dose of one tablet twice a day for 25 days...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790463/comparison-between-the-effect-of-cow-ghee-and-butter-on-memory-and-lipid-profile-of-wistar-rats
#5
Yogita Surendra Karandikar, Akshata Sanjay Bansude, Eesha Ajit Angadi
INTRODUCTION: The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. AIM: So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788040/neuropeptide-s-receptor-ligands-a-patent-review-2005-2016
#6
Chiara Ruzza, Girolamo Calò, Salvatore Di Maro, Salvatore Pacifico, Claudio Trapella, Severo Salvadori, Delia Preti, Remo Guerrini
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a 20-residue peptide and endogenous ligand of the NPS receptor (NPSR). This receptor was a formerly orphan GPCR whose activation increases calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. The NPS/NPSR system is expressed in several brain regions where it controls important biological functions including locomotor activity, arousal and sleep, anxiety, food intake, memory, pain, and drug addiction. Areas covered: This review furnishes an updated overview of the patent literature covering NPSR ligands since 2005, when the first example of an NPSR antagonist was disclosed...
November 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762349/hypericum-perforatum-as-a-cognitive-enhancer-in-rodents-a-meta-analysis
#7
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754095/os-20-09-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-disorders-in-arterial-hypertension
#8
Viktoria Krotova, Tatyana Khomazyuk
OBJECTIVE: One of the first disorders of affection subcortical brain structures in arterial hypertension (AH) is a decrease in mental processes, intellectual rigidity. To investigate the cognitive disorders (CD) in AH patients 1-2 stages of working age and the effectiveness of nootropic agent (phenibutum) and anticholinergic drug (ipidacrinum) in combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: Observed 60 patients with controlled AH 1-2 stages and CD. The median age-55,3 ± 9,1 years and duration of AH-10,2 ± 5,8 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741481/oxiracetam-can-improve-cognitive-impairment-after-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#9
Xiao-Li Yao, Zhao-Hui Yao, Li Li, Li Nie, Shao-Feng Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) induces cognitive deficits. Although CCH can be improved, cognitive impairment is not improved accordingly. To date, many studies have focused on investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of CCH; however, the treatment of the induced cognitive impairment remains ineffective. Thus, the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CCH and potential agents for treating this impairment need to be explored further. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that improves clinical outcomes for some central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
October 4, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717698/asparagus-adscendens-root-extract-enhances-cognition-and-protects-against-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-an-in-silico-and-in-vivo-studies
#10
Priyanka Pahwa, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Asparagus adscendens Roxb. commonly known as safed musli and belonging to the Liliaceae family is cultivated mainly in Asian countries. In traditional medicine, safed musli is recommended as nerve tonic and remedy for memory impairment. The present study was aimed to evaluate nootropic and antiamnesic activities of Asparagus adscendens extract (AAE) using in silico and in vivo approach. Phytoconstituents of A. adscendens root reported in literature were subjected to in silico prediction using PASS and Pharmaexpert...
October 4, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664729/indentification-of-vincamine-indole-alkaloids-producing-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-nerium-indicum-apocynaceae
#11
REVIEW
Ren Na, Liu Jiajia, Yang Dongliang, Peng Yingzi, Hong Juan, Liu Xiong, Zhao Nana, Zhou Jing, Luo Yitian
Vincamine, a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid which had been marketed as nootropic drugs for the treatment of cerebral insufficiencies, is widely found in plants of the Apocynaceae family. Nerium indicum is a plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family. So, the purpose of this research was designed to investigate the vincamine alkaloids producing endophytic fungi from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae. 11 strains of endophytic fungi, isolated from the stems and roots of the plant, were grouped into 5 genera on the basis of morphological characteristics...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660276/in-vitro-effects-of-cognitives-and-nootropics-on-mitochondrial-respiration-and-monoamine-oxidase-activity
#12
Namrata Singh, Jana Hroudová, Zdeněk Fišar
Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracetam) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synthase, monoamine oxidase (MAO), oxygen consumption rate, and hydrogen peroxide production of pig brain mitochondria...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643020/os-20-09-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-disorders-in-arterial-hypertension
#13
Viktoria Krotova, Tatyana Khomazyuk
OBJECTIVE: One of the first disorders of affection subcortical brain structures in arterial hypertension (AH) is a decrease in mental processes, intellectual rigidity. To investigate the cognitive disorders (CD) in AH patients 1-2 stages of working age and the effectiveness of nootropic agent (phenibutum) and anticholinergic drug (ipidacrinum) in combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: Observed 60 patients with controlled AH 1-2 stages and CD. The median age-55,3 ± 9,1 years and duration of AH-10,2 ± 5,8 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624701/varsity-medical-ethics-debate-2015-should-nootropic-drugs-be-available-under-prescription-on-the-nhs
#14
Emma Thorley, Isaac Kang, Stephanie D'Costa, Myrto Vlazaki, Olaoluwa Ayeko, Edward H Arbe-Barnes, Casey B Swerner
The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and society as a whole for them to be available under prescription...
