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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778745/phytohormone-abscisic-acid-elicits-antinociceptive-effects-in-rats-through-the-activation-of-opioid-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#1
Mahtab Mollashahi, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani
The phytohormone abscisic acid exists in animal tissues particularly in the brain. However, its neurophysiological effects have not yet been fully clarified. This study was designed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effects of abscisic acid on animal models of pain and determine its possible signaling mechanism. Tail-flick, hot-plate and formalin tests were used to assess the nociceptive threshold. All experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. To determine the role of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and opioid receptors on the induction of abscisic acid antinociception, specific antagonists were injected 15min before abscisic acid...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777253/translation-inhibition-corrects-aberrant-localization-of-mutant-alanine-glyoxylate-aminotransferase-possible-therapeutic-approach-for-hyperoxaluria
#2
Ruth Belostotsky, Roman Lyakhovetsky, Michael Y Sherman, Fanny Shkedy, Shimrit Tzvi-Behr, Roi Bar, Bernd Hoppe, Björn Reusch, Bodo B Beck, Yaacov Frishberg
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a severe kidney stone disease caused by abnormalities of the peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). The most frequent mutation G170R results in aberrant mitochondrial localization of the active enzyme. To evaluate the population of peroxisome-localized AGT, we developed a quantitative Glow-AGT assay based on the self-assembly split-GFP approach and used it to identify drugs that can correct mislocalization of the mutant protein. In line with previous reports, the Glow-AGT assay showed that mitochondrial transport inhibitors DECA and monensin increased peroxisomal localization of the mutant...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777213/semaphorin-6d-reverse-signaling-controls-macrophage-lipid-metabolism-and-anti-inflammatory-polarization
#3
Sujin Kang, Yoshimitsu Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Kioi, Daisuke Okuzaki, Tetsuya Kimura, Hyota Takamatsu, Shohei Koyama, Satoshi Nojima, Masayuki Nishide, Yoshitomo Hayama, Yuhei Kinehara, Yasuhiro Kato, Takeshi Nakatani, Tomomi Shimogori, Junichi Takagi, Toshihiko Toyofuku, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Polarization of macrophages into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory states has distinct metabolic requirements, with mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase signaling playing a critical role. However, it remains unclear how mTOR regulates metabolic status to promote polarization of these cells. Here we show that an mTOR-Semaphorin 6D (Sema6D)-Peroxisome proliferator receptor γ (PPARγ) axis plays critical roles in macrophage polarization. Inhibition of mTOR or loss of Sema6D blocked anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization, concomitant with severe impairments in PPARγ expression, uptake of fatty acids, and lipid metabolic reprogramming...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776318/ppard-rs7770619-polymorphism-in-a-korean-population-association-with-plasma-malondialdehyde-and-impaired-fasting-glucose-or-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#4
Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Yao Sun, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
Both the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene ( PPARD) and malondialdehyde plasma concentrations may play a role in impaired glucose metabolism. The aim of this work was to determine whether PPARD is a candidate gene for impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and whether a particular genetic variant shows association with plasma malondialdehyde levels. Among the 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were most strongly associated with malondialdehyde, the rs7770619 polymorphism in PPARD was analysed in 1798 subjects with normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes...
May 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#5
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773809/super-resolution-imaging-reveals-the-sub-diffraction-phenotype-of-zellweger-syndrome-ghosts-and-wild-type-peroxisomes
#6
Kareem Soliman, Fabian Göttfert, Hendrik Rosewich, Sven Thoms, Jutta Gärtner
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous cell organelles involved in many metabolic and signaling functions. Their assembly requires peroxins, encoded by PEX genes. Mutations in PEX genes are the cause of Zellweger Syndrome spectrum (ZSS), a heterogeneous group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBD). The size and morphological features of peroxisomes are below the diffraction limit of light, which makes them attractive for super-resolution imaging. We applied Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy to study the morphology of human peroxisomes and peroxisomal protein localization in human controls and ZSS patients...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773642/correction-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-%C3%AE-expression-in-t-cells-mediates-gender-differences-in-development-of-t-cell-mediated-autoimmunity
#7
Shannon E Dunn, Shalina S Ousman, Raymond A Sobel, Luis Zuniga, Sergio E Baranzini, Sawsan Youssef, Andrea Crowell, John Loh, Jorge Oksenberg, Lawrence Steinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772784/capsaicin-in-metabolic-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Edward Bliss, Lindsay Brown
Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772226/potential-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-activation-on-serum-visfatin-and-trace-elements-in-high-fat-diet-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Arshia Tabassum, Syeda Nuzhat Fatima Zaidi, Kausar Yasmeen, Tabassum Mahboob
AIMS: Electrolytes and trace elements dysregulation play an important role in the progression of obesity and diabetes complications. The present study was designed to evaluate the insulin sensitizing effects of peroxisomes proliferators activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist on trace elements in obesity induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlate with serum visfatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were categorized into five groups. Group I served as control; Group II fed on high fat diet (HFD); Group III fed on HFD and treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg) for 7 days; Group IV were T2DM rats induce by HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (i...
