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Behavioral psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523550/histone-posttranslational-modifications-in-schizophrenia
#1
Elizabeth A Thomas
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with high heritability; however, family and twin studies have indicated that environmental factors also play important roles in the etiology of disease. Environmental triggers exert their influence on behavior via epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation and methylation, as well as DNA methylation, can induce lasting changes in gene expression and have therefore been implicated in promoting the behavioral and neuronal behaviors that characterize this disorder...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516854/mother-father-and-teacher-agreement-on-victimization-and-bullying-in-children-with-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Farhat Siddiqui, Raman Baweja, Daniel A Waschbusch, Richard E Mattison, Dara E Babinski
Bullying is a significant international problem, and parent-teacher agreement on identifying perpetrators and victims is poor in general population studies. The goal of our study is to assess informant discrepancies in children with mental health disorders. Parents and teachers completed the Pediatric Behavior Scale as part of a diagnostic evaluation for 1,723 children (ages 2-16 years) referred to a psychiatry clinic over the past 10 years. Mother and father bullying and victimization ratings on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were similar, but parent-teacher agreement was poor...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510804/broadening-the-lens-of-system-based-practice-from-micro-to-macro-and-basic-to-complex-in-residency-training
#3
Michael Weinberg, Melissa R Arbuckle, Jules M Ranz
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to develop a model for understanding the various dimensions of system-based practice (SBP) and determine the extent to which psychiatry residents perform behaviors along these dimensions. METHODS: Sixty-one supervisors from seven psychiatry programs rated resident performance of SBP behaviors using a 60-item instrument. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were conducted to determine how the instrument items related to one another and the larger concept of SBP...
May 16, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507317/elevation-of-p11-in-lateral-habenula-mediates-depression-like-behavior
#4
J-S Seo, P Zhong, A Liu, Z Yan, P Greengard
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a key brain region involved in the pathophysiology of depression. It is activated by stimuli associated with negative experiences and is involved in encoding aversive signals. Hyperactivity of LHb is found in both rodent models of depression and human patients with depression. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we show that in LHb neurons, p11, a multifunctional protein implicated in depression, is significantly upregulated by chronic restraint stress...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507316/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-autistic-traits-share-genetics-and-biology
#5
J Bralten, K J van Hulzen, M B Martens, T E Galesloot, A Arias Vasquez, L A Kiemeney, J K Buitelaar, J W Muntjewerff, B Franke, G Poelmans
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and autistic traits in the general population may share genetic susceptibility factors. In this study, we investigated such potential overlap based on common genetic variants. We developed and validated a self-report questionnaire of autistic traits in adults. We then conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of six trait scores derived from the questionnaire through exploratory factor analysis in 1981 adults from the general population. Using the results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS of ASDs, we observed genetic sharing between ASDs and the autistic traits 'childhood behavior', 'rigidity' and 'attention to detail'...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496402/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-promising-therapeutic-targets-in-psychiatric-illness
#6
REVIEW
Peter Fettes, Laura Schulze, Jonathan Downar
Corticostriatal circuits through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play key roles in complex human behaviors such as evaluation, affect regulation and reward-based decision-making. Importantly, the medial and lateral OFC (mOFC and lOFC) circuits have functionally and anatomically distinct connectivity profiles which differentially contribute to the various aspects of goal-directed behavior. OFC corticostriatal circuits have been consistently implicated across a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and substance use disorders (SUDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485406/inducing-a-long-term-potentiation-in-the-dentate-gyrus-is-sufficient-to-produce-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#7
A Kanzari, C Bourcier-Lucas, A Freyssin, D N Abrous, N Haddjeri, G Lucas
Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483719/multi-echo-epi-of-human-fear-conditioning-reveals-improved-bold-detection-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Brice Fernandez, Laura Leuchs, Philipp G Sämann, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
Standard T2(*) weighted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) performed with echo-planar imaging (EPI) suffers from signal loss in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) due to macroscopic field inhomogeneity. However, this region is of special interest to affective neuroscience and psychiatry. The Multi-echo EPI (MEPI) approach has several advantages over EPI but its performance against EPI in the vmPFC has not yet been examined in a study with sufficient statistical power using a task specifically eliciting activity in this region...
