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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024221/dendrites-deep-learning-and-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Upinder S Bhalla
The hippocampus places us both in time and space. It does so over remarkably large spans: milliseconds to years, and centimeters to kilometers. This works for sensory representations, for memory, and for behavioral context. How does it fit in such wide ranges of time and space scales, and keep order among the many dimensions of stimulus context? A key organizing principle for a wide sweep of scales and stimulus dimensions is that of order in time, or sequences. Sequences of neuronal activity are ubiquitous in sensory processing, in motor control, in planning actions, and in memory...
October 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020746/proteomic-landscape-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-upon-sensory-deprivation
#2
Koen Kole, Rik G H Lindeboom, Marijke P A Baltissen, Pascal W T C Jansen, Michiel Vermeulen, Paul Tiesinga, Tansu Celikel
Experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) powerfully shapes neural circuits by inducing long-lasting molecular changes in the brain. Molecular mechanisms of EDP have been traditionally studied by identifying single or small subsets of targets along the biochemical pathways that link synaptic receptors to nuclear processes. Recent technological advances in large-scale analysis of gene transcription and translation now allow systematic observation of thousands of molecules simultaneously. Here we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to address experience-dependent changes in the proteome after sensory deprivation of the primary somatosensory cortex...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988134/dynamics-of-large-scale-electrophysiological-networks-a-technical-review
#3
REVIEW
George C O'Neill, Prejaas Tewarie, Diego Vidaurre, Lucrezia Liuzzi, Mark W Woolrich, Matthew J Brookes
For several years it has been argued that neural synchronisation is crucial for cognition. The idea that synchronised temporal patterns between different neural groups carries information above and beyond the isolated activity of these groups has inspired a shift in focus in the field of functional neuroimaging. Specifically, investigation into the activation elicited within certain regions by some stimulus or task has, in part, given way to analysis of patterns of co-activation or functional connectivity between distal regions...
October 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986564/dynamics-of-functional-connectivity-at-high-spatial-resolution-reveal-long-range-interactions-and-fine-scale-organization
#4
Maria Giulia Preti, Dimitri Van De Ville
Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging sheds light onto moment-to-moment reconfigurations of large-scale functional brain networks. Due to computational limits, connectivity is typically computed using pre-defined atlases, a non-trivial choice that might influence results. Here, we leverage new computational methods to retrieve dFC at the voxel level in terms of dominant patterns of fluctuations, and demonstrate that this new representation is informative to derive meaningful brain parcellations, capturing both long-range interactions and fine-scale local organization...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985695/techniques-of-neutralization-a-brain-network-perspective
#5
Paul B Jantz, Richard H Morley
Sykes and Matza introduced neutralization theory in 1957 to explain how juvenile delinquents retain a positive self-image when engaging in delinquent acts. Since then, aspects of neutralization theory have been incorporated into sociological and criminological theories to explain socially deviant behavior. Functional brain mapping research utilizing advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques has identified complex, intrinsically organized, large-scale brain networks. Higher order operations commonly attributed to three brain networks (default mode network [DMN], central executive network [CEN], salience network [SN]) align closely with neutralization theory...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981613/-wrong-way-up-temporal-and-spatial-dynamics-of-the-networks-for-body-motion-processing-at-9-4-t
#6
Marina A Pavlova, Michael Erb, Gisela E Hagberg, Joana Loureiro, Alexander N Sokolov, Klaus Scheffler
Body motion delivers a wealth of socially relevant information. Yet display inversion severely impedes biological motion (BM) processing. It is largely unknown how the brain circuits for BM are affected by display inversion. As upright and upside-down point-light BM displays are similar, we addressed this issue by using ultrahigh field functional MRI at 9.4 T providing for high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Whole-brain analysis along with exploration of the temporal dynamics of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent response reveals that in the left hemisphere, inverted BM activates anterior networks likely engaged in decision making and cognitive control, whereas readily recognizable upright BM activates posterior areas solely...
July 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981593/a-new-modular-brain-organization-of-the-bold-signal-during-natural-vision
#7
DoHyun Kim, Kendrick Kay, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The resting blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal is synchronized in large-scale brain networks (resting-state networks, RSNs) defined by interregional temporal correlations (functional connectivity, FC). RSNs are thought to place strong constraints on task-evoked processing since they largely match the networks observed during task performance. However, this result may simply reflect the presence of spontaneous activity during both rest and task. Here, we examined the BOLD network structure of natural vision, as simulated by viewing of movies, using procedures that minimized the contribution of spontaneous activity...