May 14, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771917/the-differentiation-of-preadipocytes-and-gene-expression-related-to-adipogenesis-in-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos
#10
Shasha Wang, Yang Zhang, Qi Xu, Xiaoya Yuan, Wangcheng Dai, Xiaokun Shen, Zhixiu Wang, Guobin Chang, Zhiquan Wang, Guohong Chen
Meat quality is closely related to adipose tissues in ducks, and adipogenesis is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors tightly acting at different stages of differentiation especially in ducks. The aim of this study was to establish the preadipocyte in vitro culture system and understand the biological characteristics of expansion of duck adipocyte tissue at the cellular and molecular level. We isolated pre-adipocytes from the subcutaneous fat of three breeds of duck and differentiated them into mature adipocytes using a mixture of insulin, rosiglitazone, dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and oleic acid over 0,2, 4, 6, and 8 days...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771444/low-level-laser-irradiation-promotes-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-into-osteoblasts-through-the-apn-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#11
R-F Zhang, Q Wang, A-A Zhang, J-G Xu, L-D Zhai, X-M Yang, X-T Liu
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between adiponectin (APN) pathway and Wnt pathway was explored through BMSCs, and the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and its mechanism were further studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected, and mesenchymal stem cells were separately cultured and purified. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze cell proliferation...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771182/ciliogenesis-is-reciprocally-regulated-by-ppara-and-nr1h4-fxr-through-controlling-autophagy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Joon No Lee, Myeongjoo Son, Jae-Young Lim, Raghbendra Kumar Dutta, Yunash Maharjan, SeongAe Kwak, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyunghee Byun, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
The primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based cellular organelles that perceive metabolic status and thus link the sensory system to cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, ciliogenesis is thought to be tightly linked to autophagy, which is also regulated by nutrient-sensing transcription factors, such as PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) and NR1H4/FXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4). However, the relationship between these factors and ciliogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770142/subcellular-localization-screening-of-colletotrichum-higginsianum-effector-candidates-identifies-fungal-proteins-targeted-to-plant-peroxisomes-golgi-bodies-and-microtubules
#13
Guillaume P Robin, Jochen Kleemann, Ulla Neumann, Lisa Cabre, Jean-Félix Dallery, Nicolas Lapalu, Richard J O'Connell
The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum , encodes a large inventory of putative secreted effector proteins that are sequentially expressed at different stages of plant infection, namely appressorium-mediated penetration, biotrophy and necrotrophy. However, the destinations to which these proteins are addressed inside plant cells are unknown. In the present study, we selected 61 putative effector genes that are highly induced in appressoria and/or biotrophic hyphae. We then used Agrobacterium -mediated transformation to transiently express them as N -terminal fusions with fluorescent proteins in cells of Nicotiana benthamiana for imaging by confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768688/ppar-%C3%AE-in-innate-and-adaptive-lung-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Samuel Philip Nobs, Manfred Kopf
The transcription factor PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) is a key regulator of lung immunity exhibiting multiple cell type specific roles in controlling development and function of the lung immune system. It is strictly required for the generation of alveolar macrophages by controlling differentiation of fetal lung monocyte precursors. Furthermore, it plays an important role in lung allergic inflammation by licensing lung dendritic cell t helper 2 (Th2) priming capacity as well as acting as a master transcription factor for pathogenic Th2 cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768358/spastic-paraparesis-caused-by-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-mimicking-vacuolar-myelopathy-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient-a-case-report
#15
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological deteriorations including adult onset spastic paraparesis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of newly developed spastic paresis due to X-ALD in a patient with HIV infection...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768199/the-autism-related-protein-chd8-cooperates-with-c-ebp%C3%AE-to-regulate-adipogenesis
