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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816053/in-vitro-exposure-systems-and-dosimetry-assessment-tools-for-inhaled-tobacco-products-workshop-proceedings-conclusions-and-paths-forward-for-in-vitro-model-use
#1
Holger Behrsing, Erin Hill, Hans Raabe, Raymond Tice, Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Robert Devlin, Kent Pinkerton, Günter Oberdörster, Chris Wright, Roman Wieczorek, Michaela Aufderheide, Sandro Steiner, Tobias Krebs, Bahman Asgharian, Richard Corley, Michael Oldham, Jason Adamson, Xiang Li, Irfan Rahman, Sonia Grego, Pei-Hsuan Chu, Shaun McCullough, Rodger Curren
In 2009, the passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference entitled, In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP...
July 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815758/detection-of-cyprinid-herpesvirus-1-dna-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-koi-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#2
Rubina Sirri, Sara Ciulli, Tim Barbé, Enrico Volpe, Maurizio Lazzari, Valeria Franceschini, Francesca Errani, Giuseppe Sarli, Luciana Mandrioli
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is an uncommon disease affecting koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Cutaneous papilloma (carp pox) is a benign epidermal proliferation reported in koi and has been shown to be caused by Cyprinid Herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Histological, ultrastructural and molecular investigations were carried out aiming to investigate the aetiology of cSCC within archived tissue samples. ANIMALS: Surgical samples of masses located on the integument, fins and lips of 13 koi carp belonging to different private owners were included in this retrospective study...
August 16, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815532/hepatitis-c-virus-replication
#3
Tetsuro Suzuki
Viruses use synthetic mechanism and organelles of the host cells to facilitate their replication and make new viruses. Host's ATP provides necessary energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, the HCV genome is thought to be synthesized by the replication complex, which consists of viral- and host cell-derived factors, in tight association with structurally rearranged vesicle-like cytoplasmic membranes. The virus-induced remodeling of subcellular membranes, which protect the viral RNA from nucleases in the cytoplasm, promotes efficient replication of HCV genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815395/identification-of-a-novel-envelope-protein-encoded-by-orf-136-from-cyprinid-herpesvirus-3
#4
Shucheng Zheng, Yingying Li, Qing Wang, Jiexing Wu, Yingying Wang, Weiwei Zeng, Sven M Bergmann, Yan Ren, Cunbin Shi
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the pathogenic agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) afflicting common carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations globally. As described previously, proteomic analyses of purified CyHV-3 particles have shown that at least 46 structural proteins are incorporated into CyHV-3 virions; among these ORF136 may encode a putative envelope protein. In this study, Western blotting analysis showed that a specific band with the predicted molecular weight of 17 kDa was detected both in purified virions and envelope components using a rabbit anti-ORF136 polyclonal antibody...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815357/carbon-fiber-reinforced-peek-fixation-system-in-the-treatment-of-spine-tumors-a-preliminary-report
#5
Stefano Boriani, Giuseppe Tedesco, Lu Ming, Riccardo Ghermandi, Maurizio Amichetti, Piero Fossati, Marco Krengli, Loredana Mavilla, Alessandro Gasbarrini
BACKGROUND: Protocols including combination of surgery and radiotherapy are more and more frequent in the treatment of bone tumors of the spine. In metastatic disease, combination of surgery and radiotherapy is since long time accepted, as based on clinical evidence. In primary tumors, combination of surgery and radiotherapy can be considered in all the cases in which a satisfactory oncological margin cannot be achieved: high-grade malignancies, recurrent tumors, huge tumors expanding in an extracompartimental area, and when tumor-free margin requires unacceptable functional sacrifices...
