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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451114/molecular-tools-to-study-preharvest-food-safety-challenges
#1
Deepak Kumar, Siddhartha Thakur
Preharvest food safety research and activities have advanced over time with the recognition of the importance and complicated nature of the preharvest phase of food production. In developed nations, implementation of preharvest food safety procedures along with strict monitoring and containment at various postharvest stages such as slaughter, processing, storage, and distribution have remarkably reduced the burden of foodborne pathogens in humans. Early detection and adequate surveillance of pathogens at the preharvest stage is of the utmost importance to ensure a safe meat supply...
February 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449954/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-tracer-18-f-fpeb-displays-increased-binding-potential-in-postcentral-gyrus-and-cerebellum-of-male-individuals-with-autism-a-pilot-pet-study
#2
S Hossein Fatemi, Dean F Wong, James R Brašić, Hiroto Kuwabara, Anil Mathur, Timothy D Folsom, Suma Jacob, George M Realmuto, José V Pardo, Susanne Lee
Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is first manifested during early childhood. Postmortem experiments have identified significantly elevated expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex of individuals with autism. Methods: In the current study we employed the mGluR5 tracer [ 18 F]-3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([ 18 F]-FPEB) to quantify mGluR5 binding in vivo in adults with autism vs...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448042/quantitative-comparisons-between-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-matched-histology-in-the-human-eye
#3
Dong An, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Morgan Heisler, Ashley Francke, MyeongJin Ju, Ian L McAllister, Marinko Sarunic, Dao-Yi Yu
The aim was to quantitatively compare retinal vascular detail as seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and matched histology in the human eye. 13 normal human donor eyes were used. The central retinal artery was cannulated after which human packed red blood cells were perfused through the retinal vasculature. Retinal vessels were imaged using a custom-built OCTA device during red blood cell perfusion. The eye was subsequently perfused with endothelial cell antibodies and the flat-mounted retina studied histologically using a confocal scanning laser microscope...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445185/iron-overload-accelerates-the-progression-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-association-with-increased-retinal-renin-expression
#4
Kapil Chaudhary, Wanwisa Promsote, Sudha Ananth, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Amany Tawfik, Pachiappan Arjunan, Pamela Martin, Sylvia B Smith, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Oleg Kisselev, Vadivel Ganapathy, Jaya P Gnana-Prakasam
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Increased iron accumulation is associated with several degenerative diseases. However, there are no reports on the status of retinal iron or its implications in the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we found that retinas of type-1 and type-2 mouse models of diabetes have increased iron accumulation compared to non-diabetic retinas. We found similar iron accumulation in postmortem retinal samples from human diabetic patients...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441764/-relationship-between-myofibril-fragmentation-index-and-postmortem-interval
#5
L Shen, R Z Rui, J Bian, M He, Z Q Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) of human skeletal muscle and postmortem interval (PMI). METHODS: The protein concentrations of human right biceps brachii muscle and right quadriceps femoris muscle were obtained at different PMI, and detected at room temperature by biuret method. The MFI of skeletal muscle at 540 nm was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Regression analysis was performed with time of death as independent variable ( x ) and MFI as dependent variable ( y )...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441072/fatal-necrotizing-encephalopathy-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-for-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439327/stabilized-low-n-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-induce-robust-novel-object-recognition-deficits-associated-with-inflammatory-synaptic-and-gabaergic-dysfunction-in-the-rat
#7
William Watremez, Joshua Jackson, Bushra Almari, Samantha L McLean, Ben Grayson, Joanna C Neill, Nicolas Fischer, Ahmad Allouche, Violette Koziel, Thierry Pillot, Michael K Harte
