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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228748/chromogranin-a-regulation-of-obesity-and-peripheral-insulin-sensitivity
#1
REVIEW
Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and granulogenic factor in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, as well as in neurons, and has a regulated secretory pathway. The intracellular functions of CgA include the initiation and regulation of dense-core granule biogenesis and sequestration of hormones in neuroendocrine cells. This protein is co-stored and co-released with secreted hormones. The extracellular functions of CgA include the generation of bioactive peptides, such as pancreastatin (PST), vasostatin, WE14, catestatin (CST), and serpinin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228332/calorically-restricted-diets-decrease-pcsk9-in-overweight-adolescents
#2
A E Levenson, C E Milliren, S B Biddinger, C B Ebbeling, H A Feldman, D S Ludwig, S D de Ferranti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nutritional therapy is the first line approach to treatment of hyperlipidemia in childhood. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of plasma cholesterol levels and a target of novel lipid-lowering pharmacotherapies. We examined the effects of an intensive nutritional intervention on PCSK9 levels in overweight adolescents with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty seven obese and overweight adolescents with CVD risk factors were assigned to either a low fat or low glycemic load diet...
January 3, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228268/er-stress-protein-chop-mediates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarity
#3
Toru Suzuki, Junhong Gao, Yasushi Ishigaki, Keiichi Kondo, Shojiro Sawada, Tomohito Izumi, Kenji Uno, Keizo Kaneko, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Atsuko Asao, Naoto Ishii, Junta Imai, Tetsuya Yamada, Seiichi Oyadomari, Hideki Katagiri
Obesity represents chronic inflammatory states promoted by pro-inflammatory M1-macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby inducing insulin resistance. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of an ER stress protein, CHOP, in determining adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarity and systemic insulin sensitivity. A high-fat diet (HFD) enhances ER stress with CHOP upregulation in adipocytes. CHOP deficiency prevents HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance with ATM M2 predomination and Th2 cytokine upregulation in WAT...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225861/predictors-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-evaluated-by-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-asymptomatic-young-women-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Rosane Kupfer, Manuella Rangel Larrúbia, Isabela Bussade, Joana Rodrigues Dantas Pereira, Giovanna A Balarini Lima, Marcio Antonio Epifanio, Claudio Domenico Sahione Schettino, Denise Prado Momesso
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. Subjects and methods: The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225059/decreased-levels-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-are-correlated-with-improved-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-insulinoma
#5
Xu Li, Haoyong Yu, Jun Yin, Lianxi Li, Jian Zhou, Ming Li, Qing Li, Haibing Chen, Fang Liu, Yuqian Bao, Junfeng Han, Weiping Jia
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) improves insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in obese or diabetic animal models and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent for treating T2DM, obesity, and their related complications. However, little is known about the changes of FGF21 levels in response to endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. To explore its relationship with parameters of glucose metabolism in patients with insulinoma, eleven subjects with pathological insulinoma and twenty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224045/dj-1-maintains-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-function-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#6
Rong Wu, Xiao-Meng Liu, Jian-Guang Sun, Hong Chen, Jun Ma, Meng Dong, Shengyi Peng, Ji-Qiu Wang, Jian-Qing Ding, Dong-Hao Li, John R Speakman, Guang Ning, Wanzhu Jin, Zengqiang Yuan
DJ-1 protein is involved in multiple physiological processes, including Parkinson's disease. However, the role of DJ-1 in the metabolism is largely unknown. Here we found that DJ-1 maintained energy balance and glucose homeostasisvia regulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. DJ-1-deficient mice reduced body mass, increased energy expenditure and improved insulin sensitivity. DJ-1 deletion also resisted high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, DJ-1 transgene triggered autonomous obesity and glucose intolerance...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#7
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219664/effect-of-pioglitazone-on-cardiometabolic-risk-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Alice Liu, Fahim Abbasi, Sun H Kim, Danit Ariel, Cindy Lamendola, James Cardell, Shiming Xu, Shailja Patel, Vanessa Tomasso, Hafasa Mojaddidi, Kaylene Grove, Philip S Tsao, Clete A Kushida, Gerald M Reaven
Prevalence of insulin resistance is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Because insulin resistance is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this study was initiated to see if pioglitazone administration would improve insulin sensitivity and thereby decrease risk of CVD in overweight/obese, nondiabetic, insulin-resistant patients with untreated OSA. Patients (n = 30) were administered pioglitazone (45 mg/day) for 8 weeks, and measurements were made before and after intervention of insulin action (insulin-mediated glucose uptake by the insulin suppression test), C-reactive protein, lipid/lipoprotein profile, and gene expression profile of periumbilical subcutaneous fat tissue...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216642/high-fat-meal-systemic-inflammation-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#9
A Morandi, E Fornari, F Opri, M Corradi, M Tommasi, R Bonadonna, C Maffeis
