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Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Aya Matsusue, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A female in her late teens purposely ingested alcohol fuel containing methanol to commit suicide, which she admitted on social media. She was found in distress by her parents and died at the hospital some hours later. Autopsy revealed swelling of the brain and edematous and congestive lungs. No other trauma or unusual findings were revealed at autopsy. Methanol was detected upon routine screening for alcohols by headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. To confirm the presence of methanol and its metabolite formic acid, a method with detection by mass spectrometry was used...
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Tim Beausire, Mohamed Faouzi, Cristian Palmiere, Tony Fracasso, Katarzyna Michaud
INTRODUCTION: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) related to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most prevalent causes of death in Europe. Postmortem evaluation of IHD remains a challenge because of possible non-specific autopsy finding in some autopsy cases, especially in early myocardial ischemia. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) is used today in clinical practice as the "gold standard" to diagnose the myocardial ischemia, and might also be applied as an ancillary tool for post-mortem evaluation...
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
C C Santos, J Zhao, X Dong, S M Lonergan, E Huff-Lonergan, A Outhouse, K B Carlson, K J Prusa, C A Fedler, C Yu, S D Shackelford, D A King, T L Wheeler
The utility of Raman spectroscopic signatures of fresh pork loin (1 d & 15 d postmortem) in predicting fresh pork tenderness and slice shear force (SSF) was determined. Partial least square models showed that sensory tenderness and SSF are weakly correlated (R2  = 0.2). Raman spectral data were collected in 6 s using a portable Raman spectrometer (RS). A PLS regression model was developed to predict quantitatively the tenderness scores and SSF values from Raman spectral data, with very limited success...
May 29, 2018: Meat Science
Robert J Dawe, Lei Yu, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
The purpose of this study was to determine whether metrics of brain tissue integrity derived from postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with late-life cognitive decline, independent of cerebral vessel disease. Using data from 554 older adults, we used voxelwise regression to identify regions where the postmortem MRI transverse relaxation rate constant R2 was associated with the rate of decline in global cognition. We then used linear mixed models to investigate the association between a composite R2 measure and cognitive decline, controlling for neuropathology including 3 indices of vessel disease: atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
May 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Lei Yu, Vladislav A Petyuk, Chris Gaiteri, Sara Mostafavi, Tracy Young-Pearse, Raj C Shah, Aron S Buchman, Julie A Schneider, Paul D Piehowski, Ryan L Sontag, Thomas L Fillmore, Tujin Shi, Richard D Smith, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Previous gene expression analysis identified a network of co-expressed genes that is associated with β-amyloid neuropathology and cognitive decline in older adults. The current work targeted influential genes in this network with quantitative proteomics to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. METHODS: Data came from 834 community-based older persons who were followed annually, died and underwent brain autopsy. Uniform structured postmortem evaluations assessed the burden of β-amyloid and other common age-related neuropathologies...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Kim Hamer, Dave Bartley, Amy Jennings, Alison Morrison, Neil Sargison
Monepantel resistance was diagnosed during routine monitoring of the effectiveness of a farm's roundworm control strategy. Weaned lambs had become ill thrifty and developed diarrhoea, despite the routine use of monepantel. This clinical presentation was caused by trichostrongylosis. The faecal egg count reduction was 76.7% (95% CI: 55.1-82.2%) following treatment with 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. Predominantly Trichostrongylus vitrinus along with small proportions of Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were identified by deep amplicon sequencing of pools of larvae recovered from pre and post monepantel treatment coprocultures and on postmortem examinations...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Michael Nedahl, Sys Johansen, Kristian Linnet
The antipsychotic drug olanzapine may be subject to postmortem redistribution. This complicates the toxicological evaluation in postmortem cases and a supplementary analysis of brain tissue may be an advantage. We report reference brain and blood concentrations of olanzapine from 40 forensic autopsy cases. Each case was assigned to one of three groups according to the cause of death: (A) fatal intoxication by olanzapine alone; (B) fatal intoxication by olanzapine in combination with other drugs and (C) olanzapine was not related to the cause of death...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
A W Jones, A Holmgren, F C Kugelberg, F P Busardò
This article reports the concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in femoral blood and bladder urine in a case series of drug intoxication deaths (N = 37). GHB was determined in blood (B-GHB) and urine (U-GHB) by a GC-FID-GBL method and 30 mg/L was used as a cut-off concentration for reporting positive results. The mean (median) and range of GHB concentrations in bladder urine were 2,818 mg/L (1,900 mg/L) and 120-13,000 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations were appreciably higher than those in femoral blood, 637 mg/L (260 mg/L) and 30-9,200 mg/L, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kerry Anne Rambaran, Zubair M Amin, Steven W Fleming, Liza Chacko, Saeed K Alzghari
