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Heart rate variability infant

Joseph R Isler, Tracy Thai, Michael M Myers, William P Fifer
A novel quantitative method for coding epochs of active and quiet sleep in infants using respiration is reported. The approach uses the variance of the instantaneous breathing rate within brief epochs of sleep. Variances are normalized within subject by dividing by the 75th percentile variance across epochs. Then, a normalized variance active sleep threshold of 0.29 was determined to produce the highest concordance with a method based on visual inspection of respiratory variability (100% and 90% for quiet and active sleep, respectively)...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Steven L Clark, Emily Hamilton, Thomas J Garite, Audra Timmins, Philip A Warrick, Samuel Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite intensive efforts directed at initial training in fetal heart rate interpretation, continuing medical education, board certification/recertification, team training and the development of specific protocols for the management of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, the goals of consistently preventing hypoxia-induced fetal metabolic acidemia and neurologic injury remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To validate a recently published algorithm for the management of category II fetal heart rate tracings , examine reasons for the birth of infants with significant metabolic acidemia despite the use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and critically examine the limits of EFHRM in the prevention of neonatal metabolic acidemia...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Manoj Kumar Sahu, Anuradha Singal, Ramesh Menon, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Alka Mohan, Mala Manral, Divya Singh, V Devagouru, Sachin Talwar, Shiv Kumar Choudhary
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutritional supplementation in infants with cardiac malformations after surgical repair is a challenge. Critically ill infants in the early postoperative period are in a catabolic stress. The mismatch between estimated energy requirement (EER) and the intake in the postoperative period is multifactorial, predisposing them to complications such as immune deficiency, more infection, and growth failure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enriched breast milk feed on postoperative recovery and growth of infants after open heart surgery...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Taylor M Mehta, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Clozapine is an antipsychotic used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, little is known about clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation, or its impact on the mother, foetus, and infant. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the safety of clozapine use during the perinatal period. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were searched from their inceptions through June 2016. The review encompasses 21 studies that have examined clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Christopher W Baird, Patrick O Myers, Breanna Piekarski, Michele Borisuk, Amara Majeed, Sitaram M Emani, Stephen P Sanders, Meena Nathan, Pedro J Del Nido
OBJECTIVES: Dye-mediated photo-oxidation of pericardium is an alternative method to chemical treatment with glutaraldehyde for cross-linking collagen, providing biostability of the patch material while avoiding late calcification and cytotoxicity. There are few data available, on using photo-oxidation-treated pericardium, in congenital cardiac surgery. This study reports the outcomes using Photofix™ bovine pericardium in neonates, infants, children and young adults undergoing paediatric cardiac surgery...
September 27, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Krista L Lanctôt, Alberto DallʼAgnola, Ian Mitchell, Sara Calabrese, Milena Maule, Elisa Girardi, Tetsuhiro Harimoto, Abby Li
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection frequently results in RSV-related hospitalization (RSVH) in young infants. We examined the outcomes of palivizumab recipients within the Canadian Registry (CARESS) and the Torino-Verona Italian Registry over the 2002-2014 RSV seasons. METHODS: RSVHs were captured during the study seasons. Premature infants who received palivizumab (≤35 completed weeks gestational age (wGA); Group1) were compared with infants given palivizumab for underlying disorders regardless of gestational age (Group2)...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anita J Mitchell, Richard W Hall, Brenda Golianu, Charlotte Yates, David Keith Williams, Jason Chang, Kanwaljeet J S Anand
AIM: Noninvasive electrical stimulation at acupuncture points (NESAP) for analgesia is used in children, but has not been widely studied in neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if NESAP alone or in combination with sucrose relieved heelstick pain in neonates. METHODS: Term neonates (n=162) receiving routine heelsticks for newborn screening were enrolled following parental consent. All infants received facilitated tucking and nonnutritive sucking...
September 8, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Cedric E Sottas, David Cumin, Brian J Anderson
BACKGROUND: An acceptable systolic or mean arterial blood pressure for children 0-6 years during anesthesia is unknown. Accepted blood pressures reported in standard charts for healthy awake children may not apply to those undergoing anesthesia. AIM: Our goal was to define observed blood pressures (BP) and heart rate (HR) in children 0-5 years during anesthesia. METHODS: Data from the electronic health record database were available for a 10-year period from June 29, 2005 to July 22, 2015...
November 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Jordana A Waxman, Rebecca R Pillai Riddell, Paula Tablon, Louis A Schmidt, Angelina Pinhasov
Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of cardiovascular responses to acutely painful medical procedures over the first year of life in preterm and term born infants. Methods. A systematic search retrieved 6994 articles to review against inclusion criteria...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Tomoki Maeda, Masanori Inoue, Kazuhito Sekiguchi, Kenji Ihara
AIM: This study investigated the effect of aminophylline on behaviour and autonomic function in the preterm period. METHOD: Subjects were preterm infants cared for in the Oita University hospital from August 2012 to October 2014. The group that was administered aminophylline (Am+) and the group that received no aminophylline (Am-) included 11 cases that exhibited a mean gestational age of 28weeks 5days and a mean birth weight of 1109g and 8 cases that exhibited a mean gestational age of 30weeks 5days and a mean birth weight of 1223g, respectively...
