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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165897/lithospermum-erythrorhizon-root-and-its-naphthoquinones-repress-srebp1c-and-activate-pgc1%C3%AE-through-ampk%C3%AE
#1
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165364/the-rosiglitazone-like-effects-of-vitexilactone-a-constituent-from-vitex-trifolia-l-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#2
Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Daisuke Sato, Hirokazu Kimura, Yasuaki Hirai, Nyunt Phay, Makoto Makishima
The increased number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a worldwide problem, and insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as therapeutic agents. We found that extracts of Vitex trifolia L. (V. trifolia), a medicinal plant from Myanmar, induced adipogenesis similar to rosiglitazone (ROS), which is a TZD, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the present study, we attempted to isolate from V. trifolia those compounds that showed ROS-like effects. Among the extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol obtained from V...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164883/raspberry-ketone-reduced-lipid-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-ovariectomy-induced-obesity-in-wistar-rats-by-regulating-autophagy-mechanisms
#3
Sy-Ying Leu, Yi-Chen Chen, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Yao-Wen Hung, Chih-Hsiung Hsu, Yen-Mei Lee, Pao-Yun Cheng
This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of raspberry ketone (RK), one of the major aromatic compounds contained in raspberry, and its underlying mechanisms. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). RK also reduced the expression of light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related protein 12 (Atg12), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and phosphorylated-tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), whereas it increased the level of p62 and phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163854/interactions-between-tgf-%C3%AE-1-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-%C3%AE-in-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Radiation therapy induces DNA damage and inflammation leading to fibrosis. Fibrosis can occur 4 to 12 months after radiation therapy. This process worsens with time and years. Radiation-induced fibrosis is characterized by fibroblasts proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and synthesis of collagen, proteoglycans and extracellular matrix. Myofibroblasts are non-muscle cells that can contract and relax. Myofibroblasts evolve towards irreversible retraction during fibrosis process. In this review, we discussed the interplays between transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) in regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced fibrosis, and the potential role of PPAR γ agonists...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163813/the-novel-zip4-regulation-and-its-role-in-ovarian-cancer
#5
Qipeng Fan, Qingchun Cai, Pengfei Li, Wenyan Wang, Jing Wang, Emily Gerry, Tian-Li Wang, Ie-Ming Shih, Kenneth P Nephew, Yan Xu
Our RNAseq analyses revealed that ZIP4 is a top gene up-regulated in more aggressive ovarian cancer cells. ZIP4's role in cancer stem cells has not been reported in any type of cancer. In addition, the role and regulation of ZIP4, a zinc transporter, have been studied in the context of extracellular zinc transporting. Factors other than zinc with ZIP4 regulatory effects are essentially unknown. ZIP4 expression and its regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer cells was assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative PCR, or immunohistochemistry staining in human ovarian tissues...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163212/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-by-protein-arginine-methyltransferases-and-their-potential-roles-in-neuromuscular-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Derek W Stouth, Tiffany L vanLieshout, Nicole Y Shen, Vladimir Ljubicic
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues on target proteins, thereby mediating a diverse set of intracellular functions that are indispensable for survival. Indeed, full-body knockouts of specific PRMTs are lethal and PRMT dysregulation has been implicated in the most prevalent chronic disorders, such as cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PRMTs are now emerging as important mediators of skeletal muscle phenotype and plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162488/transcription-analysis-of-the-interaction-between-chicken-thymus-and-recombinant-avian-leukosis-virus-isolate-fj15ht0
#7
Xiaoping Wu, Yukun Zeng, Rongbin Lu, Yajuan An, Shenyi Yu, Jinrong Zhao, Yijian Wu, Baocheng Wu, Quanxi Wang, Yifan Huang
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces multiple avian tumors, growth decrease and immune suppression. Previously, a novel natural recombinant ALV isolate FJ15HT0 was proven to be associated with significant body weight decrease, immune suppression and lymphocytoma in infected SPF chickens. In order to uncover the interaction between virus and host, we compared differences in the transcriptomes of the thymuses from the mock chickens and simulated congenitally infected chickens at 5days (d), 13d and 21d of age by RNA-seq analysis of the thymuses...
