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Antipsychotic augmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911850/activation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-pathway-by-olanzapine-augments-antidepressant-effects-of-venlafaxine-in-mice
#1
Jaya Thomas, Razia Khanam, Divya Vohora
Recent clinical studies report antipsychotics as a better option to augment the action of antidepressants in treatment resistant cases. However, the proper mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of antipsychotics is still not clear. Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway is considered to be an important pathway in pro-inflammatory cytokine associated stress-induced depression. The present study investigated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine, olanzapine and their combinations in chronic forced-swim stress-induced depression in mice...
August 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906325/antidepressant-combination-versus-antidepressants-plus-second-generation-antipsychotic-augmentation-in-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression
#2
Gabriella Gobbi, Maykel F Ghabrash, Nicolas Nuñez, John Tabaka, Jessica Di Sante, Marie Saint-Laurent, Stephen Vida, Theodore Kolivakis, Nancy Low, Pablo Cervantes, Linda Booij, Stefano Comai
Patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression (TRD) are treated with antidepressant combinations (ADs) or with second-generation antipsychotics plus AD (SGA+AD) augmentation; however, the clinical characteristics, the factors associated independently with response to SGA+AD, and the outcome trajectories have not yet been characterized. We performed a naturalistic study on the latest stable trial (medication unchanged for about 3 months) in 86 TRD patients with resistance to at least two ADs trials, who received ADs (n=36) or SGA+AD (n=50) treatments...
September 12, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892416/roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats-differ-in-their-response-to-chronic-olanzapine-treatment-at-the-level-of-body-weight-regulation-glucose-homeostasis-and-cortico-mesolimbic-gene-expression
#3
Simon S Evers, Gretha J Boersma, Kellie Lk Tamashiro, Anton Jw Scheurink, Gertjan van Dijk
Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent mainly used for treating schizophrenia, is frequently associated with body weight gain and diabetes mellitus. Nonetheless, studies have shown that not every individual is equally susceptible to olanzapine's weight-gaining effect. Therefore, Roman high and low avoidance rat strains were examined on their responsiveness to olanzapine treatment. The Roman high avoidance rat shares many behavioral and physiological characteristics with human schizophrenia, such as increased central dopaminergic sensitivity, whereas the Roman low avoidance rat has been shown to be prone to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869006/amisulpride-augmentation-in-clozapine-unresponsive-schizophrenia-amicus-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomised-trial-of-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness
#4
Thomas Re Barnes, Verity C Leeson, Carol Paton, Louise Marston, Linda Davies, William Whittaker, David Osborn, Raj Kumar, Patrick Keown, Rameez Zafar, Khalid Iqbal, Vineet Singh, Pavel Fridrich, Zachary Fitzgerald, Hemant Bagalkote, Peter M Haddad, Mariwan Husni, Tim Amos
BACKGROUND: When treatment-refractory schizophrenia shows an insufficient response to a trial of clozapine, clinicians commonly add a second antipsychotic, despite the lack of robust evidence to justify this practice. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the study were to establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of augmentation of clozapine medication with a second antipsychotic, amisulpride, for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855875/therapeutic-potential-of-selectively-targeting-the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-in-cognition-depression-and-schizophrenia-new-developments-and-future-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Madeleine Monique Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Brian Herbert Harvey
α2A- and α2C-adrenoceptors (ARs) are the primary α2-AR subtypes involved in central nervous system (CNS) function. These receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, particularly those associated with affective, psychotic, and cognitive symptoms. Indeed, non-selective α2-AR blockade is proposed to contribute toward antidepressant (e.g., mirtazapine) and atypical antipsychotic (e.g., clozapine) drug action. Both α2C- and α2A-AR share autoreceptor functions to exert negative feedback control on noradrenaline (NA) release, with α2C-AR heteroreceptors regulating non-noradrenergic transmission (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838328/backing-into-the-future-pharmacological-approaches-to-the-management-of-resistant-depression
#6
P J Cowen
Pragmatic studies indicate that a substantial number of depressed patients do not remit with current first-line antidepressant treatments and after two failed treatment steps the chance of remission with subsequent therapies is around 15%. This paper focuses on current evidence for pharmacological treatments in resistant depression as well as possible future developments. For patients who have failed to respond to two antidepressant trials, augmentation with atypical antipsychotic drugs, specifically quetiapine and aripiprazole, has the best evidence for efficacy, though older treatments such as lithium and triiodothyronine still have utility...
August 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826692/atypical-antipsychotic-prescribing-in-elderly-patients-with-depression
#7
Sanika Rege, Sneha Sura, Rajender R Aparasu
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics are used as monotherapy or as augmentation therapy for management of late-life depression. However, little is known about utilization pattern of atypical antipsychotics in depression in the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the prescribing practices and predictors of atypical antipsychotics and augmentation therapy in elderly outpatient visits with depression. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and outpatient department component of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data from 2010 and 2011...
