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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649562/carrying-the-past-to-the-future-distinct-brain-networks-underlie-individual-differences-in-human-spatial-working-memory-capacity
#1
Siwei Liu, Jia-Hou Poh, Huili Koh, Eric Kwun-Kei Ng, Yng Miin Loke, Joseph Kai Wei Lim, Joanna Su Xian Chong, Juan Zhou
Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels...
April 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642483/drawing-inspiration-from-human-brain-networks-construction-of-interconnected-virtual-networks
#2
Masaya Murakami, Daichi Kominami, Kenji Leibnitz, Masayuki Murata
Virtualization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is widely considered as a foundational block of edge/fog computing, which is a key technology that can help realize next-generation Internet of things (IoT) networks. In such scenarios, multiple IoT devices and service modules will be virtually deployed and interconnected over the Internet. Moreover, application services are expected to be more sophisticated and complex, thereby increasing the number of modifications required for the construction of network topologies...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628873/combined-rtms-fmri-studies-an-overlooked-resource-in-animal-models
#3
REVIEW
Bhedita J Seewoo, Sarah J Etherington, Kirk W Feindel, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, which has brain network-level effects in healthy individuals and is also used to treat many neurological and psychiatric conditions in which brain connectivity is believed to be abnormal. Despite the fact that rTMS is being used in a clinical setting and animal studies are increasingly identifying potential cellular and molecular mechanisms, little is known about how these mechanisms relate to clinical changes. This knowledge gap is amplified by non-overlapping approaches used in preclinical and clinical rTMS studies: preclinical studies are mostly invasive, using cellular and molecular approaches, while clinical studies are non-invasive, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), TMS electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and behavioral measures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626649/random-forest-based-classification-of-alcohol-dependence-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-resting-state-mri
#4
Xi Zhu, Xiaofei Du, Mike Kerich, Falk W Lohoff, Reza Momenan
Currently, classification of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is made on clinical grounds; however, robust evidence shows that chronic alcohol use leads to neurochemical and neurocircuitry adaptations. Identifications of the neuronal networks that are affected by alcohol would provide a more systematic way of diagnosis and provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of AUD. In this study, we identified network-level brain features of AUD, and further quantified resting-state within-network, and between-network connectivity features in a multivariate fashion that are classifying AUD, thus providing additional information about how each network contributes to alcoholism...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616472/risk-seeking-for-losses-modulates-the-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-and-left-frontoparietal-networks-in-young-males
#5
Yacila I Deza Araujo, Stephan Nebe, Philipp T Neukam, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
Value-based decision making (VBDM) is a principle that states that humans and other species adapt their behavior according to the dynamic subjective values of the chosen or unchosen options. The neural bases of this process have been extensively investigated using task-based fMRI and lesion studies. However, the growing field of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) may shed light on the organization and function of brain connections across different decision-making domains. With this aim, we used independent component analysis to study the brain network dynamics in a large cohort of young males (N = 145) and the relationship of these dynamics with VBDM...
April 3, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615882/multivariate-pattern-classification-of-facial-expressions-based-on-large-scale-functional-connectivity
#6
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang
It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610078/estimating-dynamic-connectivity-states-in-fmri-using-regime-switching-factor-models
#7
Chee-Ming Ting, Hernando Ombao, S Balqis Samdin, Sh-Hussain Salleh
We consider the challenges in estimating the state-related changes in brain connectivity networks with a large number of nodes. Existing studies use the sliding-window analysis or time-varying coefficient models, which are unable to capture both smooth and abrupt changes simultaneously, and rely on ad-hoc approaches to the high-dimensional estimation. To overcome these limitations, we propose a Markov-switching dynamic factor model, which allows the dynamic connectivity states in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to be driven by lower-dimensional latent factors...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608677/regional-gaba-concentrations-modulate-inter-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Xi Chen, Xiaoying Fan, Yuzheng Hu, Chun Zuo, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Daphne Holt, Qiyong Gong, Yihong Yang, Diego A Pizzagalli, Fei Du, Dost Ongur
Coordinated activity within and differential activity between large-scale neuronal networks such as the default mode network (DMN) and the control network (CN) is a critical feature of brain organization. The CN usually exhibits activations in response to cognitive tasks while the DMN shows deactivations; in addition, activity between the two networks is anti-correlated at rest. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to measure whole-brain BOLD signal during resting-state and task-evoked conditions, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA and glutamate concentrations, in nodes within the DMN and CN (MPFC and DLPFC, respectively) in 19 healthy individuals at 3 Tesla...
