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Large scale brain networks

Luiz Pessoa
Emotional processing appears to be interlocked with perception, cognition, motivation, and action. These interactions are supported by the brain's large-scale non-modular anatomical and functional architectures. An important component of this organization involves characterizing the brain in terms of networks. Two aspects of brain networks are discussed: brain networks should be considered as inherently overlapping (not disjoint) and dynamic (not static). Recent work on multivariate pattern analysis shows that affective dimensions can be detected in the activity of distributed neural systems that span cortical and subcortical regions...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Gesa Hartwigsen
Previous work has emphasized that cognitive functions in the human brain are organized into large-scale networks. However, the mechanisms that allow these networks to compensate for focal disruptions remain elusive. I suggest a new perspective on the compensatory flexibility of cognitive networks. First, I demonstrate that cognitive networks can rapidly change the functional weight of the relative contribution of different regions. Second, I argue that there is an asymmetry in the compensatory potential of different kinds of networks...
June 15, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Tengda Zhao, Virendra Mishra, Tina Jeon, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Lina Chalak, Jessica Lee Wisnowski, Roy Heyne, Nancy Rollins, Ni Shu, Hao Huang
During the 3rd trimester, large-scale neural circuits are formed in the human brain, resulting in a highly efficient and segregated connectome at birth. Despite recent findings identifying important preterm human brain network properties such as rich-club organization, how the structural network develops differentially across brain regions and among different types of connections in this period is not yet known. Here, using high resolution diffusion MRI of 77 preterm-born and full-term neonates scanned at 31...
June 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Gesa Hartwigsen, Nicole E Neef, Julia A Camilleri, Daniel S Margulies, Simon B Eickhoff
Previous studies helped unraveling the functional architecture of the human cerebral cortex. However, a comprehensive functional segregation of right lateral prefrontal cortex is missing. Here, we delineated cortical clusters in right area 44 and 45 based on their task-constrained whole-brain activation patterns across neuroimaging experiments obtained from a large database. We identified 5 clusters that differed with respect to their coactivation patterns, which were consistent with resting-state functional connectivity patterns of an independent dataset...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Ruedeerat Keerativittayayut, Ryuta Aoki, Mitra Taghizadeh Sarabi, Koji Jimura, Kiyoshi Nakahara
Although activation/deactivation of specific brain regions have been shown to be predictive of successful memory encoding, the relationship between time-varying large-scale brain networks and fluctuations of memory encoding performance remains unclear. Here we investigated time-varying functional connectivity patterns across the human brain in periods of 30-40 s, which have recently been implicated in various cognitive functions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed a memory encoding task, and their performance was assessed with a subsequent surprise memory test...
June 18, 2018: ELife
Hannelore Aerts, Michael Schirner, Ben Jeurissen, Dirk Van Roost, Eric Achten, Petra Ritter, Daniele Marinazzo
Presurgical planning for brain tumor resection aims at delineating eloquent tissue in the vicinity of the lesion to spare during surgery. To this end, noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging fiber tracking are currently employed. However, taking into account this information is often still insufficient, as the complex nonlinear dynamics of the brain impede straightforward prediction of functional outcome after surgical intervention. Large-scale brain network modeling carries the potential to bridge this gap by integrating neuroimaging data with biophysically based models to predict collective brain dynamics...
May 2018: ENeuro
Ilvana Dzafic, Hana Burianová, Andrew K Martin, Bryan Mowry
Impaired emotion perception is a well-established and stable deficit in schizophrenia; however, there is limited knowledge about the underlying aberrant cognitive and brain processes that result in emotion perception deficits. Recent influential work has shown that perceptual deficits in schizophrenia may result from aberrant precision in prior expectations, associated with disrupted activity in frontal regions. In the present study, we investigated the perception of dynamic, multisensory emotion, the influence of prior expectations and the underlying aberrant brain processes in schizophrenia...
June 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Silvia Tommasin, Daniele Mascali, Marta Moraschi, Tommaso Gili, Ibrahim Eid Assan, Michela Fratini, Mauro DiNuzzo, Richard G Wise, Silvia Mangia, Emiliano Macaluso, Federico Giove
Brain activity at rest is characterized by widely distributed and spatially specific patterns of synchronized low-frequency blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations, which correspond to physiologically relevant brain networks. This network behaviour is known to persist also during task execution, yet the details underlying task-associated modulations of within- and between-network connectivity are largely unknown. In this study we exploited a multi-parametric and multi-scale approach to investigate how low-frequency fluctuations adapt to a sustained n-back working memory task...
June 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kelly M Dumais, Sergey Chernyak, Lisa D Nickerson, Amy C Janes
Focusing on sex differences is necessary to fully understand basic neurobiological processes such as the engagement of large-scale brain networks involved in attention. Prior work suggests that women show enhanced attention during tasks of reward/punishment relative to men. Yet, sex differences in the engagement of neural networks sub serving internal and external focus has been unexplored in regard to reward and punishment. Using data from a large sample (n = 190) of healthy participants from the Human Connectome Project, we investigated sex differences in default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and frontal parietal network (FPN) activation during exposure to reward and punishment...
2018: PloS One
Smadar Z Patael, Emily A Farris, Jessica M Black, Roeland Hancock, John D E Gabrieli, Laurie E Cutting, Fumiko Hoeft
OBJECTIVE: The ultimate goal of reading is to understand written text. To accomplish this, children must first master decoding, the ability to translate printed words into sounds. Although decoding and reading comprehension are highly interdependent, some children struggle to decode but comprehend well, whereas others with good decoding skills fail to comprehend. The neural basis underlying individual differences in this discrepancy between decoding and comprehension abilities is virtually unknown...