November 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162435/pioglitazone-reduces-mortality-prevents-depressive-like-behavior-and-impacts-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rats
#8
Jéssica Mendes Bonato, Taysa Bervian Bassani, Humberto Milani, Maria Aparecida Vital, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira
Deficiencies in adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been suggested to be a possible pathophysiological mechanism that underlies depressive symptoms that are often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, has been shown to exert antiinflammatory and antidepressant effects and modulate neural plasticity in several neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the effects of pioglitazone on depressive phenotypes and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of PD that was induced by bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) infusions in the substantia nigra pars compact (SNpc)...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160120/oral-administration-of-a-novel-lipophilic-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-is-not-neuroprotective-after-rodent-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Samuel Knauss, Matthias Endres, Florian Blaschke, Claudia Hindinger, Alexander Kunz
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are regulators of inflammatory signaling. This has fostered hope that PPAR agonists might have neuroprotective potential. We hypothesized that PPARδ activation by the novel orally administered lipophilic PPARδ agonist SAR145 may improve short- and long-term outcome after focal brain ischemia. We induced ischemia by transient filamentous middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in 227 C57BL/6 mice and administered SAR145 in varying doses and time windows post-injury...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160030/dihydromyricetin-enhances-glucose-uptake-by-inhibition-of-mek-erk-pathway-and-consequent-down-regulation-of-phosphorylation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#10
Lei Liu, Min Zhou, Hedong Lang, Yong Zhou, Mantian Mi
Accumulating evidence suggests that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling can reduce phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at serine 273, which mitigates obesity-associated insulin resistance and might be a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid that has many beneficial pharmacological properties. In this study, mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells were used to investigate whether DHM alleviates insulin resistance by inhibiting PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 via the MEK/ERK pathway...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158231/receptor-mediated-drp1-oligomerization-on-endoplasmic-reticulum
#11
Wei-Ke Ji, Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Xintao Fan, Lori Schoenfeld, Stefan Strack, Henry N Higgs
Drp1 is a dynamin guanosine triphosphatase important for mitochondrial and peroxisomal division. Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial recruitment are regulated by multiple factors, including interaction with mitochondrial receptors such as Mff, MiD49, MiD51, and Fis. In addition, both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and actin filaments play positive roles in mitochondrial division, but mechanisms for their roles are poorly defined. Here, we find that a population of Drp1 oligomers is associated with ER in mammalian cells and is distinct from mitochondrial or peroxisomal Drp1 populations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156799/asiatic-acid-protects-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inactivation-of-kupffer-cells-via-ppar%C3%AE-nlrp3-inflammasome-signaling-pathway
#12
Ying Xu, Jun Yao, Chen Zou, Heng Zhang, Shouliang Zhang, Jun Liu, Gui Ma, Pengcheng Jiang, Wenbo Zhang
Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) contributes to major complications in clinical practice affecting perioperative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests the key role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammaosme activation on the pathogenesis of I/R injury. Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene derivative presented with versatile activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammation and hepatoprotective effects. This study was designed to determine whether AA had potential hepatoprotective benefits against hepatic I/R injury, as well as to unveil the underlying mechanisms involved in the putative effects...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155481/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-stimulation-for-prevention-of-5-fluorouracil-induced-oral-mucositis-in-mice
#13
Mariangela Sottili, Monica Mangoni, Chiara Gerini, Giulia Salvatore, Francesca Castiglione, Isacco Desideri, Pierluigi Bonomo, Icro Meattini, Daniela Greto, Mauro Loi, Giulio Francolini, Marco Perna, Roberta Grassi, Giampaolo Biti, Lorenzo Livi
BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis is a side effect of treatment regimens containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The purpose of this study was to present our evaluation to see if rosiglitazone (RGZ) protected normal tissues from chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were treated with 5-FU for 5 days, with or without RGZ. Mice were euthanized after 5, 8, 11, or 15 days, and mucosal segments were collected. RESULTS: The RGZ did not affect the 5-FU-induced decrease in mouse body weight...
