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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#1
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932757/a-five-repeat-micro-dystrophin-gene-ameliorated-dystrophic-phenotype-in-the-severe-dba-2j-mdx-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Chady H Hakim, Nalinda B Wasala, Xiufang Pan, Kasun Kodippili, Yongping Yue, Keqing Zhang, Gang Yao, Brittney Haffner, Sean X Duan, Julian Ramos, Joel S Schneider, N Nora Yang, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Dongsheng Duan
Micro-dystrophins are highly promising candidates for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Here, we report robust disease rescue in the severe DBA/2J-mdx model with a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-binding micro-dystrophin vector. 2 × 10(13) vector genome particles/mouse of the vector were delivered intravenously to 10-week-old mice and were evaluated at 6 months of age. Saturated micro-dystrophin expression was detected in all skeletal muscles and the heart and restored the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and nNOS...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932658/the-process-of-wrapping-virus-revealed-by-a-force-tracing-technique-and-simulations
#3
Yangang Pan, Fuxian Zhang, Liuyang Zhang, Shuheng Liu, Mingjun Cai, Yuping Shan, Xianqiao Wang, Hanzhong Wang, Hongda Wang
Viral entry into the host cell is the first step of virus infection; however, its dynamic process via endocytosis remains largely elusive. Here, the force tracing technique and single particle simulation are combined to investigate the invagination of single human enterovirus 71 (HEV71, a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease) via cell membranes during its host cell entry. The experimental results reveal that the HEV71 invaginates in membrane vesicles at a force of 58 ± 16 pN, a duration time of 278 ± 68 ms...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932118/fabrication-optimization-and-characterization-of-umbelliferone-%C3%AE-d-galactopyranoside-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#4
Vikas Kumar, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Mahfoozur Rahman, Gaurav Kaithwas, Hani Choudhry, Fahad A Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar, Amita Verma
Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG), isolated from plants, exhibits promising inhibitory action on numerous diseases. The present research was initiated to develop a suitable delivery system for UFG with an intention to enhance its therapeutic efficacy against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Wistar rats. UFG-loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by sonication were scrutinized for average size, drug loading capacity, zeta potential, and drug release potency in animals...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932114/spermidine-mediated-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-containing-fluorofenidone-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
Jing Tang, Jianming Li, Guo Li, Haitao Zhang, Ling Wang, Dai Li, Jinsong Ding
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal lung disease with poor survival. The advances made in deciphering this disease have led to the approval of different antifibrotic molecules, such as pirfenidone and nintedanib. An increasing number of studies with particles (liposomes, nanoparticles [NPs], microspheres, nanopolymersomes, and nanoliposomes) modified with different functional groups have demonstrated improvement in lung-targeted drug delivery. In the present study, we prepared, characterized, and evaluated spermidine (Spd)-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs as carriers for fluorofenidone (AKF) to improve the antifibrotic efficacy of this drug in the lung...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#6
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#7
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930555/the-forgotten-modified-lipoprotein-subspecies
#8
Ahmed Bakillah, Mohamed Zaiou
Insights from preclinical and clinical studies have attempted to highlight the importance of modified lipoprotein particles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, evidence is not conclusive. Since there is a relative dearth of clinical research in collecting useful information from traditional advanced lipoproteins testing, this present editorial introduces the aim of a special issue on modified lipoproteins as potential biomarkers for CVD. This issue aims at gathering a selection of insightful articles that address major challenges related to potential clinical use of modified lipoproteins as new CVD biomarkers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#9
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929192/role-of-pd-1-in-immunity-and-diseases
#10
Kenji Chamoto, Muna Al-Habsi, Tasuku Honjo
Immunity developed to defend our bodies from foreign particles, including bacteria and viruses. Although effector cells responsible for acquired immunity, mainly T cells, and B cells, are able to distinguish self from non-self, they sometimes attack the body's tissues because of imperfect central tolerance. Several immune check points developed to limit overactivation of these cells. One of the most important immune checkpoints is programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which is expressed mainly on activated lymphocytes...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925870/pollution-and-sun-exposure-a-deleterious-synergy-mechanisms-and-opportunities-for-skin-protection
#11
Laurent Marrot
Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925594/pharyngoesophageal-diverticula-simulating-thyroid-nodules-an-unusual-occurrence-with-unique-features
#12
Karen K Nauschuetz, Lorna L Ogden, Cherry E Starling, Mohammad J Saleh, Allan C Golding, S Thomas Traweek
Pharyngoesophageal diverticula (PED) of the Zenker's and Killian-Jamieson types arise in close proximity to the thyroid gland, and may rarely be confused with a thyroid nodule on ultrasonography. In this brief report, we detail the cytologic, clinical, and radiologic findings of three PED that were thought to be thyroid nodules, and were subjected to fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The patients were females with an age range of 51-64 years. All three patients had multiple thyroid nodules, and two patients reported symptoms attributable to the diverticulum...