August 16, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815049/multi-target-chimaeric-vlp-as-a-therapeutic-vaccine-in-a-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#6
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814794/increased-body-exposure-to-new-anti-trypanosomal-through-nanoencapsulation
#7
Renata Tupinambá Branquinho, Gwenaelle Pound-Lana, Matheus Marques Milagre, Dênia Antunes Saúde-Guimarães, José Mário Carneiro Vilela, Margareth Spangler Andrade, Marta de Lana, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira
Lychnopholide, a lipophilic sesquiterpene lactone, is efficacious in mice at the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. Conventional poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and long-circulating poly(D,L-lactide)-block-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) nanocapsules containing lychnopholide were developed and characterized. Lychnopholide presented high association efficiency (>90%) with the nanocapsules. A new, fast and simple HPLC-UV-based bioanalytical method was developed, validated in mouse plasma and applied to lychnopholide quantification in in vitro release kinetics and pharmacokinetics...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814234/biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-haemodialysis-patients
#8
Beata Franczyk, Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Jacek Rysz
BACKGROUND: All stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with increased risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. According to studies, levels of copeptin, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and heart fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) are increased in dialysis patients. MATERIALS: This study included 50 patients (19 women, 31 men) chronically undergoing haemodialysis. The concentration of markers: copeptin, GDF-15, h-FABP, troponin and serum creatine kinase MB (CKMB) were measured with the use of ELISA tests...
August 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811473/plant-made-polio-type-3-stabilized-vlps-a-candidate-synthetic-polio-vaccine
#9
Johanna Marsian, Helen Fox, Mohammad W Bahar, Abhay Kotecha, Elizabeth E Fry, David I Stuart, Andrew J Macadam, David J Rowlands, George P Lomonossoff
Poliovirus (PV) is the causative agent of poliomyelitis, a crippling human disease known since antiquity. PV occurs in two distinct antigenic forms, D and C, of which only the D form elicits a robust neutralizing response. Developing a synthetically produced stabilized virus-like particle (sVLP)-based vaccine with D antigenicity, without the drawbacks of current vaccines, will be a major step towards the final eradication of poliovirus. Such a sVLP would retain the native antigenic conformation and the repetitive structure of the original virus particle, but lack infectious genomic material...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#10
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810265/viral-retinopathy-in-experimental-models-of-zika-infection
#11
Zhenyang Zhao, Matthew Yang, Sasha R Azar, Lynn Soong, Scott C Weaver, Jiaren Sun, Yan Chen, Shannan L Rossi, Jiyang Cai
Purpose: Emerging evidence has shown that both congenital and adult Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause eye diseases. The goals of the current study were to explore mechanisms and pathophysiology of ZIKV-induced eye defects. Methods: Wild-type or A129 interferon type I receptor-deficient mice were infected by either FSS13025 or Mex1-7 strain of ZIKV. Retinal histopathology was measured at different time points after infection. The presence of viral RNA and protein in the retina was determined by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809479/natural-seminal-amyloids-as-targets-for-development-of-synthetic-inhibitors-of-hiv-transmission
#12
Daniel A Sheik, Stephen Dewhurst, Jerry Yang
Amyloids refer to a class of protein or peptide aggregates that are heterogeneous in size, morphology, and composition, and are implicated to play a central role in many neurodegenerative and systemic diseases. The strong correlation between biological activity and extent of aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins and peptides has led to an explosion of research efforts to target these materials with synthetic molecules or engineered antibodies to try to attenuate their function in disease pathology. Although many of these efforts to attenuate amyloid function have shown great promise in laboratory settings, the vast majority of work has been focused on targeting amyloids associated with neurologic diseases, which has been met with significant additional challenges that preclude clinical evaluation...
