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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#1
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936658/analysis-of-peroxisome-biogenesis-in-pollen-by-confocal-microscopy-and-transmission-electron-microscopy
#2
Peng-Fei Jia, Hong-Ju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Peroxisome is an essential single-membrane bound organelle in most eukaryotic cells and functions in diverse cellular processes. De novo formation, division, and turnover of peroxisomes contribute to its biogenesis, morphology, and population regulation. In plants, peroxisome plays multiple roles, including metabolism, development, and stress response. Defective peroxisome biogenesis and development retard plant growth, adaption, and reproduction. Through tracing the subcellular localization of fluorescent reporter tagged matrix protein of peroxisome, fluorescence microscopy is a reliable and fast way to detect peroxisome biogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936467/peroxisome-motility-measurement-and-quantification-assay
#3
Jeremy Metz, Inês G Castro, Michael Schrader
Organelle movement, distribution and interaction contribute to the organisation of the eukaryotic cell. Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and ROS homeostasis. They distribute uniformly in mammalian cells and move along microtubules via kinesin and dynein motors. Their metabolic cooperation with mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935608/mechanical-coupling-of-microtubule-dependent-motor-teams-during-peroxisome-transport-in-drosophila-s2-cells
#4
María Cecilia De Rossi, Diana E Wetzler, Lorena Benseñor, María Emilia De Rossi, Mariela Sued, Daniela Rodríguez, Vladimir Gelfand, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
BACKGROUND: Intracellular transport requires molecular motors that step along cytoskeletal filaments actively dragging cargoes through the crowded cytoplasm. Here, we explore the interplay of the opposed polarity motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein during peroxisome transport along microtubules in Drosophila S2 cells. METHODS: We used single particle tracking with nanometer accuracy and millisecond time resolution to extract quantitative information on the bidirectional motion of organelles...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934910/extracts-of-black-and-brown-rice-powders-improve-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-via-the-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-obese-and-diabetic-model-mice
#5
Angelina Dr Felix, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Mami Takahashi, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Ryo Satoh, Teoh Soon Hui, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Dai Nakae, Hirofumi Inoue, Mariko Uehara
Rice powder extract (RPE) from black and brown rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) improves hepatic lipid accumulation in obese and diabetic model mice via peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. RPE showed PPARα agonistic activity which did not differ between black and brown RPE despite a higher anthocyanin content in black RPE.
September 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934691/the-role-of-ppar-alpha-in-perfluorooctanoic-acid-induced-developmental-cardiotoxicity-and-l-carnitine-mediated-protection-results-of-in-ovo-gene-silencing
#6
Meng Zhao, Qixiao Jiang, Min Geng, Li Zhu, Yunqiu Xia, Aashish Khanal, Chunbo Wang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent organic pollutant. This study established an in ovo peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) silencing model in chicken embryo heart, and investigated the role of PPAR alpha in PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity. The in ovo silencing was achieved by introducing lentivirus expressing PPAR alpha siRNA into ED2 chicken embryo via microinjection (0.05ul/g egg weight). Transfection efficacy was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and western blotting...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934253/xuezhikang-contributes-to-greater-triglyceride-reduction-than-simvastatin-in-hypertriglyceridemia-rats-by-up-regulating-apolipoprotein-a5-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#7
Shui-Ping Zhao, Rong Li, Wen Dai, Bi-Lian Yu, Lu-Zhu Chen, Xian-Sheng Huang
Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of Chinese red yeast rice, is recommended as an optimal choice for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) with markedly elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. This study was designed to compare the hypotriglyceridemic effects between XZK and simvastatin. The role of apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5), a key regulator of TG metabolism and a target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), was to be identified in XZK-related hypotriglyceridemic actions. For these goals, hypertriglyceridemia of rats was induced by a high-fructose diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934139/phyllodulcin-a-natural-sweetener-regulates-obesity-related-metabolic-changes-and-fat-browning-related-genes-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
Eunju Kim, Soo-Min Lim, Min-Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934090/adipogenic-effects-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-firemaster%C3%A2-550-components-in-human-primary-preadipocytes
#10
Emily W Y Tung, Vian Peshdary, Remi Gagné, Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Carole L Yauk, Adéle Boudreau, Ella Atlas
BACKGROUND: Exposure to flame retardants has been associated with negative health outcomes including metabolic effects. As polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants were pulled from commerce, human exposure to new flame retardants such as Firemaster® 550 (FM550) has increased. Although previous studies in murine systems have shown that FM550 and its main components increase adipogenesis, the effects of FM550 in human models have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine if FM550 and its components are active in human preadipocytes, and to further investigate their mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933989/role-of-pex5-ubiquitination-in-maintaining-peroxisome-dynamics-and-homeostasis
#11
Wei Wang, Suresh Subramani
Peroxisomes are essential and dynamic organelles that allow cells to rapidly adapt and cope with changing environments and/or physiological conditions by modulation of both peroxisome biogenesis and turnover. Peroxisome biogenesis involves the assembly of peroxisome membranes and the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. The latter depends on the receptor, PEX5, which recognizes peroxisomal matrix proteins in the cytosol directly or indirectly, and transports them to the peroxisomal lumen. In this review, we discuss the role of PEX5 ubiquitination in both peroxisome biogenesis and turnover, specifically in PEX5 receptor recycling, stability and abundance, as well as its role in pexophagy (autophagic degradation of peroxisomes)...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933788/angptl4-mediates-the-protective-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-activators-in-the-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#12
Lei Liu, Xu Zhuang, Meng Jiang, Fei Guan, Qin Fu, Jianhua Lin
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be a therapeutic target for preeclampsia (PE). Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a multifunctional secretory protein involved in regulating lipid metabolism and angiogenesis in various tissues. However, the expression of PPARγ and ANGPTL4 and their interaction in PE remain elusive. Here we showed that PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone upregulated the expression and secretion of ANGPTL4 in a dose-dependent manner in HTR8/SVneo cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and placental explants...