September 19, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923936/isolation-of-exosomes-from-whole-blood-by-integrating-acoustics-and-microfluidics
#13
Mengxi Wu, Yingshi Ouyang, Zeyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chuyi Chen, Hui Li, Peng Li, David Quinn, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Yoel Sadovsky, Tony Jun Huang
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that play an important role in many biological processes, including intercellular communications, antigen presentation, and the transport of proteins, RNA, and other molecules. Recently there has been significant interest in exosome-related fundamental research, seeking new exosome-based biomarkers for health monitoring and disease diagnoses. Here, we report a separation method based on acoustofluidics (i.e., the integration of acoustics and microfluidics) to isolate exosomes directly from whole blood in a label-free and contact-free manner...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922584/characterization-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-of-spore-and-hyphae-samples-from-various-mold-species
#14
E Øya, Akj Afanou, N Malla, S Uhlig, E Rolen, I Skaar, A Straumfors, J O Winberg, B E Bang, P E Schwarze, W Eduard, J A Holme
Mold particles from Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum have been linked to respiratory-related diseases. Here we characterized X-ray-inactivated spores and hyphae fragments from these species by number of particles, morphology, and mycotoxin, β-glucan and protease content/activity. The pro-inflammatory properties of mold particles were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and THP-1 monocytes and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1...
September 18, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919749/ginsenoside-rg1-nanoparticle-penetrating-the-blood-brain-barrier-to-improve-the-cerebral-function-of-diabetic-rats-complicated-with-cerebral-infarction
#15
Junyi Shen, Zhiming Zhao, Wei Shang, Chunli Liu, Beibei Zhang, Lingjie Zhao, Hui Cai
Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS) diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H), Rg1, and OX26 antibody), targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919744/composite-iron-oxide-prussian-blue-nanoparticles-for-magnetically-guided-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy-of-tumors
#16
Shraddha S Kale, Rachel A Burga, Elizabeth E Sweeney, Zungho Zun, Raymond W Sze, Anthony Tuesca, J Anand Subramony, Rohan Fernandes
Theranostic nanoparticles offer the potential for mixing and matching disparate diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities within a single nanoparticle for the personalized treatment of diseases. In this article, we present composite iron oxide-gadolinium-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles (Fe3O4@GdPB) as a novel theranostic agent for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. These particles combine the well-described properties and safety profiles of the constituent Fe3O4 nanoparticles and gadolinium-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919716/palatability-and-physical-properties-of-potassium-binding-resin-rdx7675-comparison-with-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate
#17
Vanessa Zann, John McDermott, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, especially those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, are at high risk of developing. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a current treatment, binds potassium within the gastrointestinal tract to reduce potassium absorption. However, poor palatability limits its long-term use. RDX7675, a novel potassium binder in development for the treatment of hyperkalemia, is a calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin designed to have enhanced palatability...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919581/antitumor-response-to-a-codon-optimized-hpv-16-e7-hsp70-fusion-antigen-dna-vaccine
#18
Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Hadi Razavinikoo, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Abdollah Ardebili
BACKGROUND: Vaccines based on virus-like particles are effective against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection; however, they have not shown a therapeutic effect against HPV-associated diseases. New immunotherapy strategies based on immune responses against tumor antigens can positively affect the clearance of HPV-associated lesions. OBJECTIVE: To generate two therapeutic fusion DNA vaccines (optimizedE7/mouseHSP70 and wildE7/mouseHSP70) to induce antitumor specific responses in mice models...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919159/host-control-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
John Doorbar
Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia...
August 12, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919035/development-of-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-hepatitis-a-virus-concentration-from-green-onion
#20
Yan Zheng, Yuan Hu
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause serious liver disease and even death. HAV outbreaks are associated with the consumption of raw or minimally processed produce, making it a major public health concern. Infections have occurred despite the fact that effective HAV vaccine has been available. Development of a rapid and sensitive HAV detection method is necessary for an investigation of an HAV outbreak. Detection of HAV is complicated by the lack of a reliable culture method. In addition, due to the low infectious dose of HAV, these methods must be very sensitive...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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