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Max Lam, Joey W Trampush, Jin Yu, Emma Knowles, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Melle, Kjetil Sundet, Andrea Christoforou, Ivar Reinvang, Pamela DeRosse, Astri J Lundervold, Vidar M Steen, Thomas Espeseth, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widen, Aarno Palotie, Johan G Eriksson, Ina Giegling, Bettina Konte, Panos Roussos, Stella Giakoumaki, Katherine E Burdick, Antony Payton, William Ollier, Ornit Chiba-Falek, Deborah K Attix, Anna C Need, Elizabeth T Cirulli, Aristotle N Voineskos, Nikos C Stefanis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Alex Hatzimanolis, Dan E Arking, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Robert M Bilder, Nelson A Freimer, Tyrone D Cannon, Edythe London, Russell A Poldrack, Fred W Sabb, Eliza Congdon, Emily Drabant Conley, Matthew A Scult, Dwight Dickinson, Richard E Straub, Gary Donohoe, Derek Morris, Aiden Corvin, Michael Gill, Ahmad R Hariri, Daniel R Weinberger, Neil Pendleton, Panos Bitsios, Dan Rujescu, Jari Lahti, Stephanie Le Hellard, Matthew C Keller, Ole A Andreassen, David C Glahn, Anil K Malhotra, Todd Lencz
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol...
July 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Neha Falls, Deepika Singh, Firoz Anwar, Amita Verma, Vikas Kumar
Citrous lemon (Rutaceae) an Indian folk medicine has been used for the treatment of various pathological diseases viz., diabetes, cardiovascular, inflammation, hepatobiliary dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorder. Can lemon oil altered the memory of unstressed and stressed mice, a basic question for which the present work was put on trial. The present investigation was intended to assess the impact of Lemon oil on memory of unstressed and Stressed Swiss young Albino mice. Lemon oil (50 and 100 mg/kg o...
July 2, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Saatheeyavaane Bhuvanendran, Yatinesh Kumari, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone) is one of the active components (2.3%) found in Embelia ribes Burm fruits. As determined via in vitro AChE inhibition assay, embelin can inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Therefore, embelin can be utilized as a therapeutic compound, after further screening has been conducted for its use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, the nootropic and anti-amnesic effects of embelin on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats were evaluated. Rats were treated once daily with embelin (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pragya Bhardwaj, Navendu Goswami, Pankhuri Narula, Chakresh Kumar Jain, Ashwani Mathur
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. is a well documented nootropic plant, extensive known for alleviating symptoms of neurological disorder, along with other symptomatic relief. This property is attributed to the active phytocompounds, saponins (bacoside A) present in the plant. However, lack of stringent validation guidelines in most of the countries bring to the market, formulations differing in phytocompounds yield, thereby suggesting possible variation in therapeutic efficacy. The in-vitro suspension cultures of the Bacopa monnieri, provide an ease of scale-up, but regulating saponin yield is a stringent task...
July 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mariana Grigoruţă, Alejandra Vargas-Caraveo, Emmanuel Vázquez-Mayorga, Hiram A Castillo-Michel, Ángel G Díaz-Sánchez, Juan Reyes-Herrera, Alejandro Martínez-Martínez
Chronic psychological stress is an important public health issue which generates behavioral changes, anxiety, immunosuppression and oxidative damage. Piracetam is a cognitive enhancer, at cellular level it protects from oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychological stress and of piracetam on circulating mononuclear cells by analyzing the biochemical spectrome using Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-μFTIR). Rats were exposed for five days to a stressor (cat odor) under oral administration of piracetam (600 mg/kg)...
June 21, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jeongmin Park, Eunshil Choi, Seulgi Shin, Sungsu Lim, Dohee Kim, Suji Baek, Kang Pa Lee, Jae Jun Lee, Byeong Han Lee, Bokyung Kim, Keunsoo Jeong, Ja-Hyun Baik, Yun Kyung Kim, Sehoon Kim
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an intracranial injury which can induce immediate neuroinflammation and long-term neurological deficits. Methylene blue (MB) as a nootropic has a great potential to treat neurodegeneration after TBI because of its anti-inflmmatory and neuroprotective functions. However, its limited accumulation to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major hurdle to be overcome. In this paper, we present a polymer surfactant-encapsulated nanocomplex of MB as a delivery system with high BBB permeability for efficacious treatment of TBI-induced neurodegeneration...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marie Claire Van Hout, Annemieke Benschop, Michal Bujalski, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Zsolt Demetrovics, Katalin Felvinczi, Evelyn Hearne, Susana Henriques, Zsuzsa Kaló, Gerrit Kamphausen, Dirk Korf, Joana Paula Silva, Łukasz Wieczorek, Bernd Werse
Continued diversification and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) across Europe remains a public health challenge. The study describes health and social consequences of recent NPS use as reported in a survey of marginalised, nightlife and online NPS users in the Netherlands, Hungary, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and Poland ( n  = 3023). Some respondents were unable to categorise NPS they had used. Use of ' herbal blends ' and ' synthetic cannabinoids obtained pure ' was most reported in Germany, Poland and Hungary, and use of ' branded stimulants ' and ' stimulants/empathogens/nootropics obtained pure ' was most reported in the Netherlands...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the pressing demands for memorization, top-level performance, and peer competition create an environment favorable for pharmaceutical cognitive doping behavior. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior and to discuss the issues at stake. The prevalence of pharmaceutical cognitive doping among students has been reported from 1.3% to 33% across studies, with variations depending on country and definition of pharmaceutical cognitive doping. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted for doping purposes are psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
March 6, 2018: Thérapie
I N Sharonova, Yu V Bukanova, N F Myasoedov, V G Skrebitskii
The concentration-clamp experiments with neurons isolated from the rat brain showed that nootropic and neuroprotective drug Semax added to perfusion solution at concentration of 1 μM augmented the amplitude of GABA-activated ionic currents in cerebellum Purkinje cells by 147±13%. In addition, Semax in perfusion solution (0.1 and 1 μM) diminished the amplitude of glycine-activated chloride currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons down to 68 and 43% control level, respectively. Both potentiating and inhibitory effects developed slowly, and they were poorly reversible, which indicated a probable implication of second messengers in the observed phenomena...