July 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981433/continuous-dropout
#8
Xu Shen, Xinmei Tian, Tongliang Liu, Fang Xu, Dacheng Tao
Dropout has been proven to be an effective algorithm for training robust deep networks because of its ability to prevent overfitting by avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors. Current explanations of dropout include bagging, naive Bayes, regularization, and sex in evolution. According to the activation patterns of neurons in the human brain, when faced with different situations, the firing rates of neurons are random and continuous, not binary as current dropout does. Inspired by this phenomenon, we extend the traditional binary dropout to continuous dropout...
October 3, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968758/large-scale-meta-analysis-suggests-low-regional-modularity-in-lateral-frontal-cortex
#9
Alejandro de la Vega, Tal Yarkoni, Tor D Wager, Marie T Banich
Extensive fMRI study of human lateral frontal cortex (LFC) has yet to yield a consensus mapping between discrete anatomy and psychological states, partly due to the difficulty of inferring mental states from brain activity. Despite this, there have been few large-scale efforts to map the full range of psychological states across the entirety of LFC. Here, we used a data-driven approach to generate a comprehensive functional-anatomical mapping of LFC from 11 406 neuroimaging studies. We identified putatively separable LFC regions on the basis of whole-brain co-activation, revealing 14 clusters organized into 3 whole-brain networks...
September 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968198/mindfulness-based-treatments-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-of-the-treatment-literature-and-neurobiological-evidence
#10
Jenna E Boyd, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have emerged as promising adjunctive or alternative intervention approaches. A scoping review of the literature on PTSD treatment studies, including approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and metta mindfulness, reveals low attrition with medium to large effect sizes. We review the convergence between neurobiological models of PTSD and neuroimaging findings in the mindfulness literature, where mindfulness interventions may target emotional under- and overmodulation, both of which are critical features of PTSD symptomatology...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967386/structural-neuroimaging-of-anorexia-nervosa-future-directions-in-the-quest-for-mechanisms-underlying-dynamic-alterations
#11
REVIEW
Joseph A King, Guido K W Frank, Paul M Thompson, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and extreme weight loss. Pseudoatrophic brain changes are often readily visible in individual brain scans, and AN may be a valuable model disorder to study structural neuroplasticity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have found reduced gray matter volume and cortical thinning in acutely underweight patients to normalize following successful treatment. However, some well-controlled studies have found regionally greater gray matter and persistence of structural alterations following long-term recovery...
August 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966571/cross-talk-the-microbiota-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
John R Kelly, Chiara Minuto, John F Cryan, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
Humans evolved within a microbial ecosystem resulting in an interlinked physiology. The gut microbiota can signal to the brain via the immune system, the vagus nerve or other host-microbe interactions facilitated by gut hormones, regulation of tryptophan metabolism and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), to influence brain development, function and behavior. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may play a role in shaping cognitive networks encompassing emotional and social domains in neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960669/large-scale-network-functional-interactions-during-distraction-and-reappraisal-in-remitted-bipolar-and-unipolar-patients
#13
Giannis Lois, Martin F Gerchen, Peter Kirsch, Philipp Kanske, Sandra Schönfelder, Michèle Wessa
OBJECTIVES: The human brain is organized into large-scale networks that dynamically interact with each other. Extensive evidence has shown characteristic changes in certain large-scale networks during transitions from internally directed to externally directed attention. The aim of the present study was to compare these context-dependent network interactions during emotion regulation and to examine potential alterations in remitted unipolar and bipolar disorder patients. METHODS: We employed a multi-region generalized psychophysiological interactions analysis to quantify connectivity changes during distraction vs reappraisal pair-wise across 90 regions placed throughout the four networks of interest (default-mode, frontoparietal, salience, and dorsal attention networks)...
