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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214331/pomc-maintains-tumor-initiating-properties-of-tumor-tissue-derived-long-term-cultured-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie
The identification and understanding of the molecular network of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have had a profound impact on our view of carcinogenesis and treatment strategy. Unfortunately, a major problem is that serial passages of CSCs from clinical solid tumor specimens currently are not available in any lab, and thus, reported data are difficult to confirm and intensively interrogated. Here, we have generated two tumor tissue-derived breast CSC (BCSC) lines that showed prolonged maintenance over 20 serial passages in vitro, while retaining their tumor-initiating biological properties...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213714/-current-biomarkers-for-gastric-cancer
#2
G B Baretton, D E Aust
Gastric cancer is still a relevant malignant disease with high morbidity and mortality. Current molecular genetic data show that gastric cancer, as other solid tumors as well, is not a single entity but consists of several molecular subtypes of gastric cancer with diverse biology. The increasing understanding of molecular pathways is the basis for innovative therapies. These either directly target altered signaling pathways or genes in tumor cells or as in immune checkpoint inhibitors, indirectly target tumor cells by blocking tumor-induced immune inhibition leading to improvement in the prognosis...
February 17, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213288/inhibition-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-regulating-rhoa-p27-kip1-and-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt4-signaling-pathway
#3
Qunyi Li, Lei Zhu, Liudi Zhang, Haifei Chen, Yingfeng Zhu, Yongli Du, Wanxian Zhong, Mingkang Zhong, Xiaojin Shi
RhoA/p27(Kip1) and β-Catenin/Wnt4 signaling processes play central roles in proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). ERRα, a member of orphan nuclear receptors, is a potent prognostic factor in breast, ovarian, colon and other types of tumors. However, biological significance of ERRα in VSMCs as well as the molecular mechanisms remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether ERRα is involved in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212372/molecular-biology-of-gastroesophageal-cancers-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
Shaheer Khan, Sameh Mikhail, Joanne Xiu, Mohamed E Salem
Gastroesophageal (GE) malignancies make up a significant and growing segment of newly diagnosed cancers. Approximately 80% of patients who have GE cancers die within 5 years of diagnosis, which means that effective treatments for these malignancies need to be found. Currently, targeted therapies have a minimal role in this disease group. Intensive study of the molecular biology of GE cancers is a relatively new and ongoing venture, but it has already led to a significant increase in our understanding of these malignancies...
January 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210624/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-interactions-between-breast-cancer-or-melanoma-cells-and-the-tissue-microenvironment-during-brain-metastasis
#5
Ryo Sato, Teppei Nakano, Mari Hosonaga, Oltea Sampetrean, Ritsuko Harigai, Takashi Sasaki, Ikuko Koya, Hideyuki Okano, Jun Kudoh, Hideyuki Saya, Yoshimi Arima
Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Metastasis of tumor cells to the brain occurs frequently in individuals with breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, or melanoma. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the causes and in the treatment of primary tumors, the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis of cancer cells to the brain have remained unclear. Metastasizing cancer cells interact with their microenvironment in the brain to establish metastases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208703/androgen-receptor-signaling-in-salivary-gland-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Martin G Dalin, Philip A Watson, Alan L Ho, Luc G T Morris
Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma...
February 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208071/anthocyanin-suppresses-cocrmo-particle-induced-osteolysis-by-inhibiting-ikk%C3%AE-%C3%AE-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-a-mouse-calvarial-model
#7
Yamin Li, Juehong Li, Bin Li, Hui Qin, Xiaochun Peng, Yaochao Zhao, Yunsu Chen
Wear particle-induced osteolysis and bone resorption have been identified as critical factors of implant failure and total joint revision, in which nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and chronic inflammation have been shown to play key roles. Although anthocyanin is known to have anti-inflammatory function via blocking NF-κB pathway, it is still unclear whether anthocyanin has a protective effect on particle-induced osteolysis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed effects and the underlying mechanism of anthocyanin on CoCrMo particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvavial model...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208020/graphene-oxide-induced-perturbation-to-plasma-membrane-and-cytoskeletal-meshwork-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-agents
#8
Jianqiang Zhu, Ming Xu, Ming Gao, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu, Tian Xia, Sijin Liu
The outstanding physicochemical properties endow graphene materials (e.g. graphene oxide, GO) with beneficial potentials in diverse biomedical fields such as bioimaging, drug delivery and biomolecular detection. GO recently emerges to act as chemosensitizer; however, the detailed molecular bases underlying GO-conducted sensitization and according biological effects are still elusive. Based on our recent findings that GO treatment at sublethal concentrations could impair the general cellular priming state including disorders of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton construction, we here aimed to explore the mechanism of GO as a sensitizer to make cancer cells more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents...
