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Takashi Kikuma, Takayuki Tadokoro, Jun-Ichi Maruyama, Katsuhiko Kitamoto
Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotic cells for degradation of cellular proteins and organelles. In filamentous fungi, autophagic degradation of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei occurs in basal cells after the prolonged culture, but its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we functionally analyzed the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae AoAtg26, an ortholog of the sterol glucosyltransferase PpAtg26 involved in pexophagy in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Deletion of Aoatg26 caused a severe decrease in conidiation and aerial hyphae formation, which is typically observed in the autophagy-deficient A...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mauro A Rinaldi, Ashish B Patel, Jaeseok Park, Koeun Lee, Lucia C Strader, Bonnie Bartel
Key steps of essential metabolic pathways are housed in plant peroxisomes. We conducted a microscopy-based screen for anomalous distribution of peroxisomally-targeted fluorescence in Arabidopsis thaliana This screen uncovered 34 novel alleles in 15 genes affecting oil body mobilization, fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, peroxisome fission, and pexophagy. Partial loss-of-function of lipid-mobilization enzymes conferred peroxisomes clustered around retained oil bodies without other notable defects, suggesting that this microscopy-based approach was sensitive to minor perturbations and that fatty acid β-oxidation rates in wild type are higher than required for normal growth...
September 7, 2016: Genetics
Graeme Sargent, Tim van Zutphen, Tatiana Shatseva, Ling Zhang, Valeria Di Giovanni, Robert Bandsma, Peter Kijun Kim
Peroxisomes are metabolic organelles necessary for anabolic and catabolic lipid reactions whose numbers are highly dynamic based on the metabolic need of the cells. One mechanism to regulate peroxisome numbers is through an autophagic process called pexophagy. In mammalian cells, ubiquitination of peroxisomal membrane proteins signals pexophagy; however, the E3 ligase responsible for mediating ubiquitination is not known. Here, we report that the peroxisomal E3 ubiquitin ligase peroxin 2 (PEX2) is the causative agent for mammalian pexophagy...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Kaili Zhong, Xiao Li, Xinyi Le, Xiangyi Kong, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Dynamins are large superfamily GTPase proteins that are involved in various cellular processes including budding of transport vesicles, division of organelles, cytokinesis, and pathogen resistance. Here, we characterized several dynamin-related proteins from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and found that MoDnm1 is required for normal functions, including vegetative growth, conidiogenesis, and full pathogenicity. In addition, we found that MoDnm1 co-localizes with peroxisomes and mitochondria, which is consistent with the conserved role of dynamin proteins...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Andriy A Sibirny
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. In yeasts, peroxisomes play important roles in cell metabolism, especially in different catabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylic shunt and methanol metabolism, as well as some biosynthetic processes. In addition, peroxisomes are the compartment in which oxidases and catalase are localized. New peroxisomes mainly arise by fission of pre-existing ones, although they can also be formed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
June 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Zientara-Rytter Katarzyna, Subramani Suresh
Peroxisomes are essential organelles required for proper cell function in all eukaryotic organisms. They participate in a wide range of cellular processes including the metabolism of lipids and generation, as well as detoxification, of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Therefore, peroxisome homoeostasis, manifested by the precise and efficient control of peroxisome number and functionality, must be tightly regulated in response to environmental changes. Due to the existence of many physiological disorders and diseases associated with peroxisome homoeostasis imbalance, the dynamics of peroxisomes have been widely examined...
April 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Durga Nand Tripathi, Jiangwei Zhang, Ji Jing, Ruhee Dere, Cheryl Lyn Walker
Peroxisomes are autonomously replicating and highly metabolic organelles necessary for β-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that generates large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maintaining a balance between biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes is essential to maintain cellular redox balance, but how cells do this has remained somewhat of a mystery. While it is known that peroxisomes can be degraded via selective autophagy (pexophagy), little is known about how mammalian cells regulate pexophagy to maintain peroxisome homeostasis...
2016: Autophagy
Durga Nand Tripathi, Cheryl Lyn Walker
Peroxisomes participate in lipid metabolism, and are a major source of ROS in the cell. Their importance in cellular energy balance and redox homeostasis is well-established, as is the need to maintain peroxisome homeostasis to prevent pathologies associated with too few, or too many, of these organelles. How cells regulate peroxisome number has remained somewhat elusive. Recently, the tumor suppressors ATM and TSC, which regulate mTORC1 signaling, have been localized to peroxisomes. When activated by peroxisomal ROS, ATM signals to TSC to repress mTORC1 signaling and increase autophagic flux in cells, and also phosphorylates the peroxisomal protein PEX 5 to target peroxisomes for selective autophagy (pexophagy), providing a mechanism for regulation of peroxisomal homeostasis using ROS as a rheostat...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
AiLin Jin, Joon No Lee, Min Soo Kim, SeongAe Kwak, Se-Jin Kim, Kyung Song, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
Pexophagy is the selective degradation of peroxisomes for maintaining peroxisome homeostasis within cells. Peroxisome dynamics and pexophagy are important events required to maintain the quality control of peroxisomes, thereby preventing peroxisome-associated diseases. To identify novel pexophagy modulators, we developed a cell-based screening system and selected 2,2'-dipyridyl (2,2-DP) as a candidate molecule. 2,2-DP treatment induced peroxisome degradation as evidenced by an increased number of low-pH autolysosomes originating from peroxisomes and a decrease in the expression of peroxisomal proteins such as catalase, Pex14, and PMP70...
