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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#1
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429774/synchronization-and-variability-imbalance-underlie-cognitive-impairment-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Maria Petracca, Catarina Saiote, Heidi A Bender, Franchesca Arias, Colleen Farrell, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Aaron Miller, Georg Northoff, Fred Lublin, Matilde Inglese
We aimed to investigate functional connectivity and variability across multiple frequency bands in brain networks underlying cognitive deficits in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) and to explore how they are affected by the presence of cortical lesions (CLs). We analyzed functional connectivity and variability (measured as the standard deviation of BOLD signal amplitude) in resting state networks (RSNs) associated with cognitive deficits in different frequency bands in 25 PP-MS patients (12 M, mean age 50...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424599/electrophysiological-sequelae-of-hemispherotomy-in-ipsilateral-human-cortex
#3
Ammar H Hawasli, Ravi Chacko, Nicholas P Szrama, David T Bundy, Mrinal Pahwa, Chester K Yarbrough, Brian J Dlouhy, David D Limbrick, Dennis L Barbour, Matthew D Smyth, Eric C Leuthardt
Objectives: Hemispheric disconnection has been used as a treatment of medically refractory epilepsy and evolved from anatomic hemispherectomy to functional hemispherectomies to hemispherotomies. The hemispherotomy procedure involves disconnection of an entire hemisphere with limited tissue resection and is reserved for medically-refractory epilepsy due to diffuse hemispheric disease. Although it is thought to be effective by preventing seizures from spreading to the contralateral hemisphere, the electrophysiological effects of a hemispherotomy on the ipsilateral hemisphere remain poorly defined...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424399/-recent-advancements-in-understanding-hippocampal-functions
#4
Sakura Okada, Yuki Aoki, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
The hippocampal formation located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain has been studied extensively for several decades, both in in vitro slice preparations and in vivo living animals. Recent advancements in large-scale recording techniques, such as multisite silicon probes and tetrodes, enable us to examine the detailed characteristics of temporal spiking patterns of tens or hundreds of neurons in the hippocampal circuit. Here, we introduce how such tools contribute to our understanding of the hippocampal network dynamics and review several hippocampal functions for information processing in the brain, including pattern separation and completion, spatial representation, and encoding of positive and negative valence...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422957/towards-a-theory-of-cortical-columns-from-spiking-neurons-to-interacting-neural-populations-of-finite-size
#5
Tilo Schwalger, Moritz Deger, Wulfram Gerstner
Neural population equations such as neural mass or field models are widely used to study brain activity on a large scale. However, the relation of these models to the properties of single neurons is unclear. Here we derive an equation for several interacting populations at the mesoscopic scale starting from a microscopic model of randomly connected generalized integrate-and-fire neuron models. Each population consists of 50-2000 neurons of the same type but different populations account for different neuron types...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417219/treatment-effect-of-methylphenidate-on-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adhd-children-a-multivariate-analysis
#6
Jae Hyun Yoo, Dohyun Kim, Jeewook Choi, Bumseok Jeong
Methylphenidate is a first-line therapeutic option for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, elicited changes on resting-state functional networks (RSFNs) are not well understood. This study investigated the treatment effect of methylphenidate using a variety of RSFN analyses and explored the collaborative influences of treatment-relevant RSFN changes in children with ADHD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 20 medication-naïve ADHD children before methylphenidate treatment and twelve weeks later...
April 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415192/multiple-node-basin-stability-in-complex-dynamical-networks
#7
Chiranjit Mitra, Anshul Choudhary, Sudeshna Sinha, Jürgen Kurths, Reik V Donner
Dynamical entities interacting with each other on complex networks often exhibit multistability. The stability of a desired steady regime (e.g., a synchronized state) to large perturbations is critical in the operation of many real-world networked dynamical systems such as ecosystems, power grids, the human brain, etc. This necessitates the development of appropriate quantifiers of stability of multiple stable states of such systems. Motivated by the concept of basin stability (BS) [P. J. Menck et al., Nat...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412905/therapeutic-potential-of-heme-oxygenase-1-carbon-monoxide-system-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Yuanyuan Cheng, Jianhui Rong
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury causes the dysfunctions of different major organs, leading to morbidity and mortality on the global scale. Among a battery of therapeutic targets, the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system has been evaluated for the development of new therapies against I/R injury. The enzyme HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of heme into three biologically active end products, namely biliverdin/bilirubin, CO and ferrous ion. Interestingly, CO is one of a few bioactive gaseous molecules with the capability of regulating inflammation, cell survival and growth...