AH-7921 is a synthetic opioid that was developed in the early 1970s. It has resulted in several fatal and nonfatal intoxications, despite not having approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. To date, AH-7921 is listed as a schedule I drug, and there have been no clinical trials exploring the safety of AH-7921. Herein, we provide an analysis of existing case reports available in the literature regarding AH-7921. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO for articles (up until December 2017) using the terms "AH-7921" and "AH7921...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Nicole C Lockhart, Carol J Weil, Latarsha J Carithers, Susan E Koester, A Roger Little, Simona Volpi, Helen M Moore, Benjamin E Berkman
The active debate about the return of incidental or secondary findings in research has primarily focused on return to research participants, or in some cases, family members. Particular attention has been paid to return of genomic findings. Yet, research may generate other types of findings that warrant consideration for return, including findings related to the pathology of donated biospecimens. In the case of deceased biospecimen donors who are also organ and/or tissue transplant donors, pathology incidental findings may be relevant not to family members, but to potential organ or tissue transplant recipients...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Adam D Naylor, Linda R Morrison, Simon J Girling, Dipl ZooMed
  A 9-yr-old, entire female captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis) was presented with a 1-wk history of sialorrhea. On clinical examination, a mass was identified, encompassing the rostral mandible and intermandibular area, with associated mucosal ulceration, marked gingival recession, and loosening or loss of adjacent teeth. Skull radiography and cytology of fine-needle aspirates of the mass were suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. Based on a suspected poor prognosis, the animal was humanely euthanized...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Katherine Cassady, John M Cullen, Cathy V Williams
  Coquerel's sifakas ( Propithecus coquereli) are diurnal, folivorous lemurs native to Madagascar and one of only two members of the genus Propithecus currently housed in human care settings outside of Madagascar. This species has a lifespan of approximately 30 yr but minimal information exists regarding morbidity and mortality in human care settings. In this retrospective study, medical records, postmortem exam, and autopsy reports from 56 animals housed at the Duke Lemur Center from 1990 to 2015 were evaluated...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ellie Milnes, Pauline Delnatte, Hugh Y Cai, Nicole Nemeth
  A 2-mo-old Vancouver Island marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis), housed at a quarantined breeding facility, presented for acute obtundation and vestibular ataxia. Physical examination revealed poor growth compared with littermates, poor nutritional condition, and mild dehydration. The animal's condition deteriorated over 24 hr, and it was euthanized following the development of generalized seizures. No gross abnormalities were observed upon postmortem evaluation. Histologic evaluation revealed severe, multifocal, granulomatous and lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalomyelitis and interstitial nephritis, with intralesional, intracytoplasmic spore-filled, parasitophorous vacuoles and segmental, multi-organ, fibrinoid vasculitis (disseminated encephalitozoonosis)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ronan Eustace, Allison Wack, Lisa Mangus, Ellen Bronson
  The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore is home to the largest captive assurance population of the critically endangered Panamanian golden frog ( Atelopus zeteki). With the ongoing extinction that is occurring worldwide in amphibians, the need for amphibian captive assurance populations is growing, and few mortality reviews on amphibian species exist. Necropsy and histopathologic examination of animals that die in captivity can help identify population-level disease problems, direct research needs in amphibian medicine and husbandry, and improve the success of captive breeding programs...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mateus de Souza, Ribeiro Mioni, Acácia Ferreira Vicente, Marina Gea Peres, Camila Michele Appolinário, Bruna Letícia Davidé Ribeiro, José Carlos de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Paes de Almeida, Nogueira Pinto, Luis Antônio Mathias, Jane Megid
In Brazil, meat inspection occurs in a decentralized manner and consists of three types: (i) federal inspection (SIF), (ii) state inspection (SISP), and (iii) municipal inspection (SIM). The objective of this work was to discuss the three current inspection systems through the apparent prevalence of bovine brucellosis, a zoonosis that has an eradication program implemented by the Brazilian government. Nine abattoirs from federal, state, and municipal inspection systems were assessed and 1,490 animals were sampled...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ella Starobinska, Eric A Robinson, Eric Brucks, Serena Scott
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a well-described phenomenon associated with malignancies due to hypercoaguable state. In the setting of pancreatic cancer, NBTE is more commonly diagnosed postmortem. We describe a case of a man who was diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma after incidental finding of NBTE. Imaging incidentally revealed multiple strokes, bilateral renal and splenic infarcts, while subsequent workup for cardioembolic source demonstrated a 1.1×0.7 cm mitral valve vegetation. As multiple blood cultures were sterile and patient lacked clinical signs of infection, an underlying malignancy was suspected...
