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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#1
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642578/human-endothelial-cells-secrete-neurotropic-factors-to-direct-axonal-growth-of-peripheral-nerves
#2
Jonathan M Grasman, David L Kaplan
Understanding how nerves spontaneously innervate tissues or regenerate small injuries is critical to enhance material-based interventions to regenerate large scale, traumatic injuries. During embryogenesis, neural and vascular tissues form interconnected, complex networks as a result of signaling between these tissue types. Here, we report that human endothelial cells (HUVECs) secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which significantly stimulated axonal growth from chicken or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642124/identification-of-genetic-variants-associated-with-huntington-s-disease-progression-a-genome-wide-association-study
#3
Davina J Hensman Moss, Antonio F PardiƱas, Douglas Langbehn, Kitty Lo, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund Roos, Alexandra Durr, Simon Mead, Peter Holmans, Lesley Jones, Sarah J Tabrizi
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, HTT. Age at onset has been used as a quantitative phenotype in genetic analysis looking for Huntington's disease modifiers, but is hard to define and not always available. Therefore, we aimed to generate a novel measure of disease progression and to identify genetic markers associated with this progression measure. METHODS: We generated a progression score on the basis of principal component analysis of prospectively acquired longitudinal changes in motor, cognitive, and imaging measures in the 218 indivduals in the TRACK-HD cohort of Huntington's disease gene mutation carriers (data collected 2008-11)...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641247/modeling-task-fmri-data-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#4
Heng Huang, Xintao Hu, Yu Zhao, Milad Makkie, Qinglin Dong, Shijie Zhao, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to study functional brain networks under task performance. Modeling tfMRI data is challenging due to at least two problems: the lack of the ground truth of underlying neural activity and the highly complex intrinsic structure of tfMRI data. To better understand brain networks based on fMRI data, data-driven approaches have been proposed, for instance, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Dictionary Learning (SDL). However, both ICA and SDL only build shallow models, and they are under the strong assumption that original fMRI signal could be linearly decomposed into time series components with their corresponding spatial maps...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#5
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634467/brain-network-activation-technology-does-not-assist-with-concussion-diagnosis-and-return-to-play-in-football-athletes
#6
Steven P Broglio, Richelle Williams, Andrew Lapointe, Ashley Rettmann, Brandon Moore, Sean K Meehan, James T Eckner
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis and management remains a largely subjective process. This investigation sought to evaluate the utility of a novel neuroelectric measure for concussion diagnosis and return to play decision-making. HYPOTHESIS: Brain Network Activation (BNA) scores obtained within 72-h of injury will be lower than the athlete's preseason evaluation and that of a matched control athlete; and the BNA will demonstrate ongoing declines at the return to play and post-season time points, while standard measures will have returned to pre-injury and control athlete levels...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#7
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631281/detecting-large-scale-networks-in-the-human-brain-using-high-density-electroencephalography
#8
Quanying Liu, Seyedehrezvan Farahibozorg, Camillo Porcaro, Nicole Wenderoth, Dante Mantini
High-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) is an emerging brain imaging technique that can be used to investigate fast dynamics of electrical activity in the healthy and the diseased human brain. Its applications are however currently limited by a number of methodological issues, among which the difficulty in obtaining accurate source localizations. In particular, these issues have so far prevented EEG studies from reporting brain networks similar to those previously detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630662/sex-differences-in-endogenous-cortical-network-activity-spontaneously-recurring-up-down-states
#9
Charalambos Sigalas, Eleni Konsolaki, Irini Skaliora
BACKGROUND: Several molecular and cellular processes in the vertebrate brain exhibit differences between males and females, leading to sexual dimorphism in the formation of neural circuits and brain organization. While studies on large-scale brain networks provide ample evidence for both structural and functional sex differences, smaller-scale local networks have remained largely unexplored. In the current study, we investigate sexual dimorphism in cortical dynamics by means of spontaneous Up/Down states, a type of network activity that is exhibited during slow-wave sleep, quiet wakefulness, and anesthesia and is thought to represent the default activity of the cortex...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622528/band-specific-atypical-functional-connectivity-pattern-in-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Tetsuya Takahashi, Teruya Yamanishi, Sou Nobukawa, Shinya Kasakawa, Yuko Yoshimura, Hirotoshi Hiraishi, Chiaki Hasegawa, Takashi Ikeda, Tetsu Hirosawa, Toshio Munesue, Haruhiro Higashida, Yoshio Minabe, Mitsuru Kikuchi
OBJECTIVE: Altered brain connectivity has been theorized as a key neural underpinning of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but recent investigations have revealed conflicting patterns of connectivity, particularly hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity across age groups. The application of graph theory to neuroimaging data has become an effective approach for characterizing topographical patterns of large-scale functional networks. We used a graph approach to investigate alteration of functional networks in childhood ASD...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620239/shared-and-specific-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-unmedicated-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Ying Wang, Junjing Wang, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Meiqi Niu, Yao Sun, Zhangzhang Qi, Ling Zhao, Li Huang, Ruiwang Huang
Identifying brain differences and similarities between bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is necessary for increasing our understanding of the pathophysiology and for developing more effective treatments. However, the features of whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity underlying BD and MDD have not been directly compared. We collected resting-state fMRI data from 48 BD patients, 48 MDD patients, and 51 healthy subjects. We constructed voxel-wise whole-brain functional networks and computed regional functional connectivity strength (FCS) using graph-theory and further divided the regional FCS into long-range FCS (lFCS) and short-range FCS (sFCS)...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619656/the-large-scale-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-consciousness-and-arousal-during-the-healthy-and-pathological-human-sleep-cycle