September 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588125/effects-of-pharmacological-treatments-on-hippocampal-ncam1-and-erk2-expression-in-epileptic-rats-with-cognitive-dysfunction
#15
Qingxia Kong, Xia Min, Ran Sun, Jianying Gao, Ruqing Liang, Lei Li, Xu Chu
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of various pharmacological agents on the hippocampal expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction. The experiments were conducted using 120 Wistar rats: 20 controls and 100 with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). The SE rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=20/group) that received daily treatments for 1 month with one of the following: (i) saline (no effect on epilepsy); (ii) carbamazepine (an anticonvulsant); (iii) oxcarbazepine (an anticonvulsant); (iv) aniracetam (a nootropic); or (v) donepezil (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor)...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566183/blockade-of-hippocampal-bradykinin-b1-receptors-improves-spatial-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-middle-aged-rats
#16
Rafael M Bitencourt, Ana C Guerra de Souza, Maíra A Bicca, Fabrício A Pamplona, Nelson de Mello, Giselle F Passos, Rodrigo Medeiros, Reinaldo N Takahashi, João B Calixto, Rui D Prediger
Previous studies have demonstrated that targeting bradykinin receptors is a promising strategy to counteract the cognitive impairment related with aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hippocampus is critical for cognition, and abnormalities in this brain region are linked to the decline in mental ability. Nevertheless, the impact of bradykinin signaling on hippocampal function is unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of hippocampal bradykinin receptors B1R and B2R on the cognitive decline of middle-aged rats...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521248/secreted-amyloid-precursor-protein-alpha-can-restore-novel-object-location-memory-and-hippocampal-ltp-in-aged-rats
#17
Monica Xiong, Owen D Jones, Katie Peppercorn, Shane M Ohline, Warren P Tate, Wickliffe C Abraham
Secreted amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective molecule which can enhance learning and synaptic plasticity. Aging is associated with memory decline and impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). SAPPα therefore has potential as a nootropic agent which could be used to offset age-related cognitive decline. In this study we investigated the effects of sAPPα on spatial memory tasks and LTP in aged and young Long-Evans rats. Two hippocampus-dependent tasks were employed to measure spatial memory that is susceptible to impairments during aging...
August 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473605/the-ayurvedic-plant-bacopa-monnieri-inhibits-inflammatory-pathways-in-the-brain
#18
Michelle D Nemetchek, Andrea A Stierle, Donald B Stierle, Diana I Lurie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bacopa monnieri (L) Wettst (common name, bacopa) is a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda, the traditional system of medicine of India, as a nootropic. It is considered to be a "medhya rasayana", an herb that sharpens the mind and the intellect. Bacopa is an important ingredient in many Ayurvedic herbal formulations designed to treat conditions such as memory loss, anxiety, poor cognition and loss of concentration. It has also been used in Ayurveda to treat inflammatory conditions such as arthritis...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464742/anxiolytic-activity-of-the-neuroprotective-peptide-hldf-6-and-its-effects-on-brain-neurotransmitter-systems-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Yurii A Zolotarev, Georgii I Kovalev, Natalya V Kost, Margarita E Voevodina, Oleg Y Sokolov, Alexander K Dadayan, Evgenii A Kondrakhin, Ekaterina V Vasileva, Anna P Bogachuk, Vyacheslav N Azev, Valery M Lipkin, Nikolai F Myasoedov
This study is focused on a new amide derivative of the peptide HLDF-6 (Thr-Gly-Glu-Asn-His-Arg). This hexapeptide is a fragment of Human Leukaemia Differentiation Factor (HLDF). It displays a broad range of nootropic and neuroprotective activities. We showed, for the first time, that the peptide HLDF-6-amide has high anxiolytic activity. We used 'open field' and 'elevated plus maze' tests to demonstrate anxiolytic effects of HLDF-6-amide (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg intranasally), which were comparable to those of the reference drug diazepam (0...
September 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416675/-studying-some-pharmacological-effects-of-new-3-hydroxypyridine-derivative
#20
V V Yasnetsov, E G Tsublova, Vic V Yasnetsov, S Ya Skachilova, S K Karsanova, Yu V Ivanov
It was established that a new 3-hydroxypyridine (3-HP) derivative, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine L-aspartate (3-HP), in small doses (1 and 5 mg/kg) increased physical performance in treadmill and swimming tests on rats. The new substance showed greater or equal effects compared to the reference actoprotector drugs metaprot and ladasten in much higher doses. The gluconeogenesis inhibitor tryptophan significantly (74 ± 5%, p < 0.01) prevented this stimulatory effect of 3-HPA in the treadmill test on rats...
2016: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
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