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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#1
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911747/new-developments-in-understanding-the-complexity-of-human-speech-production
#2
Kristina Simonyan, Hermann Ackermann, Edward F Chang, Jeremy D Greenlee
Speech is one of the most unique features of human communication. Our ability to articulate our thoughts by means of speech production depends critically on the integrity of the motor cortex. Long thought to be a low-order brain region, exciting work in the past years is overturning this notion. Here, we highlight some of major experimental advances in speech motor control research and discuss the emerging findings about the complexity of speech motocortical organization and its large-scale networks. This review summarizes the talks presented at a symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience; it does not represent a comprehensive review of contemporary literature in the broader field of speech motor control...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#3
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903719/the-segregation-and-integration-of-distinct-brain-networks-and-their-relationship-to-cognition
#4
Jessica R Cohen, Mark D'Esposito
: A critical feature of the human brain that gives rise to complex cognition is its ability to reconfigure its network structure dynamically and adaptively in response to the environment. Existing research probing task-related reconfiguration of brain network structure has concluded that, although there are many similarities in network structure during an intrinsic, resting state and during the performance of a variety of cognitive tasks, there are meaningful differences as well. In this study, we related intrinsic, resting state network organization to reconfigured network organization during the performance of two tasks: a sequence tapping task, which is thought to probe motor execution and likely engages a single brain network, and an n-back task, which is thought to probe working memory and likely requires coordination across multiple networks...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#5
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865920/temporally-correlated-fluctuations-drive-epileptiform-dynamics
#6
Maciej Jedynak, Antonio J Pons, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Marc Goodfellow
Macroscopic models of brain networks typically incorporate assumptions regarding the characteristics of afferent noise, which is used to represent input from distal brain regions or ongoing fluctuations in non-modelled parts of the brain. Such inputs are often modelled by Gaussian white noise which has a flat power spectrum. In contrast, macroscopic fluctuations in the brain typically follow a 1/f(b) spectrum. It is therefore important to understand the effect on brain dynamics of deviations from the assumption of white noise...
November 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863296/free-classification-of-large-sets-of-everyday-objects-is-more-thematic-than-taxonomic
#7
Rebecca Lawson, Franklin Chang, Andy J Wills
Traditionally it has been thought that the overall organisation of categories in the brain is taxonomic. To examine this assumption, we had adults sort 140-150 diverse, familiar objects from different basic-level categories. Almost all the participants (80/81) sorted the objects more thematically than taxonomically. Sorting was only weakly modulated by taxonomic priming, and people still produced many thematically structured clusters when explicitly instructed to sort taxonomically. The first clusters that people produced were rated as having equal taxonomic and thematic structure...
November 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853419/benchmarking-spike-based-visual-recognition-a-dataset-and-evaluation
#8
Qian Liu, Garibaldi Pineda-García, Evangelos Stromatias, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Steve B Furber
Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852775/eeg-oscillations-are-modulated-in-different-behavior-related-networks-during-rhythmic-finger-movements
#9
Martin Seeber, Reinhold Scherer, Gernot R Müller-Putz
: Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845257/multi-scale-brain-networks
#10
Richard F Betzel, Danielle S Bassett
The network architecture of the human brain has become a feature of increasing interest to the neuroscientific community, largely because of its potential to illuminate human cognition, its variation over development and aging, and its alteration in disease or injury. Traditional tools and approaches to study this architecture have largely focused on single scales-of topology, time, and space. Expanding beyond this narrow view, we focus this review on pertinent questions and novel methodological advances for the multi-scale brain...
November 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833009/anomaly-in-neural-phase-coherence-accompanies-reduced-sensorimotor-integration-in-adults-who-stutter
#11
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Katie Gore, Torrey Loucks, Sazzad M Nasir
Despite advances in our understanding of the human speech system, the neurophysiological basis of stuttering remains largely unknown. Here, it is hypothesized that the speech of adults who stutter (AWS) is susceptible to disruptions in sensorimotor integration caused by neural miscommunication within the speech motor system. Human speech unfolds over rapid timescales and relies on a distributed system of brain regions working in a parallel and synchronized manner, and a breakdown in neural communication between the putative brain regions could increase susceptibility to dysfluency...