2018: PloS One
Puiu F Balan, Annelies Gerits, Qi Zhu, Hauke Kolster, Guy A Orban, Claire Wardak, Wim Vanduffel
The brain has a remarkable capacity to recover after lesions. However, little is known about compensatory neural adaptations at the systems level. We addressed this question by investigating behavioral and (correlated) functional changes throughout the cortex that are induced by focal, reversible inactivations. Specifically, monkeys performed a demanding covert spatial attention task while the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) was inactivated with muscimol and whole-brain fMRI activity was recorded. The inactivation caused LIP-specific decreases in task-related fMRI activity...
June 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Shengfeng Liu, Haiying Wang, Ming Song, Luxian Lv, Yue Cui, Yong Liu, Lingzhong Fan, Nianming Zuo, Kaibin Xu, Yuhui Du, Qingbao Yu, Na Luo, Shile Qi, Jian Yang, Sangma Xie, Jian Li, Jun Chen, Yunchun Chen, Huaning Wang, Hua Guo, Ping Wan, Yongfeng Yang, Peng Li, Lin Lu, Hao Yan, Jun Yan, Huiling Wang, Hongxing Zhang, Dai Zhang, Vince D Calhoun, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui
Multimodal fusion has been regarded as a promising tool to discover covarying patterns of multiple imaging types impaired in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia (SZ). In this article, we aim to investigate the covarying abnormalities underlying SZ in a large Chinese Han population (307 SZs, 298 healthy controls [HCs]). Four types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) from resting-state functional MRI, gray matter volume (GM) from structural MRI, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion MRI, and functional network connectivity (FNC) resulted from group independent component analysis, were jointly analyzed by a data-driven multivariate fusion method...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Honghui Zhang, Andrew J Watrous, Ansh Patel, Joshua Jacobs
Human cognition requires the coordination of neural activity across widespread brain networks. Here, we describe a new mechanism for large-scale coordination in the human brain: traveling waves of theta and alpha oscillations. Examining direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients performing a memory task, we found contiguous clusters of cortex in individual patients with oscillations at specific frequencies within 2 to 15 Hz. These oscillatory clusters displayed spatial phase gradients, indicating that they formed traveling waves that propagated at ∼0...
June 1, 2018: Neuron
Alex H Williams, Tony Hyun Kim, Forea Wang, Saurabh Vyas, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy, Mark Schnitzer, Tamara G Kolda, Surya Ganguli
Perceptions, thoughts, and actions unfold over millisecond timescales, while learned behaviors can require many days to mature. While recent experimental advances enable large-scale and long-term neural recordings with high temporal fidelity, it remains a formidable challenge to extract unbiased and interpretable descriptions of how rapid single-trial circuit dynamics change slowly over many trials to mediate learning. We demonstrate a simple tensor component analysis (TCA) can meet this challenge by extracting three interconnected, low-dimensional descriptions of neural data: neuron factors, reflecting cell assemblies; temporal factors, reflecting rapid circuit dynamics mediating perceptions, thoughts, and actions within each trial; and trial factors, describing both long-term learning and trial-to-trial changes in cognitive state...
May 31, 2018: Neuron
Josephine Heine, Harald Prüss, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Thomas Münte, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch, Carsten Finke
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis causes memory deficits, seizures and behavioural abnormalities. Recent findings suggest that extralimbic brain areas are additionally affected and that patients also suffer from non-limbic cognitive symptoms. Moreover, up to 60% of patients show no structural MRI abnormalities in the acute disease stage. We therefore investigated whether functional connectivity analyses can identify brain network changes underlying disease-related symptoms...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Thomas Thiery, Tarek Lajnef, Etienne Combrisson, Arthur Dehgan, Pierre Rainville, George A Mashour, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Karim Jerbi
Rhythmic neuronal synchronization across large-scale networks is thought to play a key role in the regulation of conscious states. Changes in neuronal oscillation amplitude across states of consciousness have been widely reported, but little is known about possible changes in the temporal dynamics of these oscillations. The temporal structure of brain oscillations may provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness. To address this question, we examined long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) of EEG oscillation amplitudes recorded during both wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
June 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Giri P Krishnan, Oscar C González, Maxim Bazhenov
Resting- or baseline-state low-frequency (0.01-0.2 Hz) brain activity is observed in fMRI, EEG, and local field potential recordings. These fluctuations were found to be correlated across brain regions and are thought to reflect neuronal activity fluctuations between functionally connected areas of the brain. However, the origin of these infra-slow resting-state fluctuations remains unknown. Here, using a detailed computational model of the brain network, we show that spontaneous infra-slow (<0.05 Hz) activity could originate due to the ion concentration dynamics...
June 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zening Fu, Yiheng Tu, Xin Di, Yuhui Du, Jing Sui, Bharat B Biswal, Zhiguo Zhang, N de Lacy, V D Calhoun
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors and is characterized by large-scale atypical subcortical-cortical connectivity, including impaired resting-state functional connectivity between thalamic and sensory regions. Previous studies have typically focused on the abnormal static connectivity in ASD and overlooked potential valuable dynamic patterns in brain connectivity. However, resting-state brain connectivity is indeed highly dynamic, and abnormalities in dynamic brain connectivity have been widely identified in psychiatric disorders...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Anna Zilverstand, Anna S Huang, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
The impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) model proposes that impaired response inhibition and salience attribution underlie drug seeking and taking. To update this model, we systematically reviewed 105 task-related neuroimaging studies (n > 15/group) published since 2010. Results demonstrate specific impairments within six large-scale brain networks (reward, habit, salience, executive, memory, and self-directed networks) during drug cue exposure, decision making, inhibitory control, and social-emotional processing...
June 6, 2018: Neuron
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