September 21, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931630/kinase-mpk17-and-the-peroxisome-division-factor-pmd1-influence-salt-induced-peroxisome-proliferation
#13
Elizabeth M Frick, Lucia C Strader
Peroxisomes are small organelles that house many oxidative reactions. Peroxisome proliferation is induced under multiple stress conditions, including salt stress; however, factors regulating this process are not well defined. We have identified a role for Arabidopsis thaliana MAP KINASE17 (MPK17) in affecting peroxisome division in a manner that requires the known peroxisome division factor PEROXISOME AND MITOCHONDRIAL DIVISION FACTOR1 (PMD1). MPK17 and PMD1 are involved in peroxisome proliferation in response to NaCl stress...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931521/pgc1%C3%AE-in-the-kidney
#14
Matthew R Lynch, Mei T Tran, Samir M Parikh
Acute kidney injury (AKI) arising from diverse etiologies is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, has been shown to be protective in AKI. Interestingly, reduction of PGC1α has also been implicated in the development of diabetic kidney disease and renal fibrosis. The beneficial renal effects of PGC1α make it a prime target for therapeutics aimed at ameliorating AKI, forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and their intersection...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930673/pexrap-inhibits-prdm16-mediated-thermogenic-gene-expression
#15
Irfan J Lodhi, John M Dean, Anyuan He, Hongsuk Park, Min Tan, Chu Feng, Haowei Song, Fong-Fu Hsu, Clay F Semenkovich
How the nuclear receptor PPARγ regulates the development of two functionally distinct types of adipose tissue, brown and white fat, as well as the browning of white fat, remains unclear. Our previous studies suggest that PexRAP, a peroxisomal lipid synthetic enzyme, regulates PPARγ signaling and white adipogenesis. Here, we show that PexRAP is an inhibitor of brown adipocyte gene expression. PexRAP inactivation promoted adipocyte browning, increased energy expenditure, and decreased adiposity. Identification of PexRAP-interacting proteins suggests that PexRAP function extends beyond its role as a lipid synthetic enzyme...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930193/different-effects-of-maternal-low-isoflavone-soy-protein-and-genistein-consumption-on-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-of-21-day-old-male-rat-offspring
#16
Anna Han, Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined serum parameters in dams to investigate specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. Female rats were fed either a casein (CAS), a low-isoflavone SPI, or a casein plus genistein (GEN, 250 mg/kg) diet for two weeks before mating, as well as during pregnancy and lactation...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929690/-development-of-a-cell-based-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-ppars-screening-model-and-its-application-for-evaluation-of-triterpenoids-isolate-from-alismatis-rhizoma
#17
Xiao-Yan Li, Xiao-Hua Wang, Xiao-Qiang Huang, Ting-Ting Wu, Wen Xu, Shui-Sheng Wu
Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are closely related to human chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and the other metabolic diseases. In this study, a cell-based PPARs (PPAR α/β/γ) model was developed for the screening of PPARs agonists from Alismatis Rhizoma (AR). Firstly, 293T cells were transfected with the reconstructed plasmid pBind-PPAR (α, β, or γ)-LBD and reporter gene pGL4.35, and the known PPARs agonists were used as the positive control (fenofibrate for PPARα, L165041 for PPARβ, and rosiglitazone for PPARγ)...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929345/pemafibrate-first-global-approval
#18
Hannah A Blair
Pemafibrate (Parmodia(®)) is a novel, highly selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α modulator (SPPARM). It acts by binding to PPAR-α and regulating the expression of target genes that modulate lipid metabolism, thereby decreasing plasma triglyceride levels and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Developed by Kowa Company, Ltd., oral pemafibrate has been approved in Japan for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia (including familial hyperlipidaemia). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of pemafibrate leading to this first global approval for hyperlipidaemia...
September 19, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928902/collaborative-power-of-nrf2-and-ppar%C3%AE-activators-against-metabolic-and-drug-induced-oxidative-injury
#19
REVIEW
Choongho Lee
Mammalian cells have evolved a unique strategy to protect themselves against oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Especially, two transcription factors, nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), have been shown to play key roles in establishing this cellular antioxidative defense system. Recently, several researchers reported ameliorating effects of pharmacological activators for these Nrf2 and PPARγ pathways on the progression of various metabolic disorders and drug-induced organ injuries by oxidative stress...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928735/the-expression-of-the-short-isoform-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-in-the-colon-is-regulated-by-the-nuclear-receptor-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-and-is-impaired-during-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Anthony Martin Mena, Audrey Langlois, Silvia Speca, Lucil Schneider, Pierre Desreumaux, Laurent Dubuquoy, Benjamin Bertin
The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases remains largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the expression of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is downregulated in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). PPARγ is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation. We hypothesized that its deficiency may play a role in the loss of intestinal homeostasis through the control of immunomodulatory factors. We found that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cytokine with pleiotropic functions, is regulated by PPARγ...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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