We aimed to assess in obese youths the relationships between interleukin 6 (IL-6), fat-meal induced endotoxemia and glucose homeostasis. Twenty obese children/adolescents (9-17 years old, 11 boys) underwent a standard OGTT and, 7-14 days later, a 5-hour fat meal test (fat=69% of energy, SFA/MUFA/PUFA=31.5%/35%/33.5%), with serial measures of IL-6 and two markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and translocation, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14). IL-6 correlated not only with basal (HOMA-IR) but also with post-prandial (Matsuda-index) insulin sensitivity (r=0...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#10
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212710/ctrp1-in-liver-disease
#11
P Shabani, S Emamgholipour, M Doosti
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease occurs in significant percentage of general population. NAFLD is closely associated with entire spectrum of metabolic-related disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering several similar pathways underpinning metabolic disorders, presence of common molecular mediators contributing to pathomechanism of these disorders is expected. Mounting evidence has demonstrated important role of adipokines in the context of NAFLD...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212289/the-effects-of-myo-inositol-and-b-and-d-vitamin-supplementation-in-the-db-mouse-model-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Jasmine F Plows, Florence Budin, Rebecka A M Andersson, Valerie J Mills, Katherine Mace, Sandra T Davidge, Mark H Vickers, Philip N Baker, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Joanna L Stanley
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing concern, affecting an increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. By predisposing both the affected mothers and children to future disease, GDM contributes to an intergenerational cycle of obesity and diabetes. In order to stop this cycle, safe and effective treatments for GDM are required. This study sought to determine the treatment effects of dietary supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) and vitamins B2, B6, B12, and D in a mouse model of GDM (pregnant db/+ dams)...
February 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#13
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209386/dietary-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-or-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Alexander Ströhle, Martin St John Sutton, Nicolai Worm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an ongoing epidemic of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and/or dysfunction due to the increasing prevalence of predisposing risk factors such as age, physical inactivity, (abdominal) obesity, and type-2-diabetes. Approximately half of these patients have diastolic heart failure (HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any known effective treatment. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach is presented that quantifies diastolic dysfunction via the predominant age dependency of LV diastolic function and unmasks (metabolic) risk factors, that are independent of age and, therefore, potential targets for therapy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209058/rare-sugar-syrup-containing-d-allulose-but-not-high-fructose-corn-syrup-maintains-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-partly-via-hepatic-glucokinase-translocation-in-wistar-rats
#15
Tomoya Shintani, Takako Yamada, Noriko Hayashi, Tetsuo Iida, Yasuo Nagata, Nobuaki Ozaki, Yukiyasu Toyoda
Ingestion of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks, and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203456/concurrent-beet-juice-and-carbohydrate-ingestion-influence-on-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-and-nonobese-adults
#16
Joseph W Beals, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Gregory R Giordano, Anna L Klochak, Hunter L Paris, Melani M Schweder, Garrett L Peltonen, Rebecca L Scalzo, Christopher Bell
Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) increases NO formation, via NO3(-) reduction to nitrite (NO2(-)) by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults (34...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203453/association-of-osteoprotegerin-with-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#17
Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Ozgul Yigit, Oguzhan Zengi, Mehmet Salih Akkurt, Mehmet Tasdemir
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199831/inhibition-of-p2y6-signaling-in-agrp-neurons-reduces-food-intake-and-improves-systemic-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity
#18
Sophie Marie Steculorum, Katharina Timper, Linda Engström Ruud, Nadine Evers, Lars Paeger, Stephan Bremser, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens Claus Brüning
Uridine-diphosphate (UDP) and its receptor P2Y6 have recently been identified as regulators of AgRP neurons. UDP promotes feeding via activation of P2Y6 receptors on AgRP neurons, and hypothalamic UDP concentrations are increased in obesity. However, it remained unresolved whether inhibition of P2Y6 signaling pharmacologically, globally, or restricted to AgRP neurons can improve obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions. Here, we demonstrate that central injection of UDP acutely promotes feeding in diet-induced obese mice and that acute pharmacological blocking of CNS P2Y6 receptors reduces food intake...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199736/impact-of-hormonal-contraception-and-weight-loss-on-hdl-c-efflux-and-lipoprotein-particles-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Anuja Dokras, Martin Playford, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Allen R Kunselman, Christy M Stetter, Nancy I Williams, Carol L Gnatuk, Stephanie J Estes, David B Sarwer, Kelly C Allison, Christos Coutifaris, Nehal Mehta, Richard S Legro
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP), the first line treatment for PCOS, on HDL-C function (reverse cholesterol efflux capacity) and lipoprotein particles measured by NMR spectroscopy. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of OCP or Lifestyle (intensive lifestyle modification) or Combined (OCP+Lifestyle) treatment for 16 weeks. PATIENTS: 87 overweight/obese women with PCOS at two academic centers...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197827/phloretin-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-improves-metabolic-homeostasis
#20
Sary Alsanea, Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet...
February 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
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