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Metabolically healthy obese children

Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Elif Kilic, Ömer Faruk Özer, Aybala Erek Toprak, Hayriye Erman, Emel Torun, Sıddıka Kesgin Ayhan, Hifa Gülru Caglar, Sahbettin Selek, Abdurrahim Kocyigit
BACKGROUND Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ulrik Lausten-Thomsen, Michael Christiansen, Paula Louise Hedley, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Theresa Stjernholm, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Jens-Christian Holm
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups...
November 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gina M Cambareri, Dana W Giel, Aaron P Bayne, Sean Corbett, Elleson Schurtz, Larisa Kovacevic, Troy Sukhu, Michael Yap, George Chiang
OBJECTIVE: To determine if 24-hour urinary parameters in children with nephrolithiasis across four institutions were influenced by body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 24-hour urinary parameters obtained from children with nephrolithiasis between 2000-2013 were stratified by BMI percentile ≥85th and <85th (overweight and obese patients versus healthy weight, respectively). A total of 206 children were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included patients with a history of spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, cerebral palsy and patients on medical treatment before the first 24-hour urine collection...
September 15, 2016: Urology
Moritz Schreier, Julian Tristan Schwartze, Kathrin Landgraf, Kathrin Scheuermann, Sandra Erbs, Gunda Herberth, J Andrew Pospisilik, Jürgen Kratzsch, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
CONTEXT: Osteopontin (OPN) has been proposed to predict adverse cardiac events in adult type 2 diabetes patients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated potential associations of circulating OPN and OPN expression in adipose tissue (AT) with obesity and early metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction in children. Furthermore, we assessed the functional relevance of OPN on primary human endothelial cells. DESIGN: Serum OPN was determined in healthy lean (n=65) and obese (n=100) children by ELISA...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gönül Çatlı, Tuncay Küme, Hale Ünver Tuhan, Ahmet Anık, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abacı
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum irisin level and metabolic and anthropometric parameters in obese children. METHODS: The study included 36 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥95th percentile and 30 healthy children with a BMI ranging from the 5th to the 85th percentile. Healthy and obese children had similar age, gender and pubertal stage distribution. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and irisin levels) were measured...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
A O Razina, S D Runenko, E E Achkasov
The review of literature presents the results of recent epidemiological studies in obese people in Russia and abroad taking into account gender, age, ethnic, social, and geographicalfactors. The increase of obesity prevalence among different population groups including children and adolescents was registered. The risks of health problems associated with overweight and obesity probably leading to disability and mortality were analyzed. It was shown that the energy imbalance played a key role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity among many other factors...
2016: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Ann M Manzardo, Lisa Johnson, Jennifer L Miller, Daniel J Driscoll, Merlin G Butler
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Onur Akın, İbrahim Eker, Mutluay Arslan, Serdar Taşdemir, Mehmet Emre Taşçılar, Ümit Hıdır Ulaş, Ediz Yeşilkaya, Bülent Ünay
AIM: The objective of our study was to investigate nerve conduction in normoglycemic obese children. METHODS: A total of 60 children with obesity (30 female and 30 male) and 30 healthy children (15 female and 15 male) were enrolled in the study. Insulin resistance (IR) and other metabolic disturbances were investigated and nerve conduction was measured in all participants. Obese children were divided into groups according to the presence of IR. All results were compared between these subgroups...
August 9, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Swapna Dharashivkar, Lawrence Wasser, Richard N Baumgartner, Jeffrey C King, Stephen J Winters
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), a glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes that transports testosterone and other steroids in plasma, is a marker for developing metabolic syndrome and T2DM. SHBG is present in umbilical cord blood where it may be epigenetically regulated. This study was conducted to investigate whether the fetal environment, based on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain or smoking during pregnancy, influence SHBG in newborns. METHODS: Maternal and newborn characteristics and SHBG levels and other variables were measured in cord and day 2 heel-stick blood samples in 60 healthy full-term singleton babies (31 F, 29 M)...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Giuseppe Pannarale, Eliana Martino, Cristina Zanoni, Francesco M Perla, Paolo E Puddu, Francesco Barillà
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Pia Montanucci, Teresa Pescara, Ilaria Pennoni, Alessia Alunno, Onelia Bistoni, Elisabetta Torlone, Giovanni Luca, Roberto Gerli, Giuseppe Basta, Riccardo Calafiore
BACKGROUND: Adult human mesenchymal stem cells retrieved, from the post-partum human umbilical cord Wharton jelly (hUCMS), have recently gained growing interest due to their morphological and functional properties. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of our work was to examine morphology and functional properties of hUCMS retrieved from healthy women as compared to those with obesity, or gestational or type 2 diabetes mellitus, under fair metabolic control. Possible differences between groups could shed light into the potential use of these cells for the cell therapy of a variety of diseases, regardless of the obesity/diabetes status of the donor mothers...
June 28, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Nikolaos Karampatakis, Theodoros Karampatakis, Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou, Eleni P Kotanidou, Katerina Tsergouli, Maria Eboriadou-Petikopoulou, Katerina Haidopoulou
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of asthma and obesity has risen in parallel over the last decades, but the exact mechanisms linking these two diseases still remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), impaired glucose metabolism, obesity, and asthma in prepubertal children. METHODS: A total of 71 prepubertal children were included in the study and divided in four groups according to the presence of asthma and their Body Mass Index (BMI): Group 1-Healthy Controls (HC), Group 2-Non Obese Asthmatics (NOA), Group 3-Obese Non Asthmatics (ONA), Group 4-Obese Asthmatics (OA) Αll children underwent spirometry and bronchial hyperresponsiveness testing by using the cumulative Provoking Dose of mannitol (PD15, primary study variable); homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated in order to evaluate insulin resistance...
June 30, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Kristian Traberg Larsen, Tao Huang, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Lars Bo Andersen, Malene Heidemann, Niels Christian Møller
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks...
2016: PloS One
Usama M Alkholy, Ihab A Ahmed, Nehad A Karam, Yasser Fathy Ali, Ahmed Yosry
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in children and adults. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum leptin level and the cardiac changes in normotensive obese children and to study the relationship between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and serum leptin with the parameters of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese children. METHODS: This study was conducted in al Jeddani Hospital and Ibn Sina College Hospital in Saudi Arabia in the period from July 2012 to December 2013, and included 82 obese children...
July 2016: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Hye-Jin Kim, Hee-Seung Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women in their 30s and 40s by breastfeeding experience, using the the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010) data. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1,053 healthy women in their 30s and 40s, who had given birth was analyzed. To compare women with and without breastfeeding experience, chi-square test and t test were used...
June 2016: Asian Nursing Research
Shuang Liang, Yanyan Hu, Caihong Liu, Jianhong Qi, Guimei Li
BACKGROUND: Low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) levels have been proven to be positively associated with HDL-C, but few studies were based on the dataset of children or adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship among IGF-1, HDL-C and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese nondiabetic obese children and adolescents. METHODS: As a cross-sectional study, this study includes 120 obese Chinese children and adolescents and 120 healthy ones...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
M Sobieska, I Laudańska-Krzemińska, A Walczak, N Klimas, P Kroll, E Gajewska
OBJECTIVE: The correlation between physical fitness and health indicators still requires a research aimed at improving the knowledge about physical fitness and the impact of obesity on the health status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is an analysis of the results of the EUROFIT battery tests in relation to routine laboratory parameters and the inflammation markers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the group of 123 Polish adolescents the routine parameters of lipid metabolism and acute phase proteins were investigated, and compared with EUROFIT motor fitness tests results, expressed as percentiles of the results achieved by healthy Polish population...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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