August 2, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#8
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793283/trifluoperazine-induced-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-and-s-nitrosylation-inhibition-reversed-by-the-nitric-oxide-donor-sodium-nitroprusside
#9
Mehrdad Ghashghaeinia, Mauro Carlos Wesseling, Elena Ramos, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Sabrina Waibel, Elisabeth Lang, Rosi Bissinger, Kossai Alzoubi, Baerbel Edelmann, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Peter Dreischer, Azam Shahvaroughi-Farahani, Ulrich Mrowietz, Martin Köberle, Lars Kaestner, Ingolf Bernhardt, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz, Thomas Wieder, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The high potency antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine (10-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-propyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)-(10)H-phenothiazine dihydrochloride; TFP) may either counteract or promote suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface and cell shrinkage. Eryptosis can be stimulated by an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inhibited by nitric oxide (NO)...
August 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783139/antipsychotic-induced-hdac2-transcription-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-leads-to-synaptic-and-cognitive-side-effects
#10
Daisuke Ibi, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Carolina Muguruza, Justin M Saunders, Supriya A Gaitonde, José L Moreno, Maryum K Ijaz, Vishaka Santosh, Alexey Kozlenkov, Terrell Holloway, Jeremy Seto, Aintzane García-Bea, Mitsumasa Kurita, Grace E Mosley, Yan Jiang, Daniel J Christoffel, Luis F Callado, Scott J Russo, Stella Dracheva, Juan F López-Giménez, Yongchao Ge, Carlos R Escalante, J Javier Meana, Schahram Akbarian, George W Huntley, Javier González-Maeso
Antipsychotic drugs remain the standard for schizophrenia treatment. Despite their effectiveness in treating hallucinations and delusions, prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medications leads to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia patients and animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying these negative effects on cognition remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that chronic antipsychotic drug exposure increases nuclear translocation of NF-κB in both mouse and human frontal cortex, a trafficking event triggered via 5-HT2A-receptor-dependent downregulation of the NF-κB repressor IκBα...
September 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749091/efficacy-of-ziprasidone-augmentation-of-escitalopram-for-cognitive-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Nadia Iovieno, Richard C Shelton, Samuel R Petrie, Cristina Cusin, Maurizio Fava, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone for cognitive symptoms in adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing persistent symptoms after 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. METHODS: This post hoc analysis was conducted on a database derived from a previously published study. The parent study was a multicenter, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 3 academic medical centers in the United States from July 2008 to October 2013...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697253/effect-of-antidepressant-switching-vs-augmentation-on-remission-among-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-unresponsive-to-antidepressant-treatment-the-vast-d-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Somaia Mohamed, Gary R Johnson, Peijun Chen, Paul B Hicks, Lori L Davis, Jean Yoon, Theresa C Gleason, Julia E Vertrees, Kimberly Weingart, Ilanit Tal, Alexandra Scrymgeour, David D Lawrence, Beata Planeta, Michael E Thase, Grant D Huang, Sidney Zisook, Sanjai D Rao, Patricia D Pilkinton, James A Wilcox, Ali Iranmanesh, Mamta Sapra, George Jurjus, James P Michalets, Muhammed Aslam, Thomas Beresford, Keith D Anderson, Ronald Fernando, Sriram Ramaswamy, John Kasckow, Joseph Westermeyer, Gihyun Yoon, D Cyril D'Souza, Gunnar Larson, William G Anderson, Mary Klatt, Ayman Fareed, Shabnam I Thompson, Carlos J Carrera, Solomon S Williams, Timothy M Juergens, Lawrence J Albers, Clifford S Nasdahl, Gerardo Villarreal, Julia L Winston, Cristobal A Nogues, K Ryan Connolly, Andre Tapp, Kari A Jones, Gauri Khatkhate, Sheetal Marri, Trisha Suppes, Joseph LaMotte, Robin Hurley, Aimee R Mayeda, Alexander B Niculescu, Bernard A Fischer, David J Loreck, Nicholas Rosenlicht, Steven Lieske, Mitchell S Finkel, John T Little
Importance: Less than one-third of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) achieve remission with their first antidepressant. Objective: To determine the relative effectiveness and safety of 3 common alternate treatments for MDD. Design, Setting, and Participants: From December 2012 to May 2015, 1522 patients at 35 US Veterans Health Administration medical centers who were diagnosed with nonpsychotic MDD, unresponsive to at least 1 antidepressant course meeting minimal standards for treatment dose and duration, participated in the study...
