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Pancreas embryology

Łukasz Olewnik, Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol
For decades, anastomoses between unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta have attracted the attention of anatomists, surgeons and radiologists, due to their significance in many clinical procedures. This report presents a rare anastomosis between the common hepatic artery and the superior mesenteric artery, which gave off three branches to the jejunum. The diameter of the anastomosis measured at the point of its branching off the common hepatic artery and at the level of union with the superior mesenteric artery was 4...
April 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Manami Fukai, Terumi Kamisawa, Shin-Ichirou Horiguchi, Tsunekazu Hishima, Sawako Kuruma, Kazuro Chiba, Satomi Koizumi, Taku Tabata, Sayaka Nagao, Masataka Kikuyama, Goro Honda, Masanao Kurata
We present a resected case of annular pancreas in which Wirsung's duct encircled the duodenum and continued directly to the main pancreatic duct in the body and tail. Furthermore, Wirsung's duct coursed along the right side of the lower bile duct near the major duodenal papilla. Histologically, the islets of Langerhans in the annular pancreas were irregular in shape and were characterized by a striking abundance of pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-positive cells. The PP-rich area that encircled the duodenum was fused with the PP-poor area in the head of the pancreas...
June 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Ajay V Maker, Vijay K Maker
The ventral pancreas originally forms as an evagination of the common bile duct at 32 days gestation and its duct, the uncinate duct, eventually rotates with the ventral anlage to join the dorsal pancreas and fuse with the main pancreatic duct. Thus, though often considered a "branch" duct of the pancreas, embryologically, the uncinate duct is the "main" pancreatic duct of the ventral pancreas. This concept is not fully addressed in the current definitions of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) where international consensus guidelines consider the main-duct IPMN as high risk for malignancy and most small branch-duct IPMN as low risk for malignancy...
April 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Elsie S Place, James C Smith
Atoh8 is a bHLH transcription factor expressed in pancreas, skeletal muscle, the nervous system, and cardiovascular tissues during embryological development. Although it has been implicated in the regulation of pancreatic and endothelial cell differentiation, the phenotypic consequences of Atoh8 loss are uncertain. Conclusions from knockout studies in the mouse differ widely depending on the targeting strategy used, while atoh8 knockdown by interfering morpholino oligonucleotides (morpholinos) in zebrafish has led to a range of developmental defects...
2017: PloS One
Atsushi Nanashima, Naoya Imamura, Yuki Tsuchimochi, Takeomi Hamada, Kouichi Yano, Masahide Hiyoshi, Yoshiro Fujii, Fumiaki Kawano, MitsuruTamura
INTRODUCTION: This case report is intended to inform acute care surgeons about treating rare horizontal laceration of the pancreas head caused by blunt trauma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman who sustained blunt abdominal trauma during a car crash was transported to the emergency center of our hospital with unstable vital signs due to hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography showed transection of the pancreas head and massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. She was referred for emergency surgery because of a transient response...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Daxing Xie, Chaoran Yu, Chun Gao, Hasan Osaiweran, Junbo Hu, Jianping Gong
BACKGROUND: It is common knowledge that high ligation of blood vessels at the D3 level and complete mesocolic excision (CME) are two critical points of right hemicolectomy for right colon cancer (RCC). (1-5) To date, a safe strategy for completing these two procedures under laparoscopic surgery has not been extensively described. The authors provide a video to demonstrate laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (D3 + CME) with an optimal mesentery-defined approach. By identifying three "tri-junctions," this approach facilitates dissection of the entire mesocolon along the embryologic planes as far centrally as possible and enables the high tie of feeding vessels at bifurcation...
May 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Samih Nassif, Cecilia Ponchiardi, Teviah Sachs
Dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) is an uncommon embryological abnormality where there is absence of the distal pancreas. DAP is mostly asymptomatic, but common presenting symptoms include diabetes mellitus, abdominal pain, pancreatitis, enlarged pancreatic head, and, in a few cases, polysplenia. MRCP and ERCP are the gold standard imaging techniques to demonstrate the absence of the dorsal pancreatic duct. The literature on the association of pancreatic neoplasia and DAP is limited. We present the case of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with dorsal agenesis of the pancreas, with a review of the related literature...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Shilpi Agarwal, Babita Pangtey, Neelam Vasudeva
Knowledge of variations in the branching pattern of Celiac Trunk (CT) is important for surgeries of stomach, duodenum, pancreas and hepatobiliary region, for abdominal aortic aneurysm, for liver transplant and chaemoembolization of hepatic tumours. An unusual variation in the branching pattern of CT was observed in 50-year-old male cadaver of Indian origin. CT divided into six branches out of which right & left inferior phrenic arteries originated as first two branches and left gastric artery as the third branch...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Osama S Al Beteddini, Nasir K Amra, Emad Sherkawi
Ciliated foregut cysts are rare anomalies arising from remnants of aberrant embryological development. Around 100 reports on the presence of these congenital masses in the tracheobronchial tree, mediastinum, liver, pancreas and, rarely, the gallbladder have been described. In this article, the case of a 33-year-old woman, who was operated for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is presented. During the dissection of the triangle of Calot, a cystic mass, attached to the common hepatic duct, was discovered incidentally...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Jill P Smith, Lionel K Fonkoua, Terry W Moody
The gastrointestinal (GI) peptide gastrin is an important regulator of the release of gastric acid from the stomach parietal cells and it also plays an important role in growth of the gastrointestinal tract. It has become apparent that gastrin and its related peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) are also significantly involved with growth of GI cancers as well as other malignancies through activation of the cholecystokinin-B (CCK-B) receptor. Of interest, gastrin is expressed in the embryologic pancreas but not in the adult pancreas; however, gastrin becomes re-expressed in pancreatic cancer where it stimulates growth of this malignancy by an autocrine mechanism...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Soichi Narumoto, Ken Hayashi, Hitoshi Seki, Yasuhiro Munakata
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreas-preserving resection of the bile duct has been attempted as an organ preserving procedures for the treatment of low-grade malignant neoplasms of the bile duct. The fact that the lower bile duct penetrates pancreas head to join the duodenum, makes those attempts one of the challenging procedures in biliary tract surgery. Here we present a novel and unique surgical technique for anatomically resecting lower bile duct, focusing on the anatomy of the pancreas head...
