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Metabolically healthy obese

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217381/adiponectin-levels-and-insulin-resistance-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#1
Raoni Freitas Carvalho, Ajax Mercês Atta, Isabela Silva de Oliveira, Taciana Pereira Sant'Ana Santos, João Pedro A Santos, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Maria Luiza Brito de Sousa-Atta
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), rapid disease progression, and decreased virological response to antiviral treatment. In addition, obesity is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis C evolution and is associated with IR. As adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity and IR, this study aimed to investigate serum levels of adiponectin among patients with HCV infection and IR. Thirty-three patients with untreated HCV infection underwent testing of serum adiponectin levels (capture ELISA) and were compared to 30 healthy subjects with similar body mass indexes (BMI)...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217283/insulin-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cns-anatomical-functional-and-temporal-contexts
#2
REVIEW
Carrie R Ferrario, Lawrence P Reagan
For decades the brain was erroneously considered an insulin insensitive organ. Although gaps in our knowledge base remain, conceptual frameworks are starting to emerge to provide insight into the mechanisms through which insulin facilitates critical brain functions like metabolism, cognition, and motivated behaviors. These diverse physiological and behavioral activities highlight the region-specific activities of insulin in the CNS; that is, there is an anatomical context to the activities of insulin in the CNS...
December 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216020/hydrolyzed-formula-with-reduced-protein-content-supports-adequate-growth-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#3
Birgit Ahrens, Christian Hellmuth, Nadja Haiden, Dirk Olbertz, Eckard Hamelmann, Milica Vusurovic, Manja Fleddermann, Robert Roehle, Anette Knoll, Berthold Koletzko, Ulrich Wahn, Kirsten Beyer
OBJECTIVE: A high protein content of non-hydrolyzed infant formula exceeding metabolic requirements can induce rapid weight gain and obesity. Hydrolyzed formula with too low protein (LP) content may result in inadequate growth. The aim of this study was to investigate non-inferiority of partial and extensively hydrolyzed formulas (pHF, eHF) with lower hydrolyzed protein content than conventionally, regularly used formulas, with or without synbiotics for normal growth of healthy term infants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214176/human-gut-microbiota-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents
#4
Ya-Ping Hou, Qing-Qing He, Hai-Mei Ouyang, Hai-Shan Peng, Qun Wang, Jie Li, Xiao-Fei Lv, Yi-Nan Zheng, Shao-Chuan Li, Hai-Liang Liu, Ai-Hua Yin
Objective: To investigate the gut microbiota differences of obese children compared with the control healthy cohort to result in further understanding of the mechanism of obesity development. Methods: We evaluated the 16S rRNA gene, the enterotypes, and quantity of the gut microbiota among obese children and the control cohort and learned the differences of the gut microbiota during the process of weight reduction in obese children. Results: In the present study, we learned that the gut microbiota composition was significantly different between obese children and the healthy cohort...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#5
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#6
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211893/aldosterone-is-not-associated-with-metabolic-and-microvascular-insulin-sensitivity-in-abdominally-obese-men
#7
Monica T J Schütten, Yvo H A M Kusters, Alfons J H M Houben, Jean L J M Scheijen, Marjo P H van de Waarenburg, Casper G Schalkwijk, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Peter W de Leeuw, Coen D A Stehouwer
Context: Impaired insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment (IMMR) in obese individuals may add to the development of metabolic insulin resistance and hypertension. Increased aldosterone levels have been linked to these obesity-related complications in severely to morbidly obese individuals, and have been found to interfere with microvascular function in experimental studies. Objectives: To investigate whether aldosterone levels are related to IMMR, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in lean and moderately abdominally obese men, and to study the effect of weight loss on these variables...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#8
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208770/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-effects-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-metabolism
#9
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao
Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206649/the-importance-of-the-microbiome-in-pediatrics-and-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#10
Thaidra Gaufin, Nicole H Tobin, Grace M Aldrovandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging research on the pediatric microbiome implicates the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system, nervous system, and growth. Changes to the microbiome during infancy are associated with the development of chronic illnesses such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the microbiome provides protection against certain pathogens, affects vaccine responses, and alters drug metabolism. This review highlights what is known about the microbiome, the establishment of a healthy microbiome and the significance that changes to the microbiome composition have on growth and health of children and adolescents...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206339/reversibility-of-myocardial-metabolism-and-remodeling-in-morbidly-obese-patients-six-months-after-bariatric-surgery
#11
Jarna C Hannukainen, Riikka Lautamäki, Jussi Pärkkä, Marjatta Strandberg, Virva Saunavaara, Saija Hurme, Minna Soinio, Prince Dadson, Kirsi A Virtanen, Tove Grönroos, Sarita Forsback, Paulina Salminen, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study myocardial substrate uptake, structure and function before and after bariatric surgery to clarify the interaction between myocardial metabolism and cardiac remodeling in morbid obesity. METHODS: We studied 46 subjects (age 44±10 yrs, BMI 42±4 kg/m2), including 18 with type 2 diabetes before and six months after bariatric surgery and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Myocardial fasting free fatty acid uptake (MFAU) and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (MGU) were measured using PET...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203751/-metabolic-syndrome-a-new-look-at-a-known-problem
#12
Sylwia Płaczkowska, Lilla Pawlik-Sobecka, Izabela Kokot, Agnieszka Piwowar