BACKGROUND: With current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) only providing temporary symptomatic benefits, disease modifying drugs are urgently required. This approach relies on improved understanding of the early pathophysiology of AD. A new hypothesis has emerged, in which early memory loss is considered a synapse failure caused by soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). These small soluble Aβo, which precede the formation of larger fibrillar assemblies, may be the main cause of early AD pathologies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439324/altered-expression-of-urea-cycle-enzymes-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-overexpressing-pc12-cells-and-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#8
Henryk Jęśko, Walter J Lukiw, Anna Wilkaniec, Magdalena Cieślik, Magdalena Gąssowska-Dobrowolska, Emilia Murawska, Wojciech Hilgier, Agata Adamczyk
Urea cycle enzymes may play important yet poorly characterized roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous results showed that amyloid-β (Aβ) affects urea cycle enzymes in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in arginases, other urea cycle enzymes, and nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in PC12 cells transfected with AβPP bearing the double 'Swedish' mutation (APPsw, K670M/N671L) and in postmortem sporadic AD brain hippocampus; the mutation intensifies Aβ production and strongly associates with AD neuropathology...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439120/improved-visualization-of-cortical-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-7t-mp2rage
#9
E S Beck, P Sati, V Sethi, T Kober, B Dewey, P Bhargava, G Nair, I C Cortese, D S Reich
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical lesions are common and often extensive in multiple sclerosis but are difficult to visualize by MRI, leaving important questions about their clinical implications and response to therapy unanswered. Our aim was to determine whether cortical lesions are better visualized using magnetization prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE) than T2*-weighted imaging on 7T MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MR imaging using T1-weighted MP2RAGE at 500-μm isotropic resolution, T2*-weighted gradient-echo, and T2*-weighted segmented echo-planar imaging sequences were collected for 13 patients with MS and 5 age-matched neurologically healthy controls on a 7T research system...
February 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438138/fatal-road-traffic-vehicle-collisions-with-pedestrian-victims-forensic-postmortem-computed-tomography-and-autopsy-correlation
#10
Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Wolf Schweitzer
Fatal car-to-pedestrian collisions regularly appear in the forensic pathologist's routine, particularly in places of extended urbanization. Postmortem computed tomography has gained an exceptional role to supplement autopsy worldwide, giving information that is supplementary or complimentary to conventional autopsy. In this retrospective study, a total number of 320 findings in a series of 21 pedestrians fatally hit by cars and trucks of both postmortem computed tomography and autopsy were correlated. According to our results, it is best to combine both methods to give well-founded answers to questions pertaining to both collision reconstruction and cause of death...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438137/visualization-of-myocardial-infarction-in-postmortem-multiphase-computed-tomography-angiography-a-feasibility-study
#11
Sara Sabatasso, Jessica Vanhaebost, Francesco Doenz, Cristian Palmiere, Katarzyna Michaud, Fabrice Dedouit, Silke Grabherr
Recent studies have indicated that multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) allows detection of a pathological enhancement of the myocardium in regions that correlate with the localization of the infarction at histology. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis by examining MPMCTA images in cases of myocardial infarction. Therefore, we investigated 10 autopsy cases where death was attributed to myocardial infarction or which showed cardiovascular pathology. As a control group, we selected 10 cases of non-natural (namely, not cardiac) death...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436723/variable-prenatal-presentation-of-pfeiffer-syndrome-suggested-aids-to-prenatal-sonographic-diagnosis
#12
Souha Saliba, Baptiste Morel, Marie Gonzales, Marie-Victoire Sénat, Lucie Guilbaud, Jean-Marie Jouannic, Marie Cassart, Catherine Garel, Eléonore Blondiaux
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to describe and compare the cranial and extracranial abnormalities of Pfeiffer syndrome on prenatal imaging with postnatal or postmortem findings, which may help in prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). METHODS: Cases of fetuses with a confirmed diagnosis of PS over a 4-year period (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed. Prenatal imaging findings, postnatal or postmortem investigations and genetic test results were analyzed...