May 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461696/a-relationship-between-the-aldosterone-mineralocorticoid-receptor-pathway-and-alcohol-drinking-preliminary-translational-findings-across-rats-monkeys-and-humans
#9
E G Aoun, V A Jimenez, L F Vendruscolo, N A R Walter, E Barbier, A Ferrulli, C L Haass-Koffler, P Darakjian, M R Lee, G Addolorato, M Heilig, R Hitzemann, G F Koob, K A Grant, L Leggio
Aldosterone regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis through binding to the mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). Previous work provides evidence for a role of aldosterone in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We tested the hypothesis that high functional activity of the mineralocorticoid endocrine pathway contributes to vulnerability for AUDs. In Study 1, we investigated the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels, ethanol self-administration and the expression of CYP11B2 and MR (NR3C2) genes in the prefrontal cortex area (PFC) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in monkeys...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461695/a-hippocampus-to-prefrontal-cortex-neural-pathway-inhibits-food-motivation-through-glucagon-like-peptide-1-signaling
#10
T M Hsu, E E Noble, C M Liu, A M Cortella, V R Konanur, A N Suarez, D J Reiner, J D Hahn, M R Hayes, S E Kanoski
The hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are traditionally associated with regulating memory and executive function, respectively. The contribution of these brain regions to food intake control, however, is poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel neural pathway through which monosynaptic glutamatergic ventral hippocampal field CA1 (vCA1) to mPFC connectivity inhibits food-motivated behaviors through vCA1 glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Results demonstrate that vCA1-targeted RNA interference-mediated GLP-1R knockdown increases motivated operant responding for palatable food...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458034/emotional-learning-stress-and-development-an-ever-changing-landscape-shaped-by-early-life-experience
#11
Siobhan S Pattwell, Kevin G Bath
The capacity to learn to associate cues with negative outcomes is a highly adaptive process that appears to be conserved across species. However, when the cue is no longer a valid predictor of danger, but the emotional response persists, this can result in maladaptive behaviors, and in humans contribute to debilitating emotional disorders. Over the past several decades, work in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and biology have uncovered key processes underlying, and structures governing, emotional responding and learning, as well as identified disruptions in the structural and functional integrity of these brain regions in models of pathology...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455893/the-attitudes-of-psychiatrists-toward-people-suffering-from-mental-illnesses
#12
Artur Kochański, Andrzej Cechnicki
OBJECTIVES: Stigmatizing convictions, emotions and behaviors toward the mentally ill have impact on the social distance and more acute course of the illness. Research shows that the sufferers are the object of stigmatization also by representatives of medical professionals, including psychiatrists. The aim of the study was to examine the opinions of Polish psychiatrists regarding the mentally ill and to compare them with similar studies in the general population. METHODS: Polish psychiatrists were the investigated group...
February 26, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451624/tics-in-the-pediatric-population-pragmatic-management
#13
REVIEW
Christos Ganos, Davide Martino, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Primary tic disorders, notably Tourette syndrome, are very common movement disorders in childhood. However, the management of such patients still poses great therapeutic challenges to medical professionals. METHODS: Based on a synthesis of the available guidelines published in Europe, Canada, and the United States, coupled with more recent therapeutic developments, the authors provide a pragmatic guide to aid clinicians in deciding when and how to treat patients who have primary tic disorders...
March 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#14
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439098/uncoupling-dapk1-from-nmda-receptor-glun2b-subunit-exerts-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#15
S-X Li, Y Han, L-Z Xu, K Yuan, R-X Zhang, C-Y Sun, D-F Xu, M Yuan, J-H Deng, S-Q Meng, X-J Gao, Q Wen, L-J Liu, W-L Zhu, Y-X Xue, M Zhao, J Shi, L Lu
Several preclinical studies have reported the rapid antidepressant effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) couples GluN2B subunits at extrasynaptic sites to regulate NMDAR channel conductance. In the present study, we found that chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced extracellular glutamate accumulation, accompanied by an increase in the DAPK1-NMDAR interaction, the high expression of DAPK1 and phosphorylated GluN2B at Ser1303, a decrease in phosphorylated DAPK1 at Ser308 and synaptic protein deficits in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431270/clinicians-conflicting-emotional-responses-to-high-suicide-risk-patients-association-with-short-term-suicide-behaviors-a-prospective-pilot-study
#16
Zimri S Yaseen, Igor I Galynker, Lisa J Cohen, Jessica Briggs
BACKGROUND: Clinician's emotional responses to patients have been recognized as potentially relating to treatment outcome, however they have received little attention in the literature on suicide risk. We examine the relationship between a novel targeted measure of clinicians' emotional responses to high-risk psychiatric inpatients and their short-term post-discharge suicide behavior. METHODS: First-year psychiatry residents' emotional responses to their patients were assessed anonymously with the novel self-report 'Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form' (TRQ-SF)...
April 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#17
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423808/security-policy-and-infrastructure-in-the-context-of-a-multi-centeric-information-system-dedicated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Mohamed Ben Said, Laurence Robel, Bernard Golse, Jean Philippe Jais
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420604/a-digital-tool-to-promote-alcohol-and-drug-use-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-skill-translation-a-mobile-app-development-and-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#19
Derek D Satre, Khanh Ly, Maria Wamsley, Alexa Curtis, Jason Satterfield
BACKGROUND: Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416813/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val-66-met-genotype-and-ovarian-steroids-interactively-modulate-working-memory-related-hippocampal-function-in-women-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#20
S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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