March 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599728/altered-resting-state-effective-connectivity-of-anterior-insula-in-depression
#9
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Stefan Kostianev, Karsten Specht
Depression has been associated with changes in both functional and effective connectivity of large scale brain networks, including the default mode network, executive network, and salience network. However, studies of effective connectivity by means of spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) are still rare and the interaction between the different resting state networks has not been investigated in detail. Thus, we aimed at exploring differences in effective connectivity among eight right hemisphere brain areas-anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), frontal eye field, anterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus, between a group of healthy controls ( N  = 20) and medicated depressed patients ( N  = 20)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593519/evolving-simple-models-of-diverse-intrinsic-dynamics-in-hippocampal-neuron-types
#10
Siva Venkadesh, Alexander O Komendantov, Stanislav Listopad, Eric O Scott, Kenneth De Jong, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Giorgio A Ascoli
The diversity of intrinsic dynamics observed in neurons may enhance the computations implemented in the circuit by enriching network-level emergent properties such as synchronization and phase locking. Large-scale spiking network models of entire brain regions offer a platform to test theories of neural computation and cognitive function, providing useful insights on information processing in the nervous system. However, a systematic in-depth investigation requires network simulations to capture the biological intrinsic diversity of individual neurons at a sufficient level of accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577862/increased-arterial-stiffness-is-associated-with-poor-collaterals-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-from-large-vessel-occlusion
#11
Maurizio Acampa, Daniele Giuseppe Romano, Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Sara Leonini, Francesca Guideri, Rossana Tassi, Tommaso Casseri, Sandra Bracco, Giuseppe Martini
BACKGROUND: Cerebral collateral circulation is a network of arterial anastomotic channels capable of providing supplementary perfusion to brain regions in response to ischemic insults. Arterial stiffness could negatively affect collateral circulation development, by means of its effects on structural intracerebral vasculature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to investigate a possible link between arterial stiffness and presence of collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
March 25, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574197/working-memory-training-mostly-engages-general-purpose-large-scale-networks-for-learning
#12
REVIEW
Juha Salmi, Lars Nyberg, Matti Laine
The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569047/alterations-in-resting-state-gamma-activity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-density-eeg-study
#13
Máté Baradits, Brigitta Kakuszi, Sára Bálint, Máté Fullajtár, László Mód, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
Alterations of EEG gamma activity in schizophrenia have been reported during sensory and cognitive tasks, but it remains unclear whether changes are present in resting state. Our aim was to examine whether changes occur in resting state, and to delineate those brain regions where gamma activity is altered. Furthermore, we wanted to identify the associations between changes in gamma activity and psychopathological characteristics. We studied gamma activity (30-48 Hz) in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls...