February 13, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436575/identification-of-novel-hyper-%C3%A2-or-hypomethylated-cpg-sites-and-genes-associated-with-atherosclerotic-plaque-using-an-epigenome-wide-association-study
#13
Yoshiji Yamada, Hideki Horibe, Mitsutoshi Oguri, Jun Sakuma, Ichiro Takeuchi, Yoshiki Yasukochi, Kimihiko Kato, Motoji Sawabe
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although previous studies have identified various CpG sites and genes whose methylation is associated with atherosclerosis in populations with European or Mexican ancestry, the genome‑wide pattern of DNA methylation in the atherosclerotic human aorta is yet to be elucidated in Japanese individuals. In the present study, a genome‑wide analysis of DNA methylation at ~853,000 CpG sites was performed using 128 postmortem aortic intima specimens obtained from 64 Japanese patients...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435816/rapid-and-reliable-detection-of-previous-freezing-of-cerebral-tissue-by-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Stephan A Bolliger, Doris Tomasin, Jakob Heimer, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Due to slowing or even inhibition of postmortem processes, freezing may make an estimation of the time-since-death very difficult. This is also true in previously frozen and subsequently thawed bodies. Knowledge of prior freezing is important, as it may lead to a different assessment of the time since death. Twelve pig heads were frozen at -20 °C, and 6 heads were either kept at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) or in a cooling cell (approximately 5 °C). The frozen brains and cadavers were thawed at either room temperature or in a cooling cell...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434034/influence-of-alternative-husbandry-systems-on-postmortem-findings-and-prevalence-of-important-bacteria-and-parasites-in-layers-monitored-from-end-of-rearing-until-slaughter
#15
Angelika Zloch, Sabrina Kuchling, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
In the present study 66 layer flocks housed in different alternative husbandry systems were monitored from placement of birds on the farm until slaughter to evaluate a possible influence on the occurrence of selected non-infectious as well as infectious diseases. Postmortems were performed and the occurrence of extraintestinal Escherichia coli and Gallibacterium anatis was investigated. No specific postmortem findings were seen in pullets. Non-infectious diseases were mainly found in layers. Most prominent postmortem findings in layers were reproductive tract lesions and the presence of intestinal helminths...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432620/association-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-and-brain-bdnf-levels-with-major-depression-and-suicide
#16
Mariam M Youssef, Mark D Underwood, Yung-Yu Huang, Shu-Chi Hsiung, Yan Liu, Norman R Simpson, Mihran J Bakalian, Gorazd B Rosoklija, Andrew J Dwork, Victoria Arango, J John Mann
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide. Both are partly caused by early life adversity (ELA) and ELA reduces BDNF protein levels. This study examines the association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and brain BDNF levels with depression and suicide. We hypothesized that both MDD and ELA would be associated with the Met allele and lower brain BDNF levels. Such an association would be consistent with low BDNF mediating the effect of ELA on adulthood suicide and MDD...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431260/a-feasibility-study-of-non-invasive-ablation-of-ventricular-tachycardia-using-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#17
Fei Lü, Wei Huang, David G Benditt
BACKGROUND: Current transcatheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) techniques is limited in part by its invasive nature and superficial depth of ablation lesions. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at evaluating the feasibility of targeted ablation of cardiac tissues using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a potential means for non-invasive ablation of VT. METHODS: Ablation of ventricular myocardium was performed in anesthetized closed-chest dogs using a HIFU therapeutic system that is currently used clinically for ablation of human solid tumors...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429526/neurochemical-characterization-of-psa-ncam-cells-in-the-human-brain-and-phenotypic-quantification-in-alzheimer-s-disease-entorhinal-cortex
#18
Helen C Murray, Molly E V Swanson, B Victor Dieriks, Clinton Turner, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis
Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is widely expressed in the adult human brain and facilitates structural remodeling of cells through steric inhibition of intercellular NCAM adhesion. We previously showed that PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity is decreased in the entorhinal cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on available evidence, we hypothesized that a loss of PSA-NCAM+ interneurons may underlie this reduction. PSA-NCAM expression by interneurons has previously been described in the human medial prefrontal cortex...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428877/new-insights-on-parkinson-s-disease-from-differentiation-of-sh-sy5y-into-dopaminergic-neurons-an-involvement-of-aquaporin4-and-9
#19
Rosanna Avola, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Ferdaous Albouchi, Venera Cardile
The purpose of this research was to explore the behavior of aquaporins (AQPs) in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease that is a recurrent neurodegenerative disorder caused by the gradual, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Because of postmortem studies have provided evidences for oxidative damage and alteration of water flow and energy metabolism, we carried out an investigation about AQP4 and 9, demonstrated in the brain to maintain water and energy homeostasis...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427710/pathophysiology-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-sheep-dorper-kajli-and-goats-boer-beetal
#20
Ahrar Khan, M Kashif Saleemi, Farah Ali, Muhammad Abubakar, Riaz Hussain, Rao Zahid Abbas, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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