February 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207402/reconstructing-the-temporal-progression-of-biological-data-using-cluster-spanning-trees
#9
Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
Identifying the temporal progression of a set of biological samples is crucial for comprehending the dynamics of the underlying molecular interactions. It is often also a basic step in data denoising and synchronization. Finally, identifying the progression order is crucial for problems like cell lineage identification, disease progression, tumor classification, and epidemiology and thus impacts the spectrum of disciplines spanning basic biology, drug discovery, and public health. Current methods that attempt solving this problem face difficulty when it is necessary to factor-in complex relationships within the data such as grouping, partial ordering or bifurcating or multifurcating progressions...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203297/therapeutic-approach-to-treating-patients-with-braf-mutant-lung-cancer-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Adrianus J de Langen, Egbert F Smit
Lung adenocarcinoma is known for its high rate of somatic mutations and genomic rearrangements. The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements that sensitize tumors to specific drugs has changed the therapeutic approach and prognosis in these molecularly-defined subgroups. Several other key genetic alterations have been identified, of which BRAF mutations are found in 4% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Targeted drugs against BRAF and downstream MEK were recently approved for the treatment of BRAF-positive melanoma and have entered clinical evaluation in NSCLC...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203054/uveal-melanoma-epidemiology-etiology-and-treatment-of-primary-disease
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin A Krantz, Nikita Dave, Kimberly M Komatsubara, Brian P Marr, Richard D Carvajal
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy and arises from melanocytes in the iris, ciliary body, or choroid. Early diagnosis and local treatment is crucial, as survival correlates with primary tumor size. However, approximately 50% of patients will develop metastatic disease with 6-12 months' survival from metastatic diagnosis. Genomic analyses have led to the development of gene-expression profiles that effectively predict metastatic progression; unfortunately, no adjuvant therapy has been shown to prolong survival to date...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198679/detecting-discordance-enrichment-among-a-series-of-two-sample-genome-wide-expression-data-sets
#12
Yinglei Lai, Fanni Zhang, Tapan K Nayak, Reza Modarres, Norman H Lee, Timothy A McCaffrey
BACKGROUND: With the current microarray and RNA-seq technologies, two-sample genome-wide expression data have been widely collected in biological and medical studies. The related differential expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis have been frequently conducted. Integrative analysis can be conducted when multiple data sets are available. In practice, discordant molecular behaviors among a series of data sets can be of biological and clinical interest. METHODS: In this study, a statistical method is proposed for detecting discordance gene set enrichment...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196522/xpo1-in-b-cell-hematological-malignancies-from-recurrent-somatic-mutations-to-targeted-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Vincent Camus, Hadjer Miloudi, Antoine Taly, Brigitte Sola, Fabrice Jardin
Many recent publications highlight the large role of the pivotal eukaryotic nuclear export protein exportin-1 (XPO1) in the oncogenesis of several malignancies, and there is emerging evidence that XPO1 inhibition is a key target against cancer. The clinical validation of the pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was recently achieved with the development of the selective inhibitor of nuclear export compounds, displaying an interesting anti-tumor activity in patients with massive pre-treated hematological malignancies...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196294/comparison-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-fresh-garlic-and-black-garlic-polysaccharides-on-raw-264-7-macrophages
#14
Min Li, Yi-Xi Yan, Qing-Tao Yu, Yong Deng, Ding-Tao Wu, Ying Wang, Ya-Zhong Ge, Shao-Ping Li, Jing Zhao
Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194445/diverse-repetitive-element-rna-expression-defines-epigenetic-and-immunologic-features-of-colon-cancer
#15
Niyati Desai, Dipti Sajed, Kshitij S Arora, Alexander Solovyov, Mihir Rajurkar, Jacob R Bledsoe, Srinjoy Sil, Ramzi Amri, Eric Tai, Olivia C MacKenzie, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Martin J Aryee, Cristina R Ferrone, David L Berger, Miguel N Rivera, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Vikram Deshpande, David T Ting
There is tremendous excitement for the potential of epigenetic therapies in cancer, but the ability to predict and monitor response to these drugs remains elusive. This is in part due to the inability to differentiate the direct cytotoxic and the immunomodulatory effects of these drugs. The DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine (AZA) has shown these distinct effects in colon cancer and appears to be linked to the derepression of repeat RNAs. LINE and HERV are two of the largest classes of repeats in the genome, and despite many commonalities, we found that there is heterogeneity in behavior among repeat subtypes...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193563/calcium-oxidative-stress-and-connexin-channels-a-harmonious-orchestra-directing-the-response-to-radiotherapy-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Elke Decrock, Delphine Hoorelbeke, Raghda Ramadan, Tinneke Delvaeye, Marijke De Bock, Nan Wang, Dmitri V Krysko, Sarah Baatout, Geert Bultynck, An Aerts, Mathieu Vinken, Luc Leybaert
Although radiotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer, its beneficial outcome is frequently hampered by the radiation resistance of tumor cells and adverse reactions in normal tissues. Mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and how intercellular signals are translated into cellular responses, have become topics of intense investigation, particularly within the field of radiobiology. A substantial amount of evidence is available demonstrating that both gap junctional and paracrine communication pathways can propagate radiation-induced biological effects at the intercellular level, commonly referred to as radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE)...