April 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412440/transient-networks-of-spatio-temporal-connectivity-map-communication-pathways-in-brain-functional-systems
#9
Alessandra Griffa, Benjamin Ricaud, Kirell Benzi, Xavier Bresson, Alessandro Daducci, Pierre Vandergheynst, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Patric Hagmann
The study of brain dynamics enables us to characterize the time-varying functional connectivity among distinct neural groups. However, current methods suffer from the absence of structural connectivity information. We propose to integrate infra-slow neural oscillations and anatomical-connectivity maps, as derived from functional and diffusion MRI, in a multilayer-graph framework that captures transient networks of spatio-temporal connectivity. These networks group anatomically wired and temporary synchronized brain regions and encode the propagation of functional activity on the structural connectome...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408865/tau-pathology-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease-corresponds-differentially-to-cognition-relevant-functional-brain-networks
#10
Oskar Hansson, Michel J Grothe, Tor Olof Strandberg, Tomas Ohlsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll
Neuropathological studies have shown that the typical neurofibrillary pathology of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially affects specific brain regions whereas others remain relatively spared. It has been suggested that the distinct regional distribution profile of tau pathology in AD may be a consequence of the intrinsic network structure of the human brain. The spatially distributed brain regions that are most affected by the spread of tau pathology may hence reflect an interconnected neuronal system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402480/cognitive-benefit-and-cost-of-acute-stress-is-differentially-modulated-by-individual-brain-state
#11
Nils Kohn, Erno J Hermans, Guillén Fernández
Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain-behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396398/selective-entrainment-of-gamma-subbands-by-different-slow-network-oscillations
#12
Weiwei Zhong, Mareva Ciatipis, Thérèse Wolfenstetter, Jakob Jessberger, Carola Müller, Simon Ponsel, Yevgenij Yanovsky, Jurij Brankačk, Adriano B L Tort, Andreas Draguhn
Theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) are thought to provide a common temporal reference for the exchange of information among distant brain networks. On the other hand, faster gamma-frequency oscillations (30-160 Hz) nested within theta cycles are believed to underlie local information processing. Whether oscillatory coupling between global and local oscillations, as showcased by theta-gamma coupling, is a general coding mechanism remains unknown. Here, we investigated two different patterns of oscillatory network activity, theta and respiration-induced network rhythms, in four brain regions of freely moving mice: olfactory bulb (OB), prelimbic cortex (PLC), parietal cortex (PAC), and dorsal hippocampus [cornu ammonis 1 (CA1)]...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396293/the-impact-of-ultra-high-field-mri-on-cognitive-and-computational-neuroimaging
#13
Federico De Martino, Essa Yacoub, Valentin Kemper, Michelle Moerel, Kamil Uludag, Peter De Weerd, Kamil Ugurbil, Rainer Goebel, Elia Formisano
The ability to measure functional brain responses non-invasively with ultra high field MRI (7 T and above) represents a unique opportunity in advancing our understanding of the human brain. Compared to lower fields (3 T and below), ultra high field MRI has an increased sensitivity, which can be used to acquire functional images with greater spatial resolution, and greater specificity of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to the underlying neuronal responses. Together, increased resolution and specificity enable investigating brain functions at a submillimeter scale, which so far could only be done with invasive techniques...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383709/neural-reorganization-due-to-neonatal-amygdala-lesions-in-the-rhesus-monkey-changes-in-morphology-and-network-structure
#14
D S Grayson, E Bliss-Moreau, J Bennett, P Lavenex, D G Amaral
It is generally believed that neural damage that occurs early in development is associated with greater adaptive capacity relative to similar damage in an older individual. However, few studies have surveyed whole brain changes following early focal damage. In this report, we employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging analyses of adult rhesus macaque monkeys who had previously undergone bilateral, neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala at about 2 weeks of age. A deformation-based morphometric approach demonstrated reduction of the volumes of the anterior temporal lobe, anterior commissure, basal ganglia, and pulvinar in animals with early amygdala lesions compared to controls...