#16
Yasuyuki Kita, Yuta Katayama, Taichi Shiraishi, Takeru Oka, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Michiko Shirane, Masaaki Nishiyama, Keiichi I Nakayama
The gene encoding the chromatin remodeler CHD8 is the most frequently mutated gene in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Heterozygous mutations in CHD8 give rise to ASD that is often accompanied by macrocephaly, gastrointestinal complaints, and slender habitus. Whereas most phenotypes of CHD8 haploinsufficiency likely result from delayed neurodevelopment, the mechanism underlying slender habitus has remained unknown. Here, we show that CHD8 interacts with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and promotes its transactivation activity during adipocyte differentiation...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766340/the-cholic-acid-extension-study-in-zellweger-spectrum-disorders-results-and-implications-for-therapy
#17
Femke C C Klouwer, Bart G P Koot, Kevin Berendse, Elles M Kemper, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Kiran V K Koelfat, Martin Lenicek, Frédéric M Vaz, Marc Engelen, Peter L M Jansen, Ronald J A Wanders, Hans R Waterham, Frank G Schaap, Bwee Tien Poll-The
INTRODUCTION: Currently, no therapies are available for Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of genetic metabolic disorders characterised by a deficiency of functional peroxisomes. In a previous study, we showed that oral cholic acid (CA) treatment can suppress bile acid synthesis in ZSD patients and, thereby, decrease plasma levels of toxic C27 -bile acid intermediates, one of the biochemical abnormalities in these patients. However, no effect on clinically relevant outcome measures could be observed after 9 months of CA treatment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765501/peroxisomal-acyl-coa-oxidase-type-1-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-aging-properties-with-a-special-emphasis-on-studies-with-lps-and-argan-oil-as-a-model-transposable-to-aging
#18
REVIEW
Joseph Vamecq, Pierre Andreoletti, Riad El Kebbaj, Fatima-Ezzahra Saih, Norbert Latruffe, M' Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Gérard Lizard, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
To clarify appropriateness of current claims for health and wellness virtues of argan oil, studies were conducted in inflammatory states. LPS induces inflammation with reduction of PGC1- α signaling and energy metabolism. Argan oil protected the liver against LPS toxicity and interestingly enough preservation of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase type 1 (ACOX1) activity against depression by LPS. This model of LPS-driven toxicity circumvented by argan oil along with a key anti-inflammatory role attributed to ACOX1 has been here transposed to model aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764990/ire1%C3%AE-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-by-processing-and-promoting-the-degradation-of-select-micrornas
#19
Jie-Mei Wang, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Qingwen Qian, Qinghua Sun, Chunbin Zhang, Lei Yin, Deyu Fang, Sung Hong Back, Randal J Kaufman, Ling Yang, Kezhong Zhang
Obesity or a high-fat diet represses the endoribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An impaired UPR is associated with hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is caused by lipid accumulation in the liver. We found that IRE1α was critical to maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver by repressing the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid mobilization...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764933/discovery-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-activators-with-a-ligand-screening-system-using-a-human-ppar%C3%AE-expressing-cell-line
#20
Keisuke Tachibana, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ryotaro Tabata, Syohei Fukuda, Takashi Maegawa, Rika Takahashi, Keiichi Tanimoto, Hirofumi Tsujino, Kazuto Nunomura, Bangzhong Lin, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Toshiya Tanaka, Takao Hamakubo, Juro Js Sakai, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Tadayuki Kobayashi, Kenji Ishimoto, Hiroyuki Miyachi, Takefumi Doi
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that belongs to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. PPARα is mainly expressed in the liver, where it activates fatty acid oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism and improves plasma lipid profiles. Therefore, PPARα activators are often used to treat patients with dyslipidemia. To discover additional PPARα activators as potential compounds for use in hypolipidemic drugs, here we established human hepatoblastoma cell lines with luciferase reporter expression from the promoters containing peroxisome proliferator responsive elements (PPRE) and tetracycline-regulated expression of full-length human PPARα to quantify the effects of chemical ligands on PPARα activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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