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Juliane Macheleidt, Derek J Mattern, Juliane Fischer, Tina Netzker, Jakob Weber, Volker Schroeckh, Vito Valiante, Axel A Brakhage
Fungi have the capability to produce a tremendous number of so-called secondary metabolites, which possess a multitude of functions, e.g., communication signals during coexistence with other microorganisms, virulence factors during pathogenic interactions with plants and animals, and in medical applications. Therefore, research on this topic has intensified significantly during the past 10 years and thus knowledge of regulatory mechanisms and the understanding of the role of secondary metabolites have drastically increased...
October 5, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
Kathleen I Pishas, Stephen L Lessnick
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal...
2016: F1000Research
Peter N Eze, Valiant S Mosokomani, Theophilus K Udeigwe, Opeoluwa F Oyedele
This article contains a statistically analyzed dataset of the heavy metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents of near-surface (~30 cm depth) soils in a Cu-Ni prospecting field at Airstrip North, Central Botswana. The soils developed on paragneisses and amphibolites parent materials in a semi-arid environment with hardveld vegetation, "The geology of the Topisi area" (Key et al., 1994) [1]. Grid sampling was adopted in the field data collection. Heavy metals were determined using the relatively new portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Delta Premium, 510,890, USA) technology in a "soil" mode...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Jakob Weber, Vito Valiante, Christina Spuur Nødvig, Derek Joseph Mattern, Rebecca A Slotkowski, Uffe H Mortensen, Axel A Brakhage
Filamentous fungi produce varieties of natural products even in a strain dependent manner. However, the genetic basis of chemical speciation between strains is still widely unknown. One example is trypacidin, a natural product of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, which is not produced amongst different isolates. Combining computational analysis with targeted gene editing, we could link a single nucleotide insertion in the polyketide synthase of the trypacidin biosynthetic pathway and reconstitute its production in a nonproducing strain...
September 9, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Fábio A Nascimento, Tim-Rasmus Kiehl, Peter C Tai, Taufik A Valiante, Timo Krings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Omid Talakoub, Andrea Gomez Palacio Schjetnan, Taufik A Valiante, Milos R Popovic, Kari L Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) arising from synchronous bursting in CA3 pyramidal cells and propagating to CA1 are thought to facilitate memory consolidation. Stimulation of the CA3 axon collaterals comprising the hippocampal commissure in rats interrupts sharp-wave ripples and leads to memory impairment. In primates, however, these commissural collaterals are limited. Other hippocampal fiber pathways, like the fornix, may be potential targets for modulating ongoing hippocampal activity, with the short latencies necessary to interrupt ripples...
August 2, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Yelena Frid, Dan Gusfield
BACKGROUND: The basic RNA secondary structure prediction problem or single sequence folding problem (SSF) was solved 35 years ago by a now well-known [Formula: see text]-time dynamic programming method. Recently three methodologies-Valiant, Four-Russians, and Sparsification-have been applied to speedup RNA secondary structure prediction. The sparsification method exploits two properties of the input: the number of subsequence Z with the endpoints belonging to the optimal folding set and the maximum number base-pairs L...
2016: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
Lihua Wang, Suzie Dufour, Taufik A Valiante, Peter L Carlen
Seizure activity leads to increases in extracellular potassium concentration ([K[Formula: see text]]o), which can result in changes in neuronal passive and active membrane properties as well as in population activities. In this study, we examined how extracellular potassium modulates seizure activities using an acute 4-AP induced seizure model in the neocortex, both in vivo and in vitro. Moderately elevated [K[Formula: see text]]o up to 9[Formula: see text]mM prolonged seizure durations and shortened interictal intervals as well as depolarized the neuronal resting membrane potential (RMP)...
December 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Cecilia Buonsanti, Cristiana Balocchi, Carole Harfouche, Federica Corrente, Luisa Galli Stampino, Francesca Mancini, Marta Tontini, Padma Malyala, Simone Bufali, Barbara Baudner, Ennio De Gregorio, Nicholas M Valiante, Derek T O'Hagan, Rino Rappuoli, Ugo D'Oro
Although glycoconjugate vaccines are generally very efficacious, there is still a need to improve their efficacy, especially in eliciting a strong primary antibody response. We have recently described a new type of vaccine adjuvant based on a TLR7 agonist adsorbed to alum (Alum-TLR7), which is highly efficacious at enhancing immunogenicity of protein based vaccines. Since no adjuvant has been shown to potentiate the immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines in humans, we investigated if Alum-TLR7 is able to improve immunogenicity of this class of vaccines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Vito Valiante, Clara Baldin, Peter Hortschansky, Radhika Jain, Andreas Thywißen, Maria Straßburger, Ekaterina Shelest, Thorsten Heinekamp, Axel A Brakhage
Melanins play a crucial role in defending organisms against external stressors. In several pathogenic fungi, including the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, melanin production was shown to contribute to virulence. A. fumigatus produces two different types of melanins, i.e., pyomelanin and dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin. DHN-melanin forms the gray-green pigment characteristic for conidia, playing an important role in immune evasion of conidia and thus for fungal virulence. The DHN-melanin biosynthesis pathway is encoded by six genes organized in a cluster with the polyketide synthase gene pksP as a core element...