March 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568689/both-activated-and-less-activated-regions-identified-by-functional-mri-reconfigure-to-support-task-executions
#14
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Introduction: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become very important for noninvasively characterizing BOLD signal fluctuations, which reflect the changes in neuronal firings in the brain. Unlike the activation detection strategy utilized with fMRI, which only emphasizes the synchronicity between the functional nodes (activated regions) and the task design, brain connectivity and network theory are able to decipher the interactive structure across the entire brain. However, little is known about whether and how the activated/less-activated interactions are associated with the functional changes that occur when the brain changes from the resting state to a task state...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563572/cortical-travelling-waves-mechanisms-and-computational-principles
#15
REVIEW
Lyle Muller, Frédéric Chavane, John Reynolds, Terrence J Sejnowski
Multichannel recording technologies have revealed travelling waves of neural activity in multiple sensory, motor and cognitive systems. These waves can be spontaneously generated by recurrent circuits or evoked by external stimuli. They travel along brain networks at multiple scales, transiently modulating spiking and excitability as they pass. Here, we review recent experimental findings that have found evidence for travelling waves at single-area (mesoscopic) and whole-brain (macroscopic) scales. We place these findings in the context of the current theoretical understanding of wave generation and propagation in recurrent networks...
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561235/working-memory-and-reasoning-benefit-from-different-modes-of-large-scale-brain-dynamics-in-healthy-older-adults
#16
Alexander V Lebedev, Jonna Nilsson, Martin Lövdén
Researchers have proposed that solving complex reasoning problems, a key indicator of fluid intelligence, involves the same cognitive processes as solving working memory tasks. This proposal is supported by an overlap of the functional brain activations associated with the two types of tasks and by high correlations between interindividual differences in performance. We replicated these findings in 53 older participants but also showed that solving reasoning and working memory problems benefits from different configurations of the functional connectome and that this dissimilarity increases with a higher difficulty load...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560828/a-homologous-mapping-method-for-three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-protein-networks-reveals-disease-associated-mutations
#17
Sing-Han Huang, Yu-Shu Lo, Yong-Chun Luo, Yu-Yao Tseng, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: One of the crucial steps toward understanding the associations among molecular interactions, pathways, and diseases in a cell is to investigate detailed atomic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the structural interactome. Despite the availability of large-scale methods for analyzing PPI networks, these methods often focused on PPI networks using genome-scale data and/or known experimental PPIs. However, these methods are unable to provide structurally resolved interaction residues and their conservations in PPI networks...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559638/the-human-cortex-possesses-a-reconfigurable-dynamic-network-architecture-that-is-disrupted-in-psychosis
#18
Jenna M Reinen, Oliver Y Chén, R Matthew Hutchison, B T Thomas Yeo, Kevin M Anderson, Mert R Sabuncu, Dost Öngür, Joshua L Roffman, Jordan W Smoller, Justin T Baker, Avram J Holmes
Higher-order cognition emerges through the flexible interactions of large-scale brain networks, an aspect of temporal coordination that may be impaired in psychosis. Here, we map the dynamic functional architecture of the cerebral cortex in healthy young adults, leveraging this atlas of transient network configurations (states), to identify state- and network-specific disruptions in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. We demonstrate that dynamic connectivity profiles are reliable within participants, and can act as a fingerprint, identifying specific individuals within a larger group...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557190/extending-the-construct-network-of-trait-disinhibition-to-the-neuroimaging-domain-validation-of-a-bridging-scale-for-use-in-the-european-imagen-project
#19
Sarah J Brislin, Christopher J Patrick, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees, Angela Heinrich, Laura E Drislane, James R Yancey, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Patricia Conrod, Argyris Stringaris, Maren Struve, Betteke van Noort, Yvonne Grimmer, Tahmine Fadai, Gunter Schumann, Jens Foell
Trait disinhibition, a clinical-liability construct, has well-established correlates in the diagnostic, self-rating, task-behavioral, and brain potential response domains. Recently, studies have begun to test for neuroimaging correlates of this liability factor, but more work of this type using larger data sets is needed to clarify its brain bases. The current study details the development and validation of a scale measure of trait disinhibition composed of questionnaire items available in the IMAGEN project, a large-scale longitudinal study of factors contributing to substance abuse that includes clinical interview, self-report personality, task-behavioral, neuroimaging, and genomic measures...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555850/electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-development-of-a-self-sustained-large-scale-epileptic-network-in-the-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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