August 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809003/preparation-of-disease-related-protein-assemblies-for-single-particle-electron-microscopy
#13
A Cameron Varano, Naoe Harafuji, William Dearnaley, Lisa Guay-Woodford, Deborah F Kelly
Electron microscopy (EM) is a rapidly growing area of structural biology that permits us to decode biological assemblies at the nanoscale. To examine biological materials for single particle EM analysis, purified assemblies must be obtained using biochemical separation techniques. Here, we describe effective methodologies for isolating histidine (his)-tagged protein assemblies from the nucleus of disease-relevant cell lines. We further demonstrate how isolated assemblies are visualized using single particle EM techniques and provide representative results for each step in the process...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808967/purification-of-cyclic-gmp-amp-from-viruses-and-measurement-of-its-activity-in-cell-culture
#14
Alice Mayer, Jonathan Maelfait, Anne Bridgeman, Jan Rehwinkel
Sensing of cytoplasmic DNA by cGAS is essential for the initiation of immune responses against several viruses. cGAS also plays important roles in some autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases and may be involved in immune responses targeting cancer cells. Once activated, cGAS catalyzes the formation of the di-nucleotide 2'-3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which propagates a signaling cascade leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs). Interestingly, cGAMP is incorporated into enveloped viruses and is transferred to newly infected cells by virions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808955/exploring-the-biological-and-mechanical-properties-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-using-uspio-mri-and-peak-tissue-stress-a-combined-clinical-and-finite-element-study
#15
Noel Conlisk, Rachael O Forsythe, Lyam Hollis, Barry J Doyle, Olivia M B McBride, Jennifer M J Robson, Chengjia Wang, Calum D Gray, Scott I K Semple, Tom MacGillivray, Edwin J R van Beek, David E Newby, Peter R Hoskins
Inflammation detected through the uptake of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and finite element (FE) modelling of tissue stress both hold potential in the assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk. This study aimed to examine the spatial relationship between these two biomarkers. Patients (n = 50) > 40 years with AAA maximum diameters > = 40 mm underwent USPIO-enhanced MRI and computed tomography angiogram (CTA). USPIO uptake was compared with wall stress predictions from CTA-based patient-specific FE models of each aneurysm...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808833/long-acting-ionically-paired-embonate-based-nanocrystals-of-donepezil-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#16
Naresh Mittapelly, Maharshi Thalla, Gitu Pandey, Venkatesh Teja Banala, Shweta Sharma, Abhishek Arya, Sandeep Mishra, Kalyan Mitra, Shubha Shukla, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to prepare a patient friendly long acting donepezil (D) nanocrystals (NCs) formulation, with a high payload for i.m administration. As the native D hydrochloride salt has high aqueous solubility it is necessary to increase its hydrophobicity prior to the NCs formation. METHODS: D was ionically paired with embonic acid (E) in aqueous media and was successfully characterized using techniques like DSC, PXRD, FT-IR, NMR etc...
August 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808008/mathematical-model-reveals-role-of-nucleotide-signaling-in-airway-surface-liquid-homeostasis-and-its-dysregulation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Conner I Sandefur, Richard C Boucher, Timothy C Elston
Mucociliary clearance is composed of three components (i.e., mucin secretion, airway surface hydration, and ciliary-activity) which function coordinately to clear inhaled microbes and other foreign particles from airway surfaces. Airway surface hydration is maintained by water fluxes driven predominantly by active chloride and sodium ion transport. The ion channels that mediate electrogenic ion transport are regulated by extracellular purinergic signals that signal through G protein-coupled receptors. These purinoreceptors and the signaling pathways they activate have been identified as possible therapeutic targets for treating lung disease...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806910/multi-target-chimaeric-vlp-as-a-therapeutic-vaccine-in-a-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#18
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806519/pluronic-p85-f68-micelles-of-baicalein-could-interfere-with-mitochondria-to-overcome-mrp2-mediated-efflux-and-offer-improved-anti-parkinsonian-activity
#19
Tongkai Chen, Ye Li, Chuwen Li, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
Overexpression of the drug efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in the gastrointestinal tract and blood-brain barrier compromises the oral delivery of drugs to the circulation system and brain in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we aim to develop small-sized Pluronic P85/F68 micelles loaded with baicalein (B-MCs) to overcome MRP2-mediated efflux and to investigate related mechanism, as well as the anti-Parkinsonian efficacy. Spherical and sustained-release B-MCs have a mean particle size of 40...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804847/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-factor-activity-by-glycoprotein-ib-binding-assays-vwf-gpib
#20
Jürgen Patzke, Emmanuel J Favaloro
In addition to assessment of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:Ag), the first-line laboratory investigation of possible von Willebrand disease (VWD) often includes an assay to measure GPIb (glycoprotein Ib) binding activity of VWF. A decreased GPIb binding activity is characteristic for most of the VWD types. For many years, the most frequently used assay for measuring GPIb binding activity was the ristocetin cofactor assay (VWF:RCo), which measures the agglutination of fixed human platelets by VWF in the presence of ristocetin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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