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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#1
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
September 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890737/from-hard-neuro-tools-to-soft-neuro-toys-refocussing-the-neuro-enhancement-debate
#2
Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Hub Zwart
Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884730/-pharmacological-effects-and-clinical-application-of-pantogam-and-pantogam-active
#3
T A Voronina, S A Litvinova
Clinical studies and experience in the use of pantogam (hopanthenic acid) and pantogam active (rac-gopantenic/D-, L-gopantenic acid) showed their efficacy and safety in patients with various pathologies. Pantogam has a unique spectrum of pharmacological effects (nootropic, anticonvulsant, mild activating) in the absence of addiction, hyperstimulation or withdrawal syndrome. Pantogam active, having also an additional anxiolytic effect, is characterized by bimodal activity, improves not only cognitive functions, but also emotional state in patients in psychiatric, neurological and cardiological practice with such diseases and conditions as anxiety/anxiety-depressive disorders, chronic brain ischemia, ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, epilepsy, craniocerebral trauma, schizophrenia as well as cognitive impairment in the structure of neurological and psychogenic deficiencies...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861754/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-cicer-microphyllum-seed-extract-in-global-hypoxia
#4
Deepti Sharma, Surya Narayan Biswal, Kushal Kumar, Pushpendar Bhardwaj, Kalpana Kumari Barhwal, Ashish Kumar, Sunil Kumar Hota, Om Prakash Chaurasia
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus has been implicated for memory impairment in conditions like stroke, ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia. The present study, aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic extract of Cicer microphyllum seeds (CSE) for amelioration of global hypoxia induced neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus. CSE supplementation considerably reduced neurodegeneration and dendritic atrophy in CA1 neurons along with improvement of memory in hypoxic rats...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855592/-s-oxiracetam-is-the-active-ingredient-in-oxiracetam-that-alleviates-the-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#5
Wan Li, Huihui Liu, Hanjie Jiang, Chen Wang, Yongfei Guo, Yi Sun, Xin Zhao, Xin Xiong, Xianhua Zhang, Ke Zhang, Zongxiu Nie, Xiaoping Pu
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a pathological state that is associated with the cognitive impairments in vascular dementia. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that is commonly used to treat cognitive deficits of cerebrovascular origins. However, oxiracetam is currently used as a racemic mixture whose effective ingredient has not been identified to date. In this study, we first identified that (S)-oxiracetam, but not (R)-oxiracetam, was the effective ingredient that alleviated the impairments of spatial learning and memory by ameliorating neuron damage and white matter lesions, increasing the cerebral blood flow, and inhibiting astrocyte activation in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855122/bacterial-isolates-degrading-ritalinic-acid-human-metabolite-of-neuro-enhancer-methylphenidate
#6
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
The consumption of nootropic drugs has increased tremendously in the last decade, though the studies on their environmental fate are still scarce. Nootropics are bioactive compounds designed to alter human's physiology therefore the adverse effects towards wildlife can be expected. In order to understand their environmental impact, the knowledge on their transformation pathways is necessary. Methylphenidate belongs to the most prescribed neuro-enhancers and is among the most favored smart drugs used in non-medical situations...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836990/wound-healing-effect-of-euphorbia-hirta-linn-euphorbiaceae-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#7
Riazul Haque Tuhin, Marium Begum, Sohanur Rahman, Rubaba Karim, Taslima Begum, Siraj Uddin Ahmed, Ronia Mostofa, Amir Hossain, Mohamed Abdel-Daim, Rayhana Begum
BACKGROUND: Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant...
August 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832626/the-effect-of-bacopa-monnieri-on-gene-expression-levels-in-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#8
How-Wing Leung, Gabriel Foo, Gokulakrishna Banumurthy, Xiaoran Chai, Sujoy Ghosh, Tora Mitra-Ganguli, Antonius M J VanDongen
Bacopa monnieri is a plant used as a nootropic in Ayurveda, a 5000-year-old system of traditional Indian medicine. Although both animal and clinical studies supported its role as a memory enhancer, the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying Bacopa's nootropic action are not understood. In this study, we used deep sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the transcriptome changes upon Bacopa treatment on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We identified several genes whose expression levels were regulated by Bacopa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#9
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760594/s-oxiracetam-protect-against-ischemic-stroke-via-alleviating-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-rats
#10
Liangliang Huang, Erxin Shang, Wenxiang Fan, Xiang Li, Binbin Li, Shucheng He, Yuxin Fu, Yizhi Zhang, Yunman Li, Weirong Fang
The blood brain barrier (BBB) maintains the basic stability of the brain tissue under physiological conditions, while destroys and exaggerates brain edema and inflammatory response after ischemic stroke. In this study, we researched S-oxiracetam (S-ORC), a nootropic drug, alleviates BBB dysfunction and protects against ischemic stroke in rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)/reperfusion in rats is applied to mimic ischemic stroke. One hour after reperfusion, rats are administered intravenously with different dose (0...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743458/s-phenylpiracetam-a-selective-dat-inhibitor-reduces-body-weight-gain-without-influencing-locomotor-activity
#11
Liga Zvejniece, Baiba Svalbe, Edijs Vavers, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Elina Makarova, Vilnis Liepins, Ivars Kalvinsh, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova
S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively...