August 2016: Early Human Development
Lidija Dimitrijević, Bojko Bjelaković, Hristina Čolović, Aleksandra Mikov, Vesna Živković, Mirjana Kocić, Stevo Lukić
BACKGROUND: Adverse neurologic outcome in preterm infants could be associated with abnormal heart rate (HR) characteristics as well as with abnormal general movements (GMs) in the 1st month of life. AIMS: To demonstrate to what extent GMs assessment can predict neurological outcome in preterm infants in our clinical setting; and to assess the clinical usefulness of time-domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) in improving predictive value of poor repertoire (PR) GMs in writhing period...
August 2016: Early Human Development
Jameel Winter, John Kattwinkel, Christian Chisholm, Amy Blackman, Sarah Wilson, Karen Fairchild
Background Establishing lung inflation prior to umbilical cord clamping may improve the cardiovascular transition and reduce the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. We developed a pilot feasibility and safety study in which infants < 33 weeks' gestation received assisted ventilation during delayed cord clamping (DCC). Methods Infants born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks' gestation whose mothers consented were enrolled. All infants received continuous positive airway pressure or positive pressure ventilation during 90 seconds of DCC...
June 15, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Erwan Stéphan-Blanchard, Karen Chardon, Djamal-Dine Djeddi, André Léké, Stéphane Delanaud, Véronique Bach, Frédéric Telliez
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether in utero exposure to smoking may influence the activity and dynamics of cardiac autonomic control in preterm infants. We hypothesized that cardiac autonomic control is altered in preterm infants exposed prenatally to smoking and that these effects may vary as a function of the sleep state. METHODS: We studied healthy, preterm neonates born to mothers who had smoked throughout pregnancy but not since birth (n=16). In utero-exposed neonates were matched with control preterm neonates born to non-smoking mothers (n=18)...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Karen E Hannaford, Molly J Stout, Chris D Smyser, Amit Mathur, Alison G Cahill
Objective We evaluated electronic fetal (heart rate) monitoring (EFM) patterns among very preterm infants with and without intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) to evaluate the test characteristics of EFM for the prediction of IVH. Study Design We performed a case-control study of preterm infants born ≤ 30 weeks' gestation over a 6-year period. We evaluated differences in EFM patterns between those (cases) with and without IVH (controls). The relative odds ratio of observing differences in EFM patterns between cases and controls was calculated...
May 16, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Sabhya Gupta, Girija Natarajan, Dhruv Gupta, Sreenivas Karnati, Meghan Dwaihy, Bo Wang, Sanjay Chawla
Objective We aimed to evaluate variability in Apgar score (AS) assignment among health care providers (HCPs) and to evaluate whether a simple clarification improves accuracy and consistency of AS assignment. Study Design An electronic questionnaire survey was provided to pediatric residents, nurse practitioners, neonatal fellows, and faculty in level III neonatal intensive care unit and major academic centers in the United State to assign AS for three clinical scenarios. Next, we provided a simple clarification on various components of AS...
May 16, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Lan-Fen Yi, Hong-Xia Wen, Sui Huang, Mei Qiu, Jing-Yang Zhang, Xiao-Xiao Cao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of oral administration of low-dose propranolol on heart rate variability (HRV), acceleration capacity (AC), deceleration capacity (DC), and cardiac conduction in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. METHODS: A total of 118 infants with hemangioma (≤1 year) were enrolled, and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography was performed before oral administration of low-dose propranolol and after one month of administration. The changes in time-domain indices [standard deviation of all normal sinus RR intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of all mean 5-minute RR intervals (SDANN), root mean squared successive difference (RMSSD), and percentage of successive normal sinus RR intervals >50 ms (PNN50)] and frequency-domain indices [low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF)] for HRV, AC, and DC were observed, as well as abnormalities in cardiac conduction and other aspects after administration of propranolol...
April 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Hamid Bigdelian, Mohsen Sedighi
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital narrowing of the upper descending aorta. The approximate incidence is 4% in live-born children with congenital heart disease. This study aimed to describe the surgical outcome and survival of patients undergoing congenital aortic coarctation repair via subclavian flap aortoplasty (group 1) or resection with end-to-end anastomosis (group 2). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 105 infants who underwent repair of aortic coarctation between 2000 and December 2012...
June 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Yisi S Zhang, Asif A Ghazanfar
The variable vocal behavior of human infants is the scaffolding upon which speech and social interactions develop. It is important to know what factors drive this developmentally critical behavioral