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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240833/vagal-nerve-stimulation-triggers-widespread-responses-and-alters-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-brain
#1
Jiayue Cao, Kun-Han Lu, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230808/dopamine-drives-left-hemispheric-lateralization-of-neural-networks-during-human-speech
#2
Stefan Fuertinger, Joel C Zinn, Ashwini D Sharan, Farid Hamzei-Sichani, Kristina Simonyan
Although the concept of left-hemispheric lateralization of neural processes during speech production has been known since the times of Broca, its physiological underpinnings still remain elusive. We sought to assess the modulatory influences of a major neurotransmitter, dopamine, on hemispheric lateralization during real-life speaking using a multimodal analysis of functional MRI, intracranial EEG recordings, and large-scale neural population simulations based on diffusion-weighted MRI. We demonstrate that speech-induced phasic dopamine release into the dorsal striatum and speech motor cortex exerts direct modulation of neuronal activity in these regions and drives left-hemispheric lateralization of speech production network...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230640/new-class-of-reduced-computationally-efficient-neuronal-models-for-large-scale-simulations-of-brain-dynamics
#3
Maxim Komarov, Giri Krishnan, Sylvain Chauvette, Nikolai Rulkov, Igor Timofeev, Maxim Bazhenov
During slow-wave sleep, brain electrical activity is dominated by the slow (< 1 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations characterized by the periodic transitions between active (or Up) and silent (or Down) states in the membrane voltage of the cortical and thalamic neurons. Sleep slow oscillation is believed to play critical role in consolidation of recent memories. Past computational studies, based on the Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal models, revealed possible intracellular and network mechanisms of the neuronal activity during sleep, however, they failed to explore the large-scale cortical network dynamics depending on collective behavior in the large populations of neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227798/histological-and-mri-markers-of-white-matter-damage-in-focal-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Deleo, Maria Thom, Luis Concha, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223681/language-processing-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-associated-with-unique-functional-connectivity-signatures-in-the-right-hemisphere
#5
Jie Zhuang, David J Madden, Xuan Duong-Fernandez, Nan-Kuei Chen, Scott W Cousins, Guy G Potter, Michele T Diaz, Heather E Whitson
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease associated with significant vision loss among older adults. Previous large-scale behavioral studies indicate that people with AMD are at increased risk of cognitive deficits in language processing, particularly in verbal fluency tasks. The neural underpinnings of any relationship between AMD and higher cognitive functions, such as language processing, remain unclear. This study aims to address this issue using independent component analysis of spontaneous brain activity at rest...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209195/the-patient-repository-for-eeg-data-computational-tools-pred-ct
#6
James F Cavanagh, Arthur Napolitano, Christopher Wu, Abdullah Mueen
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are thought to reflect the network-wide operations of canonical neural computations, making them a uniquely insightful measure of brain function. As evidence of these virtues, numerous candidate biomarkers of different psychiatric and neurological diseases have been advanced. Presumably, we would only need to apply powerful machine-learning methods to validate these ideas and provide novel clinical tools. Yet, the reality of this advancement is more complex: the scale of data required for robust and reliable identification of a clinical biomarker transcends the ability of any single laboratory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209184/dynamics-of-intersubject-brain-networks-during-anxious-anticipation
#7
Mahshid Najafi, Joshua Kinnison, Luiz Pessoa
How do large-scale brain networks reorganize during the waxing and waning of anxious anticipation? Here, threat was dynamically modulated during human functional MRI as two circles slowly meandered on the screen; if they touched, an unpleasant shock was delivered. We employed intersubject correlation analysis, which allowed the investigation of network-level functional connectivity across brains, and sought to determine how network connectivity changed during periods of approach (circles moving closer) and periods of retreat (circles moving apart)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198443/how-the-human-brain-introspects-about-one-s-own-episodes-of-cognitive-control
#8
David Soto, Mona Theodoraki, Pedro M Paz-Alonso
Metacognition refers to our capacity to reflect upon our experiences, thoughts and actions. Metacognition processes are linked to cognitive control functions that allow keeping our actions on-task. But it is unclear how the human brain builds an internal model of one's cognition and behaviour. We conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments in which brain activity was recorded 'online' as participants engaged in a memory-guided search task and then later 'offline' when participants introspected about their prior experience and cognitive states during performance...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196270/eeg-microstates-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-temporal-dynamics-of-whole-brain-neuronal-networks-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Christoph M Michel, Thomas Koenig
The present review discusses a well-established method for characterizing resting-state activity of the human brain using multichannel electroencephalography (EEG). This method involves the examination of electrical microstates in the brain, which are defined as successive short time periods during which the configuration of the scalp potential field remains semi-stable, suggesting quasi-simultaneity of activity among the nodes of large-scale networks. A few prototypic microstates, which occur in a repetitive sequence across time, can be reliably identified across participants...
November 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194517/a-switch-and-wave-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-cerebral-cortex-during-the-first-second-of-conscious-perception
#10
Wendy X Herman, Rachel E Smith, Sharif I Kronemer, Rebecca E Watsky, William C Chen, Leah M Gober, George J Touloumes, Meenakshi Khosla, Anusha Raja, Corey L Horien, Elliot C Morse, Katherine L Botta, Lawrence J Hirsch, Rafeed Alkawadri, Jason L Gerrard, Dennis D Spencer, Hal Blumenfeld
Conscious perception occurs within less than 1 s. To study events on this time scale we used direct electrical recordings from the human cerebral cortex during a conscious visual perception task. Faces were presented at individually titrated visual threshold for 9 subjects while measuring broadband 40-115 Hz gamma power in a total of 1621 intracranial electrodes widely distributed in both hemispheres. Surface maps and k-means clustering analysis showed initial activation of visual cortex for both perceived and non-perceived stimuli...