Civilization changes over the past decades have been associated with an increase in the incidence of various metabolic disorders, especially in the carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, which are not always associated with obesity. Metabolic syndrome, despite changing criteria of recognition, is a clinically established risk factor for civilization diseases development. On the other side, the incidence of complex metabolic disorders in non-obese people is increasing, which is referred to in the literature as metabolic obesity with normal body mass...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202472/hyposialylated-igg-activates-endothelial-igg-receptor-fc%C3%AE-riib-to-promote-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance
#13
Keiji Tanigaki, Anastasia Sacharidou, Jun Peng, Ken L Chambliss, Ivan S Yuhanna, Debabrata Ghosh, Mohamed Ahmed, Alexander J Szalai, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, Robert F Mattrey, Qiushi Chen, Parastoo Azadi, Ildiko Lingvay, Marina Botto, William L Holland, Jennifer J Kohler, Shashank R Sirsi, Kenneth Hoyt, Philip W Shaul, Chieko Mineo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198451/development-of-the-microbiota-in-infants-and-its-role-in-maturation-of-the-gut-mucosa-and-the-immune-system
#14
Cecilia Ximenez, Javier Torres
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with increasing numbers of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergy, cancer and even neurologic or behavioral disorders. The other side of the coin is that a healthy microbiota leads to a healthy human development, to a mature and well trained immune system and to an efficient metabolic machinery. What we have learned in adults is in the end the result of a good start, a programmed, healthy development of the microbiota that must occur in the early years of life, probably even starting during the fetal stage...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196236/berries-containing-anthocyanins-with-enhanced-methylation-profiles-are-more-effective-at-ameliorating-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-damage
#15
Emily Skates, John Overall, Katelyn Dezego, Mickey Wilson, Debora Esposito, Mary Ann Lila, Slavko Komarnytsky
Driven by the need for alternative whole food options to manage metabolic syndrome, multiple dietary interventions are suggested to achieve a better control of metabolic risk factors and molecular networks that regulate cellular energy metabolism. It is generally accepted that anthocyanin-rich diets are beneficial for maintaining healthy body weight, improving glucose and lipid metabolism, and determining inflammatory status of key metabolic tissues. However, anthocyanins are a structurally diverse group of phenolic compounds and their individual contributions to improving metabolic health are not clear...
November 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196231/metabolically-healthy-obese-and-unhealthy-normal-weight-in-iranian-adult-population-prevalence-and-the-associated-factors
#16
Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Behzad Heidari
AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of metabolically unhealthy in normal-weight and metabolically healthy in obese. METHODS: We analyzed the data of a representative sample of 986 participants recruited among adult population of north of Iran. Data were collected regarding demographic characteristics, lifestyle, body mass index, abdominal obesity measures, blood pressure, and lipid profiles. The participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW)...
November 23, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192411/increased-serum-neuregulin-4-levels-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#17
Muzaffer Temur, Mehmet Calan, Murat Akşit, Özgür Yılmaz, Tayfur Çift, Burak Akselim, Burcu Dinçgez Çakmak, Emin Üstünyurt
Neuregulin 4 (NRG4) is an adipokine that is synthesized in many tissues and has been shown to be associated with the development of obesity and metabolic disorders in animals and humans. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum NRG4 levels and various metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study included 40 women with PCOS and 40 age- and BMI-matched controls without PCOS. NRG4, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, hs-CRP, LDL-C, HDL-C, SHBG, DHEA-SO4 and total-testosterone levels were measured in all the participants...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191221/increased-synovial-lipodystrophy-induced-by-high-fat-diet-aggravates-synovitis-in-experimental-osteoarthritis
#18
Ane Larrañaga-Vera, Ana Lamuedra, Sandra Pérez-Baos, Ivan Prieto-Potin, Leticia Peña, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont, Raquel Largo
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the association between the individual components and OA are not well-understood. We aimed to study the effect of hypercholesterolemia on synovial inflammation in knee OA. METHODS: OA was surgically induced in rabbits fed with standard diet (OA group, n = 10) or in rabbits fed with high fat diet (OA-HFD, n = 10). Healthy rabbits receiving standard diet (Control, n = 10) or fed with HFD (HFD, n = 6) were also monitored...
December 1, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190946/%C3%AE-2gpi-exerts-an-anti-obesity-effect-in-female-mice-by-inhibiting-lipogenesis-and-promoting-lipolysis
#19
Shangwen Dong, Miao Qi, Ying Wang, Liming Chen, James Crofton Weaver, Steven Antony Krilis, Bill Giannakopoulos
In humans, males compared to females have increased visceral adipose tissue which contributes to their increased risk of early death. Mice display analogous sexual diamorphism whereby females are protected from weight gain when fed a high fat diet compared to males. A role has recently been reported for β2-glycoprotein I, an abundant plasma protein, in healthy leanness in humans. In this study we investigated the role of β2-glycoprotein I in fat metabolism in male and female mice fed a normal chow or high fat diet...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183300/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-among-university-students-in-kenya
#20
Samuel Mungai Mbugua, Samuel Thuo Kimani, Gilbert Munyoki
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of interrelated disorders which occur together causing an increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The university population is an understudied group despite the increase in the frequency of related disorders and metabolic risk factors e.g. obesity and diabetes, majorly due to the assumption that they are in their most active phase of life therefore healthy. This study looked at metabolic syndrome, the sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits present among university students attending Mount Kenya University, main campus...
November 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
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