March 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sonam Gupta, Joyshree Biswas, Neeraj Joshi, Abhishek Singh, Parul Gupta, Shubhangini Tiwari, K Sivarama Raju, Swati Chaturvedi, M Wahajuddin, Sarika Singh
Piracetam, a nootropic drug that has been clinically used for decades but remains enigmatic due to no distinct understanding of its mechanism of action. The present study aimed to investigate the role of caspase independent pathway in piracetam mediated neuroprotection. LPS administration caused significant alterations in oxidative stress related parameters like glutathione, glutathione reductase and increased lipid peroxidation. LPS administration also caused augmented expression of inflammatory cytokines and astrocytes activation...
June 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
W David Hill
Intelligence and educational attainment are strongly genetically correlated. This relationship can be exploited by Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) to add power to Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of intelligence. MTAG allows the user to meta-analyze GWASs of different phenotypes, based on their genetic correlations, to identify association's specific to the trait of choice. An MTAG analysis using GWAS data sets on intelligence and education was conducted by Lam et al. (2017). Lam et al. (2017) reported 70 loci that they described as 'trait specific' to intelligence...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
June 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sonam Gupta, Joyshree Biswas, Neeraj Joshi, K Sivarama Raju, Mu Wahajuddin, Sarika Singh
Piracetam, a nootropic drug, has been clinically used for decades; however, its mechanism of action still remains enigmatic. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of mitochondrion-specific factors of caspase-independent pathway like apoptotic-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease-G (endo-G) in piracetam-induced neuroprotection. N2A cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibited significant cytotoxicity, impaired mitochondrial activity, and reactive oxygen species generation which was significantly attenuated with piracetam co-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Oleg B Shevelev, Alisa A Seryapina, Evgenii L Zavjalov, Lyudmila A Gerlinskaya, Tatiana N Goryachkovskaya, Nikolay M Slynko, Leonid V Kuibida, Sergey E Peltek, Arcady L Markel, Mikhail P Moshkin
BACKGROUND: As the standard clinically used hypotensive medicines have many undesirable side effects, there is a need for new therapeutic agents, especially ones of a natural origin. PURPOSE: One possible candidate is extract from the mushroom Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), which is used in the treatment and prevention of many chronic diseases. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To study the effectiveness of Reishi, which grows in the Altai Mountains, as an antihypertensive agent, we intragastrically administered Reishi water extract to adult male hypertensive ISIAH (inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) rats...
March 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
N S Makara, T A Sapozhnikova, R Yu Khisamutdinova, I P Tsypysheva, S S Borisevich, A V Kovalskaya, P R Petrova, C L Khursan, F S Zarudii
We performed screening of nootropic properties of 10 new derivatives of quinolizidine alkaloid (-)-cytisine. Compounds with β-endo stereochemistry were more active than α-endo-isomers. Under stress conditions (3aR,4S,8S,12R,12aS,12bR)-10-methyl-2-phenyloctahydro-1H-4,12a-etheno-8,12-methanopyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrido[1,2-a] [1,5]diazocine-1,3,5(4H)-trione enhanced memory and had a positive effect on cognitive functions of rats. According to molecular docking data, the nootropic activity of the compound can be associated with its affinity for the glutamate-binding subunits GluK1 and GluR2 of the kainate and AMPA receptor, respectively...
March 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Natasha Catlin, Suramya Waidyanatha, Eve Mylchreest, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler, Helen Cunny, Paul Foster, Vicki Sutherland, Barry McIntyre
Dietary supplement and natural product use is increasing within the United States, resulting in growing concern for exposure in vulnerable populations, including young adults and women of child-bearing potential. Vinpocetine is a semisynthetic derivative of the Vinca minor extract, vincamine. Human exposure to vinpocetine occurs through its use as a dietary supplement for its purported nootropic and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the effects of vinpocetine on embryo-fetal development, groups of 25 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and 8 pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were orally administered 0, 5, 20, or 60 mg vinpocetine/kg and 0, 25, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg daily from gestational day (GD) 6-20 and GD 7-28, respectively...
June 1, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I Oyeleye, Omoyemi A Akintemi, Tosin A Olasehinde
There are strong correlations between diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf (ML) and seed (MS) inclusive diets on biomolecules [acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), arginase, catalase, glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels] associated with cognitive function in the brain of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated with acarbose (ACA)...
April 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
S N Kolbaev, O P Aleksandrova, I N Sharonova, V G Skrebitsky
A neuroprotective and nootropic drug Noopept increased the frequency of spontaneous calcium transients in neurons of CA1 radial layer in cultured rat hippocampal slices. In contrast, the drug exerted no significant effect on intracellular calcium concentration and its dynamics in neurons of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer.
January 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
V A Chavushyan, K V Simonyan, R M Simonyan, A S Isoyan, G M Simonyan, M A Babakhanyan, L E Hovhannisyian, Kh H Nahapetyan, L G Avetisyan, M A Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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