September 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951453/weak-higher-order-interactions-in-macroscopic-functional-networks-of-the-resting-brain
#14
Xuhui Huang, Kaibin Xu, Congying Chu, Tianzi Jiang, Shan Yu
Interactions among different brain regions are usually examined through functional connectivity (FC) analysis, which is exclusively based on measuring pairwise correlations in activities. However, interactions beyond the pairwise level, i.e., higher-order interactions (HOIs), are vital in understanding the behavior of many complex systems. So far whether HOIs exist among brain regions and how they can affect brain's activities remain largely elusive. To address these issues, here we analyzed blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded from six typical macroscopic functional networks of the brain in 100 human subjects (46 males and 54 females) during the resting state...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951163/dynamic-changes-in-large-scale-functional-network-organization-during-autobiographical-memory-retrieval
#15
Cory S Inman, G Andrew James, Katherine Vytal, Stephan Hamann
Autobiographical memory (AM), episodic memory for life events, involves the orchestration of multiple dynamic cognitive processes, including memory access and subsequent elaboration. Previous neuroimaging studies have contrasted memory access and elaboration processes in terms of regional brain activation and connectivity within large, multi-region networks. Although interactions between key memory-related regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to play an important role in AM retrieval, it remains unclear how such connectivity between specific, individual regions involved in AM retrieval changes dynamically across the retrieval process and how these changes relate to broader memory networks throughout the whole brain...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949288/disrupted-coupling-of-large-scale-networks-is-associated-with-relapse-behaviour-in-heroin-dependent-men
#16
Qiang Li, Jierong Liu, Wei Wang, Yarong Wang, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Xuejiao Yan, Yongbin Li, Zhe Li, Jianjun Ye, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949286/altered-intrinsic-functional-brain-architecture-in-female-patients-with-bulimia-nervosa
#17
Li Wang, Qing-Mei Kong, Ke Li, Xue-Ni Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Chao Chen, Ying Qian, Shi-Jie Feng, Ji-Tao Li, Yun'Ai Su, Christoph U Correll, Philip B Mitchell, Chao-Gan Yan, Da-Rong Zhang, Tian-Mei Si
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis. Neural systems involved in sensorimotor and visual processing, reward and impulsive control may contribute to the binge eating and purging behaviours characterizing bulimia nervosa. However, little is known about the alterations of functional organization of whole brain networks in individuals with this disorder. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to characterize functional brain networks of unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949049/intrinsic-brain-connectivity-predicts-impulse-control-disorders-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Alessandro Tessitore, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Federica di Nardo, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Mattia Siciliano, Manuela De Stefano, Antonio Russo, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi
BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders can be triggered by dopamine replacement therapies in patients with PD. Using resting-state functional MRI, we investigated the intrinsic brain network connectivity at baseline in a cohort of drug-naive PD patients who successively developed impulse control disorders over a 36-month follow-up period compared with patients who did not. METHODS: Baseline 3-Tesla MRI images of 30 drug-naive PD patients and 20 matched healthy controls were analyzed...
September 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947574/spatial-structure-of-synchronized-inhibition-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#19
Hannah A Arnson, Ben W Strowbridge
Olfactory sensory input is detected by receptor neurons in the nose which then send information to the olfactory bulb, the first brain region for processing olfactory information. Within the olfactory bulb, many local circuit interneurons, including axonless granule cells, function to facilitate fine odor discrimination. How interneurons interact with principal cells to affect bulbar processing is not known though the mechanism is likely to be different than in sensory cortical regions since the olfactory bulb lacks an obvious topographical organization; neighboring glomerular columns, representing inputs from different receptor neuron subtypes, typically have different odor tuning...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945590/interactions-between-large-scale-functional-brain-networks-are-captured-by-sparse-coupled-hmms
#20
Thomas Aw Bolton, Anjali Tarun, Virginie Sterpenich, Sophie Schwartz, Dimitri Van De Ville
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a window on the human brain at work. Spontaneous brain activity measured during resting-state has already provided many insights into brain function. In particular, recent interest in dynamic interactions between brain regions has increased the need for more advanced modeling tools. Here, we deploy a recent fMRI deconvolution technique to express resting-state temporal fluctuations as a combination of large-scale functional network activity profiles. Then, building upon a novel sparse coupled hidden Markov model (SCHMM) framework, we parameterised their temporal evolution as a mix between intrinsic dynamics, and a restricted set of cross-network modulatory couplings extracted in data-driven manner...
September 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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