#12
REVIEW
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Eus J W van Someren
Advances in neuroimaging have greatly improved our understanding of human sleep from a systems neuroscience perspective. However, cognition and awareness are reduced during sleep, hindering the applicability of standard task-based paradigms. Methods recently developed to study spontaneous brain activity fluctuations have proven useful to overcome this limitation. In this review, we focus on the concept of functional connectivity (FC, i.e. statistical covariance between brain activity signals) and its application to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during sleep...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616384/comparison-of-large-scale-human-brain-functional-and-anatomical-networks-in-schizophrenia
#13
Brent G Nelson, Danielle S Bassett, Jazmin Camchong, Edward T Bullmore, Kelvin O Lim
Schizophrenia is a disease with disruptions in thought, emotion, and behavior. The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests these disruptions are due to aberrant brain connectivity. Many studies have identified connectivity differences but few have been able to unify gray and white matter findings into one model. Here we develop an extension of the Network-Based Statistic (NBS) called NBSm (Multimodal Network-based statistic) to compare functional and anatomical networks in schizophrenia. Structural, resting functional, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 29 chronic patients with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608643/spontaneous-activity-in-the-visual-cortex-is-organized-by-visual-streams
#14
Kun-Han Lu, Jun Young Jeong, Haiguang Wen, Zhongming Liu
Large-scale functional networks have been extensively studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the pattern, organization, and function of fine-scale network activity remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the spontaneously emerging visual cortical activity by applying independent component (IC) analysis to resting state fMRI signals exclusively within the visual cortex. In this subsystem scale, we observed about 50 spatially ICs that were reproducible within and across subjects, and analyzed their spatial patterns and temporal relationships to reveal the intrinsic parcellation and organization of the visual cortex...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604153/modified-structural-network-backbone-in-the-contralesional-hemisphere-chronically-after-stroke-in-rat-brain
#15
Michel Rt Sinke, Willem M Otte, Maurits Pa van Meer, Annette van der Toorn, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Functional outcome after stroke depends on the local site of ischemic injury and on remote effects within connected networks, frequently extending into the contralesional hemisphere. However, the pattern of large-scale contralesional network remodeling remains largely unresolved. In this study, we applied diffusion-based tractography and graph-based network analysis to measure structural connectivity in the contralesional hemisphere chronically after experimental stroke in rats. We used the minimum spanning tree method, which accounts for variations in network density, for unbiased characterization of network backbones that form the strongest connections in a network...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603665/putative-brain-networks-underlying-repetitive-negative-thinking-and-comorbid-internalizing-problems-in-autism
#16
Catherine A Burrows, Kiara R Timpano, Lucina Q Uddin
Many high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also experience depression and anxiety, yet little is known about mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) about self-referential information is a transdiagnostic cognitive vulnerability factor that may account for the relationship between these two classes of symptoms. We propose a model where self-referential processing and cognitive inflexibility interact to increase risk for RNT, leading to internalizing problems in ASD...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597338/joint-representation-of-consistent-structural-and-functional-profiles-for-identification-of-common-cortical-landmarks
#17
Shu Zhang, Yu Zhao, Xi Jiang, Dinggang Shen, Tianming Liu
In the brain mapping field, there have been significant interests in representation of structural/functional profiles to establish structural/functional landmark correspondences across individuals and populations. For example, from the structural perspective, our previous studies have identified hundreds of consistent DICCCOL (dense individualized and common connectivity-based cortical landmarks) landmarks across individuals and populations, each of which possess consistent DTI-derived fiber connection patterns...
June 8, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596608/the-dynamics-of-resting-fluctuations-in-the-brain-metastability-and-its-dynamical-cortical-core
#18
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Viktor K Jirsa, Petra Ritter
In the human brain, spontaneous activity during resting state consists of rapid transitions between functional network states over time but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We use connectome based computational brain network modeling to reveal fundamental principles of how the human brain generates large-scale activity observable by noninvasive neuroimaging. We used structural and functional neuroimaging data to construct whole- brain models. With this novel approach, we reveal that the human brain during resting state operates at maximum metastability, i...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595456/altered-brain-wiring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-structural-connectome-based-analysis
#19
Apurva K Shah, Abhishek Lenka, Jitender Saini, Shivali Wagle, Rajini M Naduthota, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Pal, Madhura A Ingalhalikar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuro-degenerative disorder, which predominantly affects the motor system. Diffusion MRI has demonstrated deficits in anisotropy as well as increased diffusivity in the sub-cortical structures, primarily in the substantia nigra in PD. However, the clinical spectrum of PD is not limited to motor symptoms, rather it encompasses several non-motor symptoms such as depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment. These non-motor symptoms underscore PD as a complex neurological disorder arising from dysfunction of several network components...
June 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595050/inference-in-the-brain-statistics-flowing-in-redundant-population-codes
#20
REVIEW
Xaq Pitkow, Dora E Angelaki
It is widely believed that the brain performs approximate probabilistic inference to estimate causal variables in the world from ambiguous sensory data. To understand these computations, we need to analyze how information is represented and transformed by the actions of nonlinear recurrent neural networks. We propose that these probabilistic computations function by a message-passing algorithm operating at the level of redundant neural populations. To explain this framework, we review its underlying concepts, including graphical models, sufficient statistics, and message-passing, and then describe how these concepts could be implemented by recurrently connected probabilistic population codes...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
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