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Liver embryology

Salah Termos, Abdullah AlDuwaisan, Mohammad Alali, Hussein Faour, Hana AlHomoud, Ahmad Alsaleh
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic choristomas or ectopic livers are uncommon, and occur due to a failure of embryological liver development. They pose a risk of carcinogenesis, with transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being described in the literature (Arakawa et al., 1999). It is often a silent clinical finding that can occur anywhere in the body and is usually diagnosed incidentally during abdominal surgical procedures or autopsies (Eiserth et al., 1940). We present the case of a patient with a symptomatic ectopic liver that was detected preoperatively, and removed laparoscopically with the gallbladder...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Naomi S Clement, Thomas Rw Oliver, Hunain Shiwani, Juliane Rf Sanner, Caroline A Mulvaney, William Atiomo
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers in the world. Rates of endometrial cancer are rising, in part because of rising obesity rates. Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous condition in women that can lead to endometrial cancer if left untreated. Endometrial hyperplasia occurs more commonly than endometrial cancer. Progesterone tablets currently used to treat women with endometrial hyperplasia are associated with adverse effects in up to 84% of women...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fatih Uruc, Serkan Akan, Aytaç Sahin, Caglar Yildirim, Ahmet Urkmez
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes 2-3% of all types of cancers. RCCs metastasize into lungs (50-60%), lymph nodes (36%), bones (30-40%), liver (30-40%), and brain (5%) in respective percentages. RCC rarely metastasizes into ovary. Only 25 cases of ovarian tumor, which metastasized into kidneys, have been presented. In the literature, a kidney-ovary axis has been defined, and its interrelationship begins with embryological life. With this case report, we aimed both to present a very rarely seen metastasis of RCC into contralateral ovary and also to review the literature...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
Janez Dolenšek
A rare combination of variations in the arterial supply of the liver and gallbladder was encountered in a male cadaver: The simultaneous occurrence of an accessory left hepatic artery and an accessory right hepatic artery from which double cystic arteries arose (one of which was low-lying). This combination has not yet been reported. The accessory left hepatic artery originated from the left gastric artery. The accessory right hepatic artery originated from the superior mesenteric artery. Such arterial variations are caused by differences in embryological development...
February 2, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Esther Una Cidon
Neuroendocrine (NE) gastroenteropancreatic tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias arising from neuroendocrine cells of the embryological gut. Their incidence have increased significantly over the past 3 decades probably due to the improvements in imaging and diagnosis. The recent advances in molecular biology have translated into an expansion of therapeutic approaches to these patients. Somatostatin analogs, which initially were approved for control of hormonal syndromes, have recently been proven to inhibit tumor growth...
January 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Adriana Grigoraş, Simona Eliza Giuşcă, Elena Roxana Avădănei, Cornelia Amălinei, Irina Draga Căruntu
For more than 130 years, the hepatic stellate cells (also known as Ito cells) have been the object of numerous studies that aimed at their characterization both in normal and postlesional status, where they play a key role in fibrosis progression specific for chronic hepatic pathology. Converged studies on their histophysiology have revealed other functions, namely the involvement in liver embryological development and regeneration, metabolisms regulation, modulation of local inflammatory and immune reactions...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Michael C Hsu, Maxim Itkin
Recent development of new lymphatic imaging and intervention techniques, such as intranodal lymphangiogram, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography and lymphatic embolization, have resulted in the resurgence of interest in the lymphatic anatomy. The lymphatic system is a continuous maze of interlacing vessels and lymph nodes and is extremely complex and variable. This presents a significant challenge for interpretation of imaging and performance of interventions on this system. There is an embryological reason for this complexity and variability; the lymphatic system sprouts off of primordia from several locations in the body, which later fuse together at different stages of development of the embryo...