November 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193146/control-networks-and-hubs
#11
Caterina Gratton, Haoxin Sun, Steven E Petersen
Executive control functions are associated with frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular brain regions that interact through distributed large-scale networks. Here, we discuss how fMRI functional connectivity can shed light on the organization of control networks and how they interact with other parts of the brain. In the first section of our review, we present convergent evidence from fMRI functional connectivity, activation, and lesion studies that there are multiple dissociable control networks in the brain with distinct functional properties...
November 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190336/slow-waves-in-cortical-slices-how-spontaneous-activity-is-shaped-by-laminar-structure
#12
Cristiano Capone, Beatriz Rebollo, Alberto Muñoz, Xavi Illa, Paolo Del Giudice, Maria V Sanchez-Vives, Maurizio Mattia
Cortical slow oscillations (SO) of neural activity spontaneously emerge and propagate during deep sleep and anesthesia and are also expressed in isolated brain slices and cortical slabs. We lack full understanding of how SO integrate the different structural levels underlying local excitability of cell assemblies and their mutual interaction. Here, we focus on ongoing slow waves (SWs) in cortical slices reconstructed from a 16-electrode array designed to probe the neuronal activity at multiple spatial scales...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190330/human-cortical-thickness-organized-into-genetically-determined-communities-across-spatial-resolutions
#13
Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Samuel R Mathias, Peter T Fox, Rene L Olvera, Harold H H Göring, Ravi Duggirala, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, David C Glahn
The cerebral cortex may be organized into anatomical genetic modules, communities of brain regions with shared genetic influences via pleiotropy. Such modules could represent novel phenotypes amenable to large-scale gene discovery. This modular structure was investigated with network analysis of in vivo MRI of extended pedigrees, revealing a "multiscale" structure where smaller and larger modules exist simultaneously and in partially overlapping fashion across spatial scales, in contrast to prior work suggesting a specific number of cortical thickness modules...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189299/global-orientation-in-space-and-the-lateralization-of-brain-functions
#14
Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The functional role of the vestibular system for multisensory orientation and sensorimotor control is reviewed with a special focus on hemispherical lateralization and its consequences for neurological disorders of higher cortical function. RECENT FINDINGS: The peripheral and central vestibular systems are bilaterally organized with ipsilateral and contralateral ascending pathways and two multisensory cortical networks in the right and left hemisphere...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186680/astrocytic-l-lactate-signaling-facilitates-amygdala-anterior-cingulate-cortex-synchrony-and-decision-making-in-rats
#15
Jun Wang, Jie Tu, Bing Cao, Li Mu, Xiangwei Yang, Mi Cong, Aruna S Ramkrishnan, Rosa H M Chan, Liping Wang, Ying Li
Human brain imaging studies have revealed the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a key brain region for mediating visceral-pain-cognitive interactions. Recently, we characterized impairments of long-term potentiation and spike-field coherence in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-ACC network in association with a decision-making deficit in rats with visceral hypersensitivity (VH). Now, by combining integrative neurobiological approaches, we show that ACC-reactive astrogliosis and activity-dependent impairment of lactate release occur in VH rats...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186356/altered-caudate-connectivity-is-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Sara De Simoni, Peter O Jenkins, Niall J Bourke, Jessica J Fleminger, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, Maneesh C Patel, James H Cole, Robert Leech, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated...
November 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175610/large-scale-coupling-dynamics-of-instructed-reversal-learning
#17
Holger Mohr, Uta Wolfensteller, Hannes Ruge
The ability to rapidly learn from others by instruction is an important characteristic of human cognition. A recent study found that the rapid transfer from initial instructions to fluid behavior is supported by changes of functional connectivity between and within several large-scale brain networks, and particularly by the coupling of the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the cingulo-opercular network (CON). In the present study, we extended this approach to investigate how these brain networks interact when stimulus-response mappings are altered by novel instructions...
November 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175200/quasi-periodic-patterns-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-individuals-and-their-relationship-to-global-signal
#18
Behnaz Yousefi, Jaemin Shin, Eric H Schumacher, Shella D Keilholz
Quasiperiodic patterns (QPPs) as reported by Majeed et al., 2011 are prominent features of the brain's intrinsic activity that involve important large-scale networks (default mode, DMN; task positive, TPN) and are likely to be major contributors to widely used measures of functional connectivity. We examined the variability of these patterns in 470 individuals from the Human Connectome Project resting state functional MRI dataset. The QPPs from individuals can be coarsely categorized into two types: one where strong anti-correlation between the DMN and TPN is present, and another where most areas are strongly correlated...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172091/neural-mechanisms-of-movement-planning-motor-cortex-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Karel Svoboda, Nuo Li
Neurons in motor cortex and connected brain regions fire in anticipation of specific movements, long before movement occurs. This neural activity reflects internal processes by which the brain plans and executes volitional movements. The study of motor planning offers an opportunity to understand how the structure and dynamics of neural circuits support persistent internal states and how these states influence behavior. Recent advances in large-scale neural recordings are beginning to decipher the relationship of the dynamics of populations of neurons during motor planning and movements...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167592/using-large-scale-granger-causality-to-study-changes-in-brain-network-properties-in-the-clinically-isolated-syndrome-cis-stage-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Anas Z Abidin, Udaysankar Chockanathan, Adora M DSouza, Matilde Inglese, Axel Wismüller
Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) is often considered to be the first neurological episode associated with Multiple sclerosis (MS). At an early stage the inflammatory demyelination occurring in the CNS can manifest as a change in neuronal metabolism, with multiple asymptomatic white matter lesions detected in clinical MRI. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain networks, which can be captured by advanced functional MRI (fMRI) analysis techniques. We test this hypothesis by capturing the effective relationships of 90 brain regions, defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas, using a large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) framework...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
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