February 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192747/biology-and-patterns-of-response-to-egfr-inhibition-in-squamous-cell-cancers-of-the-lung-and-head-neck
#17
REVIEW
Rosalyn A Juergens, Scott V Bratman, Ming-Sound Tsao, Scott A Laurie, M Sara Kuruvilla, Albiruni R A Razak, Aaron R Hansen
The identification of common molecular aberrations that drive cancer progression has led to targeted therapies that improve treatment efficacy in many tumor types. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been used to treat both lung and head and neck cancers with squamous cell histology. These tumors often show high EGFR expression and/or increased gene copy number, but low incidence of the activating kinase domain mutations common to adenocarcinomas of the lung. In this manuscript, we review clinical trial data on EGFR-inhibitors in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung and head and neck (SCCHN), including both efficacy and biomarker analyses...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192645/cytological-molecular-and-clinical-features-of-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-versus-invasive-forms-of-follicular-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#18
Liena Zhao, Dora Dias-Santagata, Peter M Sadow, William C Faquin
BACKGROUND: The noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has an indolent clinical behavior in comparison with other PTCs, including the invasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (IFVPTC). Recently, the term noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was introduced to emphasize the low biological potential of these tumors. This study compares clinical, cytological, and molecular features of NIFTP and IFVPTC...
February 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191587/cytotoxic-responses-of-carnosic-acid-and-doxorubicin-on-breast-cancer-cells-in-butterfly-shaped-microchips-in-comparison-to-2d-and-3d-culture
#19
Ece Yildiz-Ozturk, Sultan Gulce-Iz, Muge Anil, Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas
Two dimensional (2D) cell culture systems lack the ability to mimic in vivo conditions resulting in limitations for preclinical cell-based drug and toxicity screening assays and modelling tumor biology. Alternatively, 3D cell culture systems mimic the specificity of native tissue with better physiological integrity. In this regard, microfluidic chips have gained wide applicability for in vitro 3D cancer cell studies. The aim of this research was to develop a 3D biomimetic model comprising culture of breast cancer cells in butterfly-shaped microchip to determine the cytotoxicity of carnosic acid and doxorubicin on both estrogen dependent (MCF-7) and independent (MDA-MB231) breast cancer cells along with healthy mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) in 2D, 3D Matrigel™ and butterfly-shaped microchip environment...
February 13, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187096/a-call-for-new-communication-channels-for-gynecological-oncology-trainees-a-survey-on-social-media-use-and-educational-needs-by-the-european-network-of-young-gynecological-oncologists
#20
Kamil Zalewski, Kristina Lindemann, Michael J Halaska, Ignacio Zapardiel, Rene Laky, Elisabeth Chereau, David Lindquist, Stephan Polterauer, Vladislav Sukhin, Polat Dursun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess patterns in the use of social media (SM) platforms and to identify the training needs among European gynecologic oncology trainees. METHODS: In 2014, a web-based survey was sent to 633 trainees from the European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists (ENYGO) database. The 14-item questionnaire (partially using a 1- to 5-point Likert scale) assessed respondents' use of SM and preference for workshop content and organization...
March 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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