December 2016: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Vishnu R Mani, Mohammad S Farooq, Utsav Soni, Aleksandr Kalabin, Ajai S Rajabalan, Leaque Ahmed
This case describes an intraoperative incidental finding and surgical removal of ectopic liver tissue attached to the gallbladder during a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. These anomalies are rare, with interesting associations and possible clinically relevant complications. The details of the case, along with a brief literature review of embryology, common ectopic sites, and associations/complications, are presented in this paper. Since laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a very common procedure, it is important to increase vigilance of ectopic liver tissues during surgeries to minimize complications and provide optimal management...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Shilpi Agarwal, Babita Pangtey, Neelam Vasudeva
Knowledge of variations in the branching pattern of Celiac Trunk (CT) is important for surgeries of stomach, duodenum, pancreas and hepatobiliary region, for abdominal aortic aneurysm, for liver transplant and chaemoembolization of hepatic tumours. An unusual variation in the branching pattern of CT was observed in 50-year-old male cadaver of Indian origin. CT divided into six branches out of which right & left inferior phrenic arteries originated as first two branches and left gastric artery as the third branch...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Osama S Al Beteddini, Nasir K Amra, Emad Sherkawi
Ciliated foregut cysts are rare anomalies arising from remnants of aberrant embryological development. Around 100 reports on the presence of these congenital masses in the tracheobronchial tree, mediastinum, liver, pancreas and, rarely, the gallbladder have been described. In this article, the case of a 33-year-old woman, who was operated for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is presented. During the dissection of the triangle of Calot, a cystic mass, attached to the common hepatic duct, was discovered incidentally...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Mee-Jin Lee, James Salinas, Winny Varikatthas, Ghiyath Alsnih
INTRODUCTION: Ciliated foregut cysts (CFC) are rare anomalies due to aberrant embryological development. It is thought to arise from a remnant of the embryologic foregut. The solitary cysts are characterised by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They are usually located above the diaphragm but they can also arise in relation to the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the first ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder case reported in Australia, and the ninth known case to be reported worldwide...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Anas Alakkam, Robert V Hill, Gregory Saggio
The hepatic arteries are subject to a great deal of anatomical variation, potentially complicating hepatobiliary surgical procedures as well as general gastrointestinal procedures that involve foregut and midgut structures. We report a case of a rare variant of the proper hepatic artery discovered during dissection of an 84-year-old male cadaver. In this individual, the common hepatic artery was absent and the proper hepatic artery was replaced directly to the superior mesenteric artery. The gastroduodenal artery and the right inferior phrenic artery took origin from the celiac trunk...
August 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Lakshana Selvaraj, Indumathi Sundaramurthi
INTRODUCTION: Blood vessel anomalies are always interesting from embryological view and of considerable significance from a clinical or a surgical standpoint. Vascular anomalies are usually asymptomatic; they may cause problems in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography or any operative procedure. The length and course of the coeliac artery are variable and its branches frequently arise separately from the main trunk. Several other branches may additionally arise from the coeliac trunk, for example, inferior phrenic arteries, the dorsal pancreatic artery, and the middle colic artery...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Christine K C Loo, Tamara N Pereira, Katarzyna N Pozniak, Mette Ramsing, Ida Vogel, Grant A Ramm
The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Neus Ruiz Edo, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Nigel Heaton
The following is the first report of a pediatric organ donor with caval agenesis and the subsequent use of this liver for transplantation. Caval embryology and potential implications of utilizing a donor liver with caval agenesis are reviewed.
September 2015: Pediatric Transplantation
Christine K C Loo, Tamara N Pereira, Grant A Ramm
Congenital bilateral diaphragm agenesis is a very rare condition. We describe limited (abdomen only) autopsy findings of a case of bilateral diaphragm agenesis in a 27-week male fetus with unusual findings of fibrosis of the pancreatic head and ectopic liver nodules in a mass at the upper abdomen that may represent a possible diaphragm anlage. We have correlated our observations with data from experimental and embryological studies to suggest possible mechanisms for the malformations that were present and their implications for our understanding of pancreas, liver and diaphragm development in the human fetus...
2015: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Adrian Hrusca, Andreea Liana Rachisan, Bogdan Lucian, Simona Oprita, Simona Manole, Simona Cainap
Ivemark syndrome (IS) is a rare embryological disorder which results from failure of development of the left-right asymmetry of organs. It is often associated with cardiac and other organ abnormalities, which are the usual causes of death in early neonatal life. We report a 3 months old girl with IS with dextrocardia, transposition of the great vessels, atrio-ventricular connection, total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, a right atrial and right pulmonary isomerism, a midline liver, a midline gallbladder, asplenia, intestinal malrotation and vena cava anomalies...
March 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
Serpil Bas, Tulay Guran, Zeynep Atay, Belma Haliloglu, Saygın Abalı, Serap Turan, Abdullah Bereket
Congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) is persistence of an anomalous embryological connection of the portal vein with a large vein of the vena cava system. Clinical presentations include neonatal cholestasis, liver tumors, and encephalopathy, but can be variable in timing and symptomatology. We report 2 girls who presented 10 years apart with the same complaint of early pubarche at age 7 years, with inappropriately low DHEAS levels. In addition to hyperandrogenemia (elevated testosterone and androstenedione) and advanced bone age, both had hyperinsulinemia, and hypothyroxinemia...
2015: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
S Louryan, N Vanmuylder
The specimen of which it is a matter here takes part of the heritage of the Museum of Anatomy and Embryology of the Faculty of Medicine of the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Its medical history is completely unknown, because it takes part of an ancient collection of pathological anatomy saved from destruction and recovered by the laboratory of Anatomy and Embryology. The specimen is strongly folded up on itself ("in extension"), its length so arranged is about 25 cm; unfolded, it develops to 45 cm. Cranial perimeter is of 31 cm...
March 2015: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
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