July 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689816/a-novel-role-for-dopamine-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bone-loss-from-the-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-in-female-mice
#13
Katherine J Motyl, Megan Beauchemin, Deborah Barlow, Phuong T Le, Kenichi Nagano, Annika Treyball, Anisha Contractor, Roland Baron, Clifford J Rosen, Karen L Houseknecht
Atypical antipsychotic (AA) drugs, including risperidone (RIS), are used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, and are prescribed off-label for other mental health issues. AA drugs are associated with severe metabolic side effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data also show that risperidone causes bone loss and increases fracture risk in both men and women. There are several potential mechanisms of bone loss from RIS. One is hypogonadism due to hyperprolactinemia from dopamine receptor antagonism...
October 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651526/study-protocol-for-a-randomised-pragmatic-trial-comparing-the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-lithium-and-quetiapine-augmentation-in-treatment-resistant-depression-the-lqd-study
#14
L Marwood, R Taylor, K Goldsmith, R Romeo, R Holland, A Pickles, J Hutchinson, D Dietch, A Cipriani, R Nair, M-J Attenburrow, A H Young, J Geddes, R H McAllister-Williams, A J Cleare
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30-50% of patients with major depressive disorder can be classed as treatment resistant, widely defined as a failure to respond to two or more adequate trials of antidepressants in the current episode. Treatment resistant depression is associated with a poorer prognosis and higher mortality rates. One treatment option is to augment an existing antidepressant with a second agent. Lithium and the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine are two such add-on therapies and are currently recommended as first line options for treatment resistant depression...
June 26, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#15
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629889/comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-brand-name-and-generic-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treating-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-taiwan
#16
Chih-Wei Hsu, Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
The purpose of this nationwide population-based study is to compare the long-term effectiveness of brand-name antipsychotics with generic antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia. We identified patients with schizophrenia who were prescribed antipsychotics from a random sample of one million records from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database, observed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. Only those with no prior use of antipsychotics for at least 180days were included. We selected patients who were prescribed brand-name risperidone (N=404), generic risperidone (N=145), brand-name sulpiride (N=334), or generic sulpiride (N=991)...
June 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626273/combined-antipsychotics-and-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-an-acutely-psychotic-patient-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#17
Ruth Rayikanti, Iga Lentowicz, Badari Birur, Li Li
Treatment of patients with Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia (TRS), who fail to respond to multiple antipsychotic trials, including clozapine (CLZ), is challenging. Several alternative strategies are reported in studies, one of which includes augmenting antipsychotics (AP) with Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We discuss a case of an acutely psychotic patient with TRS who responded effectively and sustained remission to this strategy which was ECT combined with two AP, CLZ and aripiprazole. Notable improvement in clinical and cognitive outcomes was seen with just five right unilateral ECT sessions, CLZ titrated up to 62...
May 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617392/-panic-disorder-clinical-phenomena-and-treatment-options
#18
Yu P Sivolap
Panic disorder is a common mental disease with high psychiatric comorbidity. It is considered that a combination of genetic predisposition and a special psychic vulnerability plays a key role in the occurrence of panic disorder. Clinically proven efficacy in the treatment of panic disorder have benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; antidepressants from other pharmaceutical groups are also used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579786/topiramate-add-on-treatment-associated-with-normalization-of-prolactin-levels-in-a-patient-with-schizophrenia
#19
Yinglin Huang, Huan Ma, Yuan Wang, Miao Peng, Gang Zhu
Topiramate has been used increasingly in the management of psychiatric conditions. Clinical trials demonstrated that topiramate augmentation was effective in controlling negative symptoms in schizophrenia. This case report presents a case of a 38-year-old man with schizophrenia who achieved full negative symptom remission upon the adjunctive use of topiramate. However, the remarkable finding of this case is the concomitant decrease in the level of prolactin when topiramate (50 mg/day) was started and the rebound after discontinuation of topiramate...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579072/the-impact-of-comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-on-clinical-features-pharmacological-treatment-strategies-and-treatment-outcomes-results-from-a-cross-sectional-european-multicenter-study
#20
Markus Dold, Lucie Bartova, Alexander Kautzky, Daniel Souery, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti, Stefano Porcelli, Joseph Zohar, Stuart Montgomery, Siegfried Kasper
This international, multicenter, cross-sectional study comprising 1346 adult in- and outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) investigated the association between MDD as primary diagnosis and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a cross-sectional data collection process, the presence of comorbid PTSD was determined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the patients' socio-demographic, clinical, psychopharmacological, and response information were obtained. Clinical features between MDD with and without concurrent PTSD were compared using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), and binary logistic regression analyses...
May 31, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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