January 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yasuko Kamisugi, Shiro Mitsuya, Mahmoud El-Shami, Celia D Knight, Andrew C Cuming, Alison Baker
Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 (PEX11) proteins are found in yeasts, mammals and plants, and play a role in peroxisome morphology and regulation of peroxisome division. The moss Physcomitrella patens has six PEX11 isoforms which fall into two subfamilies, similar to those found in monocots and dicots. We carried out targeted gene disruption of the Phypa_PEX11-1 gene and compared the morphological and cellular phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains. The mutant grew more slowly and the development of gametophores was retarded...
January 2016: New Phytologist
Yeon-Ho Kang, Sujeong Park, Chihyun Ahn, Jinsoo Song, Dongkyun Kim, Eun-Jung Jin
OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine is widely used to improve the symptoms and to delay the structural progression of osteoarthritis. However, its efficacy in osteoarthritis has been controversial and its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glucosamine and the underlying mechanisms in human chondrocytes. METHODS: Chondrocytes from normal human articular cartilage were treated with glucosamine (10-100 mM). Subsequently, cell death was analyzed by Annexin V staining and FACS and mitochondrial function was studied by measuring the mitopotential...
2015: European Journal of Medical Research
Suresh Subramani
Protein ubiquitylation in mammals is known to trigger selective autophagy of peroxisomes through a process termed pexophagy. The physiological peroxisomal target for pexophagy-related ubiquitylation has been controversial, but two studies have now identified the protein PEX5 as the real candidate.
November 2015: Nature Cell Biology
Doo Sin Jo, Dong-Jun Bae, So Jung Park, Hae Mi Seo, Han Byeol Kim, Jeong Su Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Sang-Yeob Kim, Jung-Won Shin, Dong-Hyung Cho
Although autophagy regulates the quality and quantity of cellular organelles, the regulatory mechanisms of peroxisomal autophagy remain largely unknown. In this study, we developed a cell-based image screening assay, and identified 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as a novel pexophagy inducer from chemical library screening. Treatment with Phen induces selective loss of peroxisomes but not endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in hepatocytes. In addition, Phen increases autophagic engulfment of peroxisomes in an ATG5 dependent manner...
November 13, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Masanori Honsho, Shun-ichi Yamashita, Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisome number and quality are maintained by its biogenesis and turnover and are important for the homeostasis of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are increased in number by division with dynamic morphological changes including elongation, constriction, and fission. In the course of peroxisomal division, peroxisomal morphogenesis is orchestrated by Pex11β, dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1), and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff). Conversely, peroxisome number is reduced by its degradation. Peroxisomes are mainly degraded by pexophagy, a type of autophagy specific for peroxisomes...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Masahide Oku, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Pexophagy, selective degradation of peroxisomes via autophagy, is the main system for reducing organelle abundance. Elucidation of the molecular machinery of pexophagy has been pioneered in studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the methylotrophic yeasts Pichia pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha. Recent analyses using these yeasts have elucidated the molecular machineries of pexophagy, especially in terms of the interactions and modifications of the so-called adaptor proteins required for guiding autophagic membrane biogenesis on the organelle surface...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Pierce G Young, Bonnie Bartel
Peroxisomes are dynamic, vital organelles that sequester a variety of oxidative reactions and their toxic byproducts from the remainder of the cell. The oxidative nature of peroxisomal metabolism predisposes the organelle to self-inflicted damage, highlighting the need for a mechanism to dispose of damaged peroxisomes. In addition, the metabolic requirements of plant peroxisomes change during development, and obsolete peroxisomal proteins are degraded. Although pexophagy, the selective autophagy of peroxisomes, is an obvious mechanism for executing such degradation, pexophagy has only recently been described in plants...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jiangwei Zhang, Durga Nand Tripathi, Ji Jing, Angela Alexander, Jinhee Kim, Reid T Powell, Ruhee Dere, Jacqueline Tait-Mulder, Ji-Hoon Lee, Tanya T Paull, Raj K Pandita, Vijaya K Charaka, Tej K Pandita, Michael B Kastan, Cheryl Lyn Walker
Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome...
October 2015: Nature Cell Biology
Miriam J Schönenberger, Werner J Kovacs
Oxygen (O2) is an essential substrate in cellular metabolism, bioenergetics, and signaling and as such linked to the survival and normal function of all metazoans. Low O2 tension (hypoxia) is a fundamental feature of physiological processes as well as pathophysiological conditions such as cancer and ischemic diseases. Central to the molecular mechanisms underlying O2 homeostasis are the hypoxia-inducible factors-1 and -2 alpha (HIF-1α and EPAS1/HIF-2α) that function as master regulators of the adaptive response to hypoxia...
2015: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Ana Brennand, Eva Rico, Daniel J Rigden, Patrick Van Der Smissen, Pierre J Courtoy, Paul A M Michels
We have previously identified homologs for nearly half of the approximately 30 known yeast Atg's in the genome database of the human sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei. So far, only a few of these homologs have their role in autophagy experimentally confirmed. Among the candidates was the ortholog of Atg24 that is involved in pexophagy in yeast. In T. brucei, the peroxisome-like organelles named glycosomes harbor core metabolic processes, especially glycolysis. In the autotrophic yeast, autophagy is essential for adaptation to different nutritional environments by participating in the renewal of the peroxisome population...
2015: PloS One
Marcus Nordgren, Tânia Francisco, Celien Lismont, Lore Hennebel, Chantal Brees, Bo Wang, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Jorge E Azevedo, Marc Fransen
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous cell organelles essential for human health. To maintain a healthy cellular environment, dysfunctional and superfluous peroxisomes need to be selectively removed. Although emerging evidence suggests that peroxisomes are mainly degraded by pexophagy, little is known about the triggers and molecular mechanisms underlying this process in mammalian cells. In this study, we show that PEX5 proteins fused to a bulky C-terminal tag trigger peroxisome degradation in SV40 large T antigen-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
2015: Autophagy
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