November 20, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155298/mechanisms-of-l-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol-induced-relaxation-in-human-pulmonary-arteries
#14
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Barbara Malinowska, Monika Kloza, Magdalena Kusaczuk, Agnieszka Gęgotek, Paweł Golec, Irena Kasacka, Hanna Kozłowska
AIMS: l-Alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) which relaxes mesenteric arteries on activation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence and underlying mechanisms of LPI-induced relaxation in human pulmonary arteries (hPAs). MAIN METHODS: Functional studies were performed in isolated hPAs using organ bath technique. The expression of GPR55 in hPAs and bronchioles was determined by real-time qPCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154935/ghrelin-alleviates-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-enhancing-mitochondrial-anti-oxidant-functions-in-mice
#15
Nobuyuki Ishii, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Ayako Miura, Shigehisa Yanagi, Hiroaki Ueno, Kazutaka Shiomi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but has some treatment-limiting adverse effects that markedly decrease patients' quality of life. Peripheral neuropathy is one of these, and no treatment for it has been established yet. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is secreted from the stomach and has widespread effects on multiple systems. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in preventing paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy using wild-type mice, ghrelin-null mice, and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-null mice...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154757/macrophage-polarization-and-meta-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Chuan Li, Maria M Xu, Kepeng Wang, Adam J Adler, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Chronic overnutrition and obesity induces low-grade inflammation throughout the body. Termed "meta-inflammation," this chronic state of inflammation is mediated by macrophages located within the colon, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A sentinel orchestrator of immune activity and homeostasis, macrophages adopt variable states of activation as a function of time and environmental cues. Meta-inflammation phenotypically skews these polarization states and has been linked to numerous metabolic disorders. The past decade has revealed several key regulators of macrophage polarization, including the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) family, and the interferon regulatory factors...
November 3, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152131/microrna-130b-attenuates-dexamethasone-induced-increase-of-lipid-accumulation-in-porcine-preadipocytes-by-suppressing-ppar-%C3%AE-expression
#17
Shifeng Pan, Yixin Cui, Xuan Dong, Tangjie Zhang, Hua Xing
In this study, two experiments were conducted to determine the role of miR-130b in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced lipid accumulation. Porcine preadipocytes were treated with 10(-6) M DEX for 48 h to investigate effects of DEX in lipid accumulation. Next, in order to illustrate the regulatory role of miR-130b on lipid accumulation induced by DEX, miRNA scrambled control (miR-SC), miR-130b overexpression plasmid and miR-130b inhibitor were respectively transfected into porcine preadipocytes at 24 h before DEX treatment for 48 h (miR-SC-DEX, miR-130b-DEX and miR-130b-inhibitor-DEX)...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152099/s149r-a-novel-mutation-in-the-abcd1-gene-causing-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy
#18
Fang Yan, Wenbo Wang, Hui Ying, Hongyu Li, Jing Chen, Chao Xu
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. It is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D1 (ABCD1) gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ALDP, which is involved in the transmembrane transport of very long-chain fatty acids. For the first time, we report a case of olivopontocerebellar X-ALD on the Chinese mainland. In this study, a novel mutation (c.447T>A; p.S149R) in ABCD1 was detected in a patient diagnosed with X-ALD...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151490/ppar%C3%AE-alleviates-right-ventricular-failure-secondary-to-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#19
Ying Xu, Qin Gu, Ning Liu, Yan Yan, Xilan Yang, Yingying Hao, Chen Qu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling leading to right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and failure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of nuclear receptors, has been proved to ameliorate PAH. However, its effect on PAH-induced right ventricular failure (RVF) remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic potential of PPARγ in preventing monocrotaline (MCT) -induced RV dysfunction. The PAH model was induced by MCT administration...
November 17, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150640/early-endosome-motility-mediates-%C3%AE-amylase-production-and-cell-differentiation-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#20
Yusuke Togo, Yujiro Higuchi, Yoshinori Katakura, Kaoru Takegawa
Recent research in filamentous fungi has revealed that the motility of an endocytic organelle early endosome (EE) has a versatile role in many physiological functions. Here, to further examine the motility of EEs in the industrially important fungus Aspergillus oryzae, we visualized these organelles via the Rab5 homolog AoRab5 and identified AoHok1, a putative linker protein between an EE and a motor protein. The Aohok1 disruptant showed retarded mycelial growth and no EE motility, in addition to an apical accumulation of EEs and peroxisomes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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