November 8, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830114/disruptions-in-cortico-subcortical-covariance-networks-associated-with-anxiety-in-new-onset-childhood-epilepsy
#12
Camille Garcia-Ramos, Jack J Lin, Leonardo Bonilha, Jana E Jones, Daren C Jackson, Vivek Prabhakaran, Bruce P Hermann
Anxiety disorders represent a prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in both adults and children with epilepsy for which the etiology remains controversial. Neurobiological contributions have been suggested, but only limited evidence suggests abnormal brain volumes particularly in children with epilepsy and anxiety. Since the brain develops in an organized fashion, covariance analyses between different brain regions can be investigated as a network and analyzed using graph theory methods. We examined 46 healthy children (HC) and youth with recent onset idiopathic epilepsies with (n = 24) and without (n = 62) anxiety disorders...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824356/altered-gray-matter-organization-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-a-structural-covariance-connectome-study
#13
K R Griffiths, S M Grieve, M R Kohn, S Clarke, L M Williams, M S Korgaonkar
Although multiple studies have reported structural deficits in multiple brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we do not yet know if these deficits reflect a more systematic disruption to the anatomical organization of large-scale brain networks. Here we used a graph theoretical approach to quantify anatomical organization in children and adolescents with ADHD. We generated anatomical networks based on covariance of gray matter volumes from 92 regions across the brain in children and adolescents with ADHD (n=34) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=28)...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813194/functional-brain-networks-involved-in-gaze-and-emotional-processing
#14
Maryam Ziaei, Natalie C Ebner, Hana Burianová
Eye-gaze direction plays a fundamental role in the perception of facial features and particularly the processing of emotional facial expressions. Yet, the neural underpinnings of the integration of eye gaze and emotional facial cues are not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to delineate the functional networks that subserve the recognition of emotional expressions as a function of eye gaze. Participants were asked to identify happy, angry, or neutral faces, displayed with direct or averted gaze, whilst their neural responses were measured with fMRI...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812505/prediction-of-long-term-memory-scores-in-mci-based-on-resting-state-fmri
#15
Djalel-Eddine Meskaldji, Maria Giulia Preti, Thomas Aw Bolton, Marie-Louise Montandon, Cristelle Rodriguez, Stephan Morgenthaler, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller, Dimitri Van De Ville
Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) opens a window on large-scale organization of brain function. However, establishing relationships between resting-state brain activity and cognitive or clinical scores is still a difficult task, in particular in terms of prediction as would be meaningful for clinical applications such as early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, we employed partial least square regression under cross-validation scheme to predict episodic memory performance from functional connectivity (FC) patterns in a set of fifty-five MCI subjects for whom rs-fMRI acquisition and neuropsychological evaluation was carried out...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812274/coupled-harmonic-bases-for-longitudinal-characterization-of-brain-networks
#16
Seong Jae Hwang, Nagesh Adluru, Maxwell D Collins, Sathya N Ravi, Barbara B Bendlin, Sterling C Johnson, Vikas Singh
There is a great deal of interest in using large scale brain imaging studies to understand how brain connectivity evolves over time for an individual and how it varies over different levels/quantiles of cognitive function. To do so, one typically performs so-called tractography procedures on diffusion MR brain images and derives measures of brain connectivity expressed as graphs. The nodes correspond to distinct brain regions and the edges encode the strength of the connection. The scientific interest is in characterizing the evolution of these graphs over time or from healthy individuals to diseased...
June 2016: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808095/integration-and-segregation-of-large-scale-brain-networks-during-short-term-task-automatization
#17
Holger Mohr, Uta Wolfensteller, Richard F Betzel, Bratislav Mišić, Olaf Sporns, Jonas Richiardi, Hannes Ruge
The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions...
November 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#18
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799057/integrative-network-analysis-of-nineteen-brain-regions-identifies-molecular-signatures-and-networks-underlying-selective-regional-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Minghui Wang, Panos Roussos, Andrew McKenzie, Xianxiao Zhou, Yuji Kajiwara, Kristen J Brennand, Gabriele C De Luca, John F Crary, Patrizia Casaccia, Joseph D Buxbaum, Michelle Ehrlich, Sam Gandy, Alison Goate, Pavel Katsel, Eric Schadt, Vahram Haroutunian, Bin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. However, despite extensive clinical and genomic studies, the molecular basis of AD development and progression remains elusive. METHODS: To elucidate molecular systems associated with AD, we developed a large scale gene expression dataset from 1053 postmortem brain samples across 19 cortical regions of 125 individuals with a severity spectrum of dementia and neuropathology of AD...
November 1, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791105/dynamic-brain-network-reconfiguration-as-a-potential-schizophrenia-genetic-risk-mechanism-modulated-by-nmda-receptor-function
#20
Urs Braun, Axel Schäfer, Danielle S Bassett, Franziska Rausch, Janina I Schweiger, Edda Bilek, Susanne Erk, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Oliver Grimm, Lena S Geiger, Leila Haddad, Kristina Otto, Sebastian Mohnke, Andreas Heinz, Mathias Zink, Henrik Walter, Emanuel Schwarz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a disorder of distributed neural dynamics, but the molecular and genetic contributions are poorly understood. Recent work highlights a role for altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling and related impairments in the excitation-inhibitory balance and synchrony of large-scale neural networks. Here, we combined a pharmacological intervention with novel techniques from dynamic network neuroscience applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify alterations in the dynamic reconfiguration of brain networks related to schizophrenia genetic risk and NMDA receptor hypofunction...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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