June 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Andrew T McKenzie, Minghui Wang, Mads E Hauberg, John F Fullard, Alexey Kozlenkov, Alexandra Keenan, Yasmin L Hurd, Stella Dracheva, Patrizia Casaccia, Panos Roussos, Bin Zhang
Elucidating brain cell type specific gene expression patterns is critical towards a better understanding of how cell-cell communications may influence brain functions and dysfunctions. We set out to compare and contrast five human and murine cell type-specific transcriptome-wide RNA expression data sets that were generated within the past several years. We defined three measures of brain cell type-relative expression including specificity, enrichment, and absolute expression and identified corresponding consensus brain cell "signatures," which were well conserved across data sets...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diego Scheggia, Rosa Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena Mereu, Sara Sannino, Richard E Straub, Marco Armando, Francesca Managò, Simone Guadagna, Fabrizio Piras, Fengyu Zhang, Joel E Kleinman, Thomas M Hyde, Sanne S Kaalund, Maria Pontillo, Genny Orso, Carlo Caltagirone, Emiliana Borrelli, Maria A De Luca, Stefano Vicari, Daniel R Weinberger, Gianfranco Spalletta, Francesco Papaleo
Antipsychotics are the most widely used medications for the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. While such drugs generally ameliorate positive symptoms, clinical responses are highly variable in terms of negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. However, predictors of individual responses have been elusive. Here, we report a pharmacogenetic interaction related to a core cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. We show that genetic variations reducing dysbindin-1 expression can identify individuals whose executive functions respond better to antipsychotic drugs, both in humans and in mice...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Muriel M K Bruchhage, Maria-Pia Bucci, Esther B E Becker
The cerebellum has long been known for its importance in motor learning and coordination. However, increasing evidence supports a role for the cerebellum in cognition and emotion. Consistent with a role in cognitive functions, the cerebellum has emerged as one of the key brain regions affected in nonmotor disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Here, we discuss behavioral, postmortem, genetic, and neuroimaging studies in humans in order to understand the cerebellar contributions to the pathogenesis of both disorders...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Elan D Louis
Essential tremor (ET) is a progressive and highly prevalent neurologic disease. Along with the tremors, mild to moderate gait ataxia and other signs of cerebellar dysfunction may occur (i.e., subtle saccadic eye movement abnormalities and abnormalities of motor timing) as well as cognitive features, some of which may be due to cerebellar dysfunction. Numerous neuroimaging studies indicate the presence of functional, metabolic, and structural abnormalities in the cerebellum of a patient with ET. In tandem with these clinical and imaging studies, which were gathering increasing support for the notion that the cerebellum and/or cerebellar systems seemed to be at the root of ET, a growing postmortem literature is for the first time beginning to identify microscopic abnormalities in the ET brain, most of which are centered on the Purkinje cells and connected neuronal populations, and are likely to be degenerative...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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