April 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375650/emerging-frontiers-of-neuroengineering-a-network-science-of-brain-connectivity
#15
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati, Scott T Grafton
Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374013/communication-between-brain-areas-based-on-nested-oscillations
#16
Mathilde Bonnefond, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Unraveling how brain regions communicate is crucial for understanding how the brain processes external and internal information. Neuronal oscillations within and across brain regions have been proposed to play a crucial role in this process. Two main hypotheses have been suggested for routing of information based on oscillations, namely communication through coherence and gating by inhibition. Here, we propose a framework unifying these two hypotheses that is based on recent empirical findings. We discuss a theory in which communication between two regions is established by phase synchronization of oscillations at lower frequencies (<25 Hz), which serve as temporal reference frame for information carried by high-frequency activity (>40 Hz)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369260/financial-exploitation-is-associated-with-structural-and-functional-brain-differences-in-healthy-older-adults
#17
R Nathan Spreng, Benjamin N Cassidy, Bri S Darboh, Elizabeth DuPre, Amber W Lockrow, Roni Setton, Gary R Turner
Background: Age-related brain changes leading to altered socioemotional functioning may increase vulnerability to financial exploitation. If confirmed, this would suggest a novel mechanism leading to heightened financial exploitation risk in older adults. Development of predictive neural markers could facilitate increased vigilance and prevention. In this preliminary study, we sought to identify structural and functional brain differences associated with financial exploitation in older adults...
March 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367834/electroencephalographic-identifiers-of-motor-adaptation-learning
#18
Ozan Ozdenizci, Mustafa Yalcin, Ahmetcan Erdogan, Volkan Patoglu, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Mujdat Cetin
OBJECTIVE: Recent brain-computer interface (BCI) assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols tend to focus on sensorimotor activity of the brain. Relying on evidence claiming that a variety of brain rhythms beyond sensorimotor areas are related to the extent of motor deficits, we propose to identify neural correlates of motor learning beyond sensorimotor areas spatially and spectrally for further use in novel BCI-assisted neurorehabilitation settings. APPROACH: Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from healthy subjects participating in a physical force-field adaptation task involving reaching movements through a robotic handle...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366797/tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-proteins-distinctively-associate-to-functional-network-changes-in-the-aging-brain
#19
Jorge Sepulcre, Mert R Sabuncu, Quanzheng Li, Georges El Fakhri, Reisa Sperling, Keith A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Misfolded tau and amyloid β (Aβ) proteins progressively accumulate in the human brain, causing altered neuronal function and neurodegeneration. This study sought to investigate whether the wide spectrum of functional reorganization in aging brains of cognitively normal individuals relates to specific pathological patterns of tau and Aβ deposits. METHODS: We used functional connectivity neuroimaging and in vivo tau and Aβ positron emission tomography scans to study cortical spatial relationships between imaging modalities...
March 30, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364550/individual-brain-structure-and-modelling-predict-seizure-propagation
#20
Timothée Proix, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Viktor K Jirsa
See Lytton (doi:10.1093/awx018) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neural network oscillations are a fundamental mechanism for cognition, perception and consciousness. Consequently, perturbations of network activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. When structural information from non-invasive brain imaging is merged with mathematical modelling, then generative brain network models constitute personalized in silico platforms for the exploration of causal mechanisms of brain function and clinical hypothesis testing...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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