September 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720419/isolation-of-two-ochrobactrum-sp-strains-capable-of-degrading-the-nootropic-drug-piracetam
#12
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Boris Kolvenbach, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide) is a popular cognitive enhancer, which has recently been detected in waste and drinking water. Nootropic drugs are designed to affect human metabolism and act on the nervous system, but their environmental effects have yet to be the subject of detailed studies. In this report, we present the efficient biodegradation of the cognitive enhancer, piracetam. Two bacterial strains capable of using this compound as the sole carbon source were isolated and later identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi strain MW6 and Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MW7...
July 16, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638040/-complex-application-2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-succinate-and-vinpocetine-in-cerebrovascular-disorder
#13
E Yu Solovyeva, A N Karneev, A V Chekanov, O A Baranova, I V Choi
Developing brain ischemia due to cerebral vascularization leads to disruption of brain metabolism. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to irreversible brain damage and plays an important role in the development of some types of dementia. Early use of antioxidants such as ethyl ether apovincamine acid (vinpocetine) and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-succinate in the treatment of this pathology is seen as a real pathogenetically based method of correction of cerebral metabolism with cerebral vascular disorders, demonstrating the increase in cerebral blood flow and also neuroprotective effects...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618989/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-novel-12-n-methylcytisine-derivatives
#14
Inna P Tsypysheva, Sophia S Borisevich, Liana F Zainullina, Nina S Makara, Alena V Koval'skaya, Polina R Petrova, Sergey L Khursan, Yulia V Vakhitova, Felix S Zarudii
Neurodegenerative diseases and inflammation are always linked to each other; therefore the elaboration of new chemical compounds, which interact with pharmacological targets involved into these two processes, can become one of ways of correction of these types of human CNS pathology. In the field of this problem the anti-inflammatory activity of ten 3-amino derivatives of quinolizidine alkaloid (-)-cytisine (the data about nootropic activity of these compounds are outlined by us previously) was studied by using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches...
June 16, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588366/neurocognitive-effect-of-nootropic-drug-brahmi-bacopa-monnieri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Nishant R Tiwari, Rakesh R Tiwari, Rohan S Sharma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583132/a-bacosides-containing-bacopa-monnieri-extract-alleviates-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-in-the-chronic-constriction-injury-model-of-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#16
Muhammad Shahid, Fazal Subhan, Nisar Ahmad, Ihsan Ullah
BACKGROUND: The current therapy of neuropathic pain is inadequate and is limited by the extent of pain relief and the occurrence of dose dependant side effects. Insufficient control of pain with conventional medications prompts the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies by patients with neuropathic pain. This study therefore investigated a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri, a widely reputed nootropic plant, for prospective antinociceptive effect in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain...
June 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#17
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479740/effect-of-shankhpushpi-on-alcohol-addiction-in-mice
#18
Mahi Heba, Sana Faraz, Sugato Banerjee
Alcohol addiction is a worldwide problem. It has mainly two components: dependence and withdrawal. Characteristic properties of most anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and nootropic actions. Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis. Convolvulaceae), known ethnopharmacologically as brain tonic, possess all the properties mentioned above. Here, we screen shankhpushpi for possible anti-addictive potential. Effect of shankhpushpi churna was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458154/sauroxine-reduces-memory-retention-in-rats-and-impairs-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-generation
#19
Mariana Vallejo, Valeria Carlini, Laura Gabach, M G Ortega, José L Cabrera, Susana Rubiales de Barioglio, Mariela Pérez, Alicia M Agnese
In the present paper it was investigated the role of sauroxine, an alkaloid of Phlegmariurus saururus, as a modulator of some types of learning and memory, considering the potential nootropic properties previously reported for the alkaloid extract and the main alkaloid sauroine. Sauroxine was isolated by means of an alkaline extraction, purified by several chromatographic techniques, and assayed in electrophysiological experiments on rat hippocampus slices, tending towards the elicitation of the long-term potentiation (LTP) phenomena...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399095/-modern-principles-of-integrated-diagnostics-and-rehabilitation-of-perinatal-lesions-of-the-nervous-system-and-their-consequences
#20
S A Nemkova
The article is devoted to the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences in children. Reflects modern approaches to data classification conditions, taking into account ideas on the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, the clinical manifestations of the main syndromes (excitation and depression, hypertensive, convulsive, movement disorders) as the neonatal period, and in the formation of long-term effects (motor and mental delay and speech development, hyperkinetic syndrome, cerebral palsy and others)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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