May 2015: Hepato-gastroenterology
Mee-Jin Lee, James Salinas, Winny Varikatthas, Ghiyath Alsnih
INTRODUCTION: Ciliated foregut cysts (CFC) are rare anomalies due to aberrant embryological development. It is thought to arise from a remnant of the embryologic foregut. The solitary cysts are characterised by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They are usually located above the diaphragm but they can also arise in relation to the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the first ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder case reported in Australia, and the ninth known case to be reported worldwide...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Fabio Rondelli, Walter Bugiantella, Paolo Stella, Marcello Boni, Enrico Mariani, Federico Crusco, Alessandro Sanguinetti, Andrea Polistena, Nicola Avenia
Annular pancreas (AP) in adults is a rare embryologic abnormality detected after development of complications or as incidental finding. Diagnosis and treatment strategies for symptomatic adult AP remain controversial. We describe two different presentation of AP: a woman with a specific upper abdominal pain treated with medical therapy and a man with upper gastroenteric obstructive symptoms which underwent surgical duodeno-jejunal by-pass. English language literature about annular pancreas etiology, diagnosis and treatment was reviewed...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Melissa F Brereton, Elisa Vergari, Quan Zhang, Anne Clark
Islet non-β-cells, the α- δ- and pancreatic polypeptide cells (PP-cells), are important components of islet architecture and intercellular communication. In α-cells, glucagon is found in electron-dense granules; granule exocytosis is calcium-dependent via P/Q-type Ca(2+)-channels, which may be clustered at designated cell membrane sites. Somatostatin-containing δ-cells are neuron-like, creating a network for intra-islet communication. Somatostatin 1-28 and 1-14 have a short bioactive half-life, suggesting inhibitory action via paracrine signaling...
August 2015: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Shigenori Yamada, Takashi Muraki, Shuichi Yokosawa, Norikazu Arakura, Shigeyuki Kawa, Katsuhiko Ishizaka, Manabu Nakamura
A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain. A blood test showed high serum levels of biliary enzymes and amylase. Surprisingly, a computed tomography scan revealed complete separation of the ventral and dorsal pancreas and swelling of the ventral pancreas with choledocholithiasis. Surgical cholecystectomy was performed to remove the bile duct stones after endoscopic removal was unsuccessful. The complete separation of the pancreatic parenchyma caused by ventral pancreas malrotation seen in this case is extremely rare, and may provide important information regarding embryologic development, deformity, and malfunction of the pancreas...
February 2012: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Takeshi Nishi, Yasunari Kawabata, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Asuka Araki, Seiji Yano, Riruke Maruyama, Yoshitsugu Tajima
BACKGROUND: Pancreas divisum, the most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas, is caused by failure of the fusion of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic duct systems during embryological development. Although various pancreatic tumors can occur in patients with pancreas divisum, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because she was incidentally found to have a cystic tumor in her pancreas at a regular health checkup...
2015: BMC Gastroenterology
E Warner, E Ofo, S Connor, E Odell, J P Jeannon
INTRODUCTION: Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC) are common midline neck swellings resulting from embryological remnants of the thyroglossal duct. They often contain ectopic thyroid tissue and malignant transformation has been reported, most commonly to papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) usually occurs in the salivary glands and only rarely in the thyroid. This is the first case of a MEC occurring within a thyroglossal duct remnant. PRESENTATION OF A CASE: A 73 year old lady presented with a thyroglossal duct cyst...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Christine K C Loo, Tamara N Pereira, Grant A Ramm
Congenital bilateral diaphragm agenesis is a very rare condition. We describe limited (abdomen only) autopsy findings of a case of bilateral diaphragm agenesis in a 27-week male fetus with unusual findings of fibrosis of the pancreatic head and ectopic liver nodules in a mass at the upper abdomen that may represent a possible diaphragm anlage. We have correlated our observations with data from experimental and embryological studies to suggest possible mechanisms for the malformations that were present and their implications for our understanding of pancreas, liver and diaphragm development in the human fetus...
2015: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Ramachandra Chowdappa, Vasu Reddy Challa
Pancreatic cancer is associated with poor prognosis and surgery remains the main modality of treatment. Negative resection margin is an important prognostic factor for survival. Retropancreatic margin or the medial margin is the most common site of positive resection margin. Mesopancreas was proposed in analogy with mesorectum, which is considered as a fusion fascia formed embryologically during the development of pancreas. This mesopancreas lies posterior to the pancreas and contains pancreaticoduodenal vessels, lymphatics, nerve plexus and loose areolar tissue...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
F Pedica, S Beccari, S Pedron, L Montagna, P Piccoli, C Doglioni, M Chilosi
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) plays a key role in pancreatic development and β-cell function. It is a major regulator of transcription in pancreatic cells, and transactivates the insulin gene by binding to a specific DNA motif in its promoter region. Glucose also regulates insulin gene transcription through PDX-1. It has been shown that PDX-1 is required for maintaining pancreatic islet functions by activating gene expression and has a dual role in pancreatic development...
December 2014: Pathologica
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