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tumor molecular biology

Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Elizabeth R Gerstner, Kristian W Pajtler
Ependymoma can arise throughout the whole neuraxis. In children, tumors predominantly occur intracranially, whereas the spine is the most prevalent location in adults. Significant variance in the grade II versus grade III distinction of ependymomas has led to the acknowledgment that the clinical utility of histopathological classification is limited. Epigenomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymomas that adequately reflect the biological, clinical, and histopathological heterogeneities across anatomical compartments, age groups, and grades...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Zachary J Reitman, Frank Winkler, Andrew E H Elia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The current standard of care for GBM is maximal resection followed by postoperative radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite this multimodality treatment, the median survival for GBM remains marginally better than 1 year. In the past decade, genome-wide analyses have uncovered new molecular features of GBM that have refined its classification and provided new insights into the molecular basis for GBM pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Julie J Miller, Wolfgang Wick
The majority of World Health Organization grade II and grade III gliomas harbor heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and tumors with an IDH wild-type status show molecular features of a glioblastoma and simply may constitute a separate disease entity. This discovery has led to a profound shift in the way that gliomas are classified and, consequently, how treatment decisions are made. We will review the current understanding of IDH- mutant gliomagenesis and the preclinical models being used to investigate the underlying biology of these tumors and to explore new therapeutic options for these patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Silvia Salerno, Aída Nelly García-Argáez, Elisabetta Barresi, Sabrina Taliani, Francesca Simorini, Concettina La Motta, Giorgio Amendola, Stefano Tomassi, Sandro Cosconati, Ettore Novellino, Federico Da Settimo, Anna Maria Marini, Lisa Dalla Via
Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway emerged as an established approach in anticancer therapy. So far, many monoclonal antibodies and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors have been clinically validated and approved. In this study, structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the 2-phenylamino-substituted benzothiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine class of kinase inhibitors were further refined by the synthesis and biological evaluation of new compounds 1-21 featuring different substitution patterns on the pendant phenyl moiety, combined with H, OCH3 , or Cl at 8-position...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Charles Hellec, Maxime Delos, Mathieu Carpentier, Agnès Denys, Fabrice Allain
Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) catalyze the final maturation step of heparan sulfates. Although seven HS3ST isozymes have been described in human, 3-O-sulfation is a relatively rare modification, and only a few biological processes have been described to be influenced by 3-O-sulfated motifs. A conflicting literature has recently reported that HS3ST2, 3A, 3B and 4 may exhibit either tumor-promoting or anti-oncogenic properties, depending on the model used and cancer cell phenotype. Hence, we decided to compare the consequences of the overexpression of each of these HS3STs in the same cellular model...
2018: PloS One
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Tao Liu, Karin D Rodland, Richard D Smith
Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of the tumor peptidome has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the tumors peptidome information in cancer research have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
António M Galvão, Dariusz Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
Successful pregnancy establishment demands optimal luteal function in mammals. Nonetheless, regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is absolutely necessary for normal female cyclicity. This dichotomy relies on intricate molecular signals and rapidly activated biological responses, such as angiogenesis, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, or programmed cell death. The CL establishment and growth after ovulation depend not only on the luteinizing hormone-mediated endocrine signal but also on a number of auto-, paracrine interactions promoted by cytokines and growth factors like fibroblast growth factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which coordinate vascularigenesis and ECM reorganization as well as steroidogenesis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Paulino Alvarez, Alexandros Briasoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune system activation plays a central role in heart failure progression. Large-scale immune modulatory clinical trials targeting tumor necrosis factor-α and broad spectrum immune modulation have been negative. The objective of this review is to highlight past, present, and what is in the horizon for the immunomodulation in heart failure with a focus of biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies targeting interleukin-1 pathway are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and data from pilot studies are promising...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Min Sha, Mei Lin, Jia Wang, Jun Ye, Jie Xu, Ning Xu, Junxing Huang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of long non-coding RNA MIAT in gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to determine MIAT level in 120 GC tissues, and in two gastric cancer cell lines. The clinicopathological characteristics of MIAT in GC patients were analyzed. Small interfering RNA specific for MIAT (si-MIAT) and lentivector for si-MIAT was performed to down-regulate MIAT expression in GC cells and in animal tumor model, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Yanhua Ouyang, Likun Zhao, Zhuqing Zhang
Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) or proteins (IDPs), which play crucial biological functions in essential biological processes of life, do not have well-defined secondary or tertiary structures when isolated in solution. The highly dynamic properties and conformational heterogeneity of IDPs make them challenging to study with traditional experimental techniques. As a powerful complementary tool for experiments, all-atom molecular dynamics simulation can obtain detailed conformational information on IDPs, but the limitation of force field accuracy is a challenge for reproducing IDP conformers...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Federica Camela, Marcella Gallucci, Emanuela di Palmo, Salvatore Cazzato, Mario Lima, Giampaolo Ricci, Andrea Pession
The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare lesion of unclear etiology and variable clinical course, consisting of a proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, mixed with inflammatory cells. Synonyms of IMT are inflammatory pseudotumor and plasma cell granuloma reflecting the alleged inflammatory nature attributed to this lesion, even though this heterogeneity in the disease denomination is probably involved in a dispersion of the literature data. Among primary pulmonary neoplasms, it represents the most frequent endobronchial tumor of childhood and beyond the lung it has been described mainly in the bladder, mediastinum and mesentery...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Geneviève Dom, Sandra Frank, Sebastien Floor, Pashalina Kehagias, Frederick Libert, Catherine Hoang, Guy Andry, Alex Spinette, Ligia Craciun, Nicolas de Saint Aubin, Christophe Tresallet, Frederique Tissier, Frederique Savagner, Samira Majjaj, Ilse Gutierrez-Roelens, Etienne Marbaix, Jacques E Dumont, Carine Maenhaut
Non-autonomous thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a proportion found to be cancerous. A current challenge in the field is to be able to distinguish benign adenoma (FA) from preoperatively malignant thyroid follicular carcinoma (FTC), which are very similar both histologically and genetically. One controversial issue, which is currently not understood, is whether both tumor types represent different molecular entities or rather a biological continuum. To gain a better insight into FA and FTC tumorigenesis, we defined their molecular profiles by mRNA and miRNA microarray...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Peiye Shen, Ying Jing, Ruiyun Zhang, Mei-Chun Cai, Pengfei Ma, Haige Chen, Guanglei Zhuang
Neuroendocrine bladder cancer is a relatively rare but often lethal malignancy, with cell of origin, oncogenomic architecture and standard treatment poorly defined. Here we performed comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing on a unique cohort of genitourinary neuroendocrine neoplasms, mainly small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. The mutational landscape and signatures of neuroendocrine bladder cancer strikingly resembled those in conventional urothelial carcinoma, along with typically mixed histologies, supporting a common cellular origin...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
Peng Wu, Jia-Li Liu, Shi-Mei Pei, Chang-Peng Wu, Kai Yang, Shu-Peng Wang, Song Wu
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) account for over 80% of renal malignancies. The most common type of RCC can be classified into three subtypes including clear cell, papillary and chromophobe. ccRCC (the Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma) is the most frequent form and shows variations in genetics and behavior. To improve accuracy and personalized care and increase the cure rate of cancer, molecular typing for individuals is necessary. METHODS: We adopted the genome, transcriptome and methylation HMK450 data of ccRCC in The Cancer Genome Atlas Network in this research...
March 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Véronique Hofman, Sandra Lassalle, Coraline Bence, Elodie Long-Mira, Sacha Nahon-Estève, Simon Heeke, Virginie Lespinet-Fabre, Catherine Butori, Marius Ilié, Paul Hofman
The identification of certain genomic alterations ( EGFR , ALK , ROS1 , BRAF ) or immunological markers (PD-L1) in tissues or cells has led to targeted treatment for patients presenting with late stage or metastatic lung cancer. These biomarkers can be detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or by molecular biology (MB) techniques. These approaches are often complementary but depending on, the quantity and quality of the biological material, the urgency to get the results, the access to technological platforms, the financial resources and the expertise of the team, the choice of the approach can be questioned...
March 13, 2018: Cancers
Ying Zhu, Qing Lei, Dan Li, Yang Zhang, Xiaogang Jiang, Zhanhong Hu, Guoqiang Xu
Protein post-translational modification by ubiquitin-fold modifier 1, UFM1, regulates many biological processes such as response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulation of tumor progression. Recent study has indicated that the UFM1-binding and PCI domain-containing protein 1 (UFBP1) is required for the conjugation of UFM1 to a substrate. However, other biological functions of UFBP1 have not been explored. Here, we use immunoprecipitation and label-free quantitative proteomics to identify UFBP1-interacting proteins in a mammalian cell line...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Mei Zhang, Zhuo-Li Zhu, Xiao-Lei Gao, Jia-Shun Wu, Xin-Hua Liang, Ya-Ling Tang
The perineural invasion (PNI) of malignant tumors is a form of tumor progression in which cancer cells encroach along nerves. PNI hinders curative resection. Residual tumor cells in or around nerves can bring about local recurrence, infiltration and metastasis. This behavior is usually associated with a poor clinical prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate novel ligand-receptor crosstalk between nerves and tumor cells that promote the process of PNI. Chemokines are regarded as one of pivotal factors involved in the process of PNI...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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