July 9, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Milos R Popovic, Vera Zivanovic, Taufik A Valiante
Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25-52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16-21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials, showing that functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) can restore voluntary reaching and/or grasping function, in people with stroke and traumatic SCI...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Renato D Lopes, Karen S Pieper, Susanna R Stevens, Scott D Solomon, John J V McMurray, Marc A Pfeffer, Jeffrey D Leimberger, Eric J Velazquez
BACKGROUND: Most studies of risk assessment or stratification in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have been static and fail to account for the evolving nature of clinical events and care processes. We sought to identify predictors of mortality, cardiovascular death or nonfatal MI, and cardiovascular death or nonfatal heart failure (HF) over time in patients with HF, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or both post-MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial, we developed models to estimate the association between patient characteristics and the likelihood of experiencing an event from the time of a follow-up visit until the next visit...
June 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Alex Cortez, Yongkai Li, Andrew T Miller, Xiaoyue Zhang, Kathy Yue, Jillian Maginnis, Janice Hampton, De Shon Hall, Michael Shapiro, Bishnu Nayak, Ugo D'Oro, Chun Li, David Skibinski, M Lamine Mbow, Manmohan Singh, Derek T O'Hagan, Michael P Cooke, Nicholas M Valiante, Tom Y-H Wu
Small molecule Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists have been used as vaccine adjuvants by enhancing innate immune activation to afford better adaptive response. Localized TLR7 agonists without systemic exposure can afford good adjuvanticity, suggesting peripheral innate activation (non-antigen-specific) is not required for immune priming. To enhance colocalization of antigen and adjuvant, benzonaphthyridine (BZN) TLR7 agonists are chemically modified with phosphonates to allow adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide (alum), a formulation commonly used in vaccines for antigen stabilization and injection site deposition...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Maurizio Forte, Mariana Di Lorenzo, Albino Carrizzo, Salvatore Valiante, Carmine Vecchione, Vincenza Laforgia, Maria De Falco
Nonylphenol (NP) is an industrial chemical with estrogenic activity both in vivo and in vitro; estrogens play a critical role in the development of prostate and may be the cause of some pathological states, including cancer. In this study we examined the effects of NP on human prostate non tumorigenic epithelial cells (PNT1A) investigating on cell proliferation, interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) and gene expression of genes involved in prostate diseases. We found that NP affects cell proliferation at 10(-6)M, promoting a cytoplasm-nucleus translocation of ERα and not ERβ, like the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2)...
May 16, 2016: Toxicology
Menno T de Bruijn, Erik Tournoij, Daniel Af van den Heuvel, Debbie de Vries-Werson, Jan Wille, Jean-Paul Pm de Vries
PURPOSE: To describe an off-the-shelf method for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms with hostile (large, >30 mm) neck and/or small (<20 mm) aortic bifurcation. CASE REPORT: We describe five patients with large aortic necks and/or small aortic bifurcations, which were treated by combining an AFX endoprosthesis with a Valiant Captiva endograft, and additional proximal endoanchors when deemed necessary. Initial technical success was 100%. Follow-up ranged from 228 to 875 days...
August 2016: Vascular
Terry C Burns, Ahmed J Awad, Matthew D Li, Gerald A Grant
Brain radiation is a fundamental tool in neurooncology to improve local tumor control, but it leads to profound and progressive impairments in cognitive function. Increased attention to quality of life in neurooncology has accelerated efforts to understand and ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive sequelae. Such progress has coincided with a new understanding of the role of CNS progenitor cell populations in normal cognition and in their potential utility for the treatment of neurological diseases. The irradiated brain exhibits a host of biochemical and cellular derangements, including loss of endogenous neurogenesis, demyelination, and ablation of endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
May 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Takuya Matsumoto, Kentaro Inoue, Shinichi Tanaka, Yukihiko Aoyagi, Yutaka Matsubara, Daisuke Matsuda, Keiji Yoshiya, Ryosuke Yoshiga, Tomoko Ohkusa, Yoshihiko Maehara
PURPOSE: Our objective was to compare the radial forces of several stents ex vivo to identify stents suitable for rescue of the unexpected coverage of aortic arch branches in thoracic endovascular aortic repair. METHODS: We measured the radial forces of two types of self-expanding bare nitinol stents (E-luminexx and Epic) used singly or as double-walled pairs, and of three endoprostheses used in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR, Gore c-TAG, Relay, and Valiant) by compressing the stent using an MTS Instron universal testing machine (model #5582)...
March 17, 2016: Vascular
Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Arun Kumar Aggarwal, Binod Kumar Patro, Himbala Verma
BACKGROUND: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions...
October 2015: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Fabian Horn, Jörg Linde, Derek J Mattern, Grit Walther, Reinhard Guthke, Kirstin Scherlach, Karin Martin, Axel A Brakhage, Lutz Petzke, Vito Valiante
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aspergillus calidoustus (strain SF006504). The functional annotation of A. calidoustus predicts a relatively large number of secondary metabolite gene clusters. The presented genome sequence builds the basis for further genome mining.
2016: Genome Announcements
Ali Khoynezhad, Carlos E Donayre, Irwin Walot, Matthew C Koopmann, George E Kopchok, Rodney A White
OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment of ascending aortic lesions has been reported, but to date, no FDA-approved studies have been conducted to define feasibility and the use of endografts in this particular location or to analyze the critical factors involved. METHODS: Patients were consented for entry into an FDA-approved physician-sponsored investigational device exemption study to investigate the outcome of those with ascending aortic pathologies. These patients were suitable according to the instructions for use for endovascular repair with a Valiant Captivia (Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) thoracic stent graft, a device designed specifically for deployment in the ascending aorta...
June 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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