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Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Y J Son, H S Kim, W Mao, J B Park, D Lee, H Lee, H S Yoo
A two-step strategy for coaxial electrospinning and postelectrospinning is an effective method for fabricating superfine nanofibers composed of highly swellable hydrogels. Alginate and poly(ε-caprolactone) [PCL] were coelectrospun via fibrous meshes with a coaxial nozzle; alginate at the core was subsequently cross-linked in calcium chloride solution. The PCL sheath was removed from the meshes by repeated organic-phase washing. The peeling process was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, and the complete removal of the PCL outer layers was confirmed by the thinning of the fiber volume...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Morgan Pommells, Corinne Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Zachariah Mulawa
The purpose of this study was to better understand the gender violence risks that exist in communities where poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) access is a known problem. Focus groups and key informant interviews were used to capture the lived experiences of community and health care practitioners from Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. This article provides lived narratives of the various cultural and environmental conditions leading to assaults directly attributable to inadequate WaSH. The results shed light on the complex intersections between water access and violence and have significant implications for achieving gender equity and universal access to WaSH...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
B Velmurugan, P Senthilkumaar, S Karthikeyan
The use of pesticides in agriculture can make their way into the earth and wash into the amphibian system causing ecological stress. This study aims to understand the changes occurring in gill tissues as a result of fenvalerate exposure using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of the selected bands I1545 /I1657, I2924 /I2853 , and I1045 /I1545 measures changes in proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Curve-fitting analysis was performed in the selected band region to analyze the quantitative changes of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
Yu Onodera, Ryo Akimoto, Hiroto Suzuki, Masayuki Okada, Masaki Nakane, Kaneyuki Kawamae
BACKGROUND: Although clinical studies of the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its effect on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been done, the washout effect has not been well evaluated. Therefore, we made an experimental respiratory model to evaluate the respiratory physiological effect of HFNC. METHODS: An airway model was made by a 3D printer using the craniocervical 3D-CT data of a healthy 32-year-old male. CO2 was infused into four respiratory lung models (normal-lung, open- and closed-mouth models; restrictive- and obstructive-lung, open-mouth models) to maintain the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) at 40 mmHg...
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Mohammad Hadi Aazami, Mohammad Hasan Fathi Nasri, Mohsen Mojtahedi, Shahla Roudbar Mohammadi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of heat-killed baker's yeast (HKBY), the cell wall of baker's yeast (CWBY), and cell wall (1→3)-β-d-glucan of baker's yeast (BGBY) to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) spiked with 0.5 μg/mL AFB1 . Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was heat killed by autoclaving at 121°C for 10 min. The cell wall was physically extracted, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan was extracted by a modified method. The concentration of AFB1 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after exposure to binders for three contact times, 30 min, 5 h, and 24 h, at room temperature...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Mehmet F Aydın, Emre Adıgüzel, Hakan Güzel
To determine the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and awareness for risk factors associated with cystic echinococcosis (CE) among animal breeders, nurses, nursing students, dietitians, food professionals and other public groups in Turkey. Methods: Questionnaire forms were prepared in compliance with the individuals' diversity, and a survey was created about agents, transmission modes, epidemiology, treatment, and risk factors for CE. The descriptive survey was performed between May 2015 and May 2016 by face-to-face communication...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
M Hasbahceci, F U Malya, E Kunduz, M Guler, N Unver, A Akcakaya
Introduction To evaluate the impact of serum and peritoneal levels of tumour markers on peritoneal carcinomatosis and survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were evaluated with regard to serum and peritoneal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9. Numeric values and groupings based on serum and peritoneal cutoff values were used. Development of peritoneal carcinomatosis, including positive washing cytology, was regarded as main outcome. Gastric cancer outcomes as disease free and overall survival were analysed...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
H F Dale, J G Hatlebakk, N Hovdenak, S O Ystad, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: Non-coeliac gluten-sensitivity (NCGS) has been proposed as a new entity with unknown prevalence and mechanisms, and there is a need for a standardized procedure to confirm the diagnosis. The objective of this study was to characterize the response to an oral gluten-challenge in patients with a symptom-relief when following a gluten free-diet (GFD). METHODS: Twenty patients (14F/6M, age range: 21-62 years) with suspected NCGS, without coeliac disease and wheat-allergy, were included while on a gluten-free diet...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Audrey Seigeot, Maxime Desmarets, Anne Rumpler, Franck Leroux, Eric Deconinck, Elisabeth Monnet, Laurent Bardiaux
BACKGROUND: A better knowledge of the connections between platelet concentrate (PC) characteristics and transfusion outcomes in day-to-day practice would help improve the selection process of the most appropriate PC. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study of prophylactic platelet transfusions in patients with hematologic malignancies between 2002 and 2012, outcome criteria were corrected count increments (CCIs) and platelet transfusion intervals (TIs, in days)...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Kim Nylund, Fredrik Sævik, Sabine Leh, Frank Pfeffer, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja
AIM:  To examine if there are perfusion differences in fibrotic versus inflammatory lesions in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to assess the interobserver reliability of the analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  37 patients with Crohn's disease were prospectively recruited. 20 were operated and 18 of them had fibrotic disease. 17 received and were mostly responsive to medical treatment (14/17). Each patient underwent clinical scoring and ultrasound (US) examination with high-frequency linear transducers and US contrast...
March 14, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Jennyfer Wolf, Paul R Hunter, Matthew C Freeman, Oliver Cumming, Thomas Clasen, Jamie Bartram, Julian P T Higgins, Richard Johnston, Kate Medlicott, Sophie Boisson, Annette Prüss-Ustün
OBJECTIVES: Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kanittika Ruengkajorn, Valentina Erastova, Jean-Charles Buffet, H Chris Greenwell, Dermot O'Hare
We describe a novel post treatment for layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials using aqueous immiscible (AIM) solvents resulting in improved surface area and powder flow. The effect of solvent functional groups and structure is explored, aided by molecular dynamics simulation of AIM-LDH washing.
March 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Guo Yan-Li, Zou Yong-Gen, Xie Yi-Qing, Chen Hong, He Ming-Zhen, Lü Lai-Fu, Huang Li-Zhong, Jin Xiao-Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate preventive strategies and measures. METHODS: Three villages were selected from three towns as survey sites, and the residents who were above three years old and had been in the village for over six months were investigated. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to detect intestinal parasite eggs in residents' feces, and the cellophane anal swab was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among children aged 3-6 years...
September 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Naoto Takahashi, Mitsuro Kanda, Takaki Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro Takiguchi, Kazumasa Fujitani, Katsufumi Miyamoto, Yuichi Ito, Osamu Takayama, Motohiro Imano, Norio Mitsumori, Junichi Sakamoto, Satoshi Morita, Yasuhiro Kodera
BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel had been considered a promising option to treat peritoneal metastasis, the most frequent pattern of recurrence in gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy, but its safety and efficacy after gastrectomy had not been fully explored. METHODS: A phase II randomized comparison of postoperative intraperitoneal (IP) vs. intravenous (IV) paclitaxel was conducted. Patients with resectable gastric linitis plastica, cancer with minimal amount of peritoneal deposits (P1), or cancer positive for the peritoneal washing cytology (CY1) were eligible...
March 13, 2018: Gastric Cancer
Richard T Amison, Shirin Jamshidi, Khondaker M Rahman, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
Platelet P2Y1 receptor signaling via RhoGTPases is necessary for platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment, where no platelet aggregation is observed. We investigated signaling cascades involved in distinct P2Y1 -dependent platelet activities in vitro, using specific inhibitors for phospholipase C (PLC) (U73122, to inhibit the canonical pathway), and RhoGTPases: Rac1 (NSC23766) and RhoA (ROCK inhibitor GSK429286). Human platelet rich plasma (for platelet aggregation) or isolated washed platelets (for chemotaxis assays) was treated with U73122, GSK429286 or NSC23766 prior to stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or the P2Y1 specific agonist MRS2365...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alexander Grahofer, Jeanette Bannoehr, Heiko Nathues, Petra Roosje
BACKGROUND: Scabies is a contagious skin disease rarely described in miniature pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a zoonotic transfer from infected pet pigs to humans has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes the infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei mites in two miniature pigs presenting with unusual clinical signs, and disease transmission to a child. Two 7-month-old male castrated miniature pig siblings were examined...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Mitsuo Uchida, Minoru Kaneko, Yoshihiko Hidaka, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Takayuki Honda, Shouhei Takeuchi, Masaya Saito, Shigeyuki Kawa
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus transmission may be prevented by infection control measures, including vaccination, wearing a mask, gargling with water, and hand washing. It is unclear, however, whether these measures affect influenza epidemics in school settings. METHODS: A prospective epidemiological survey in all public elementary schools in Matsumoto City, Japan, during the 2014/2015 season evaluated the number of diagnosed patients in each school and calculated the reproduction number of schoolchildren...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alua Omarova, Kamshat Tussupova, Ronny Berndtsson, Marat Kalishev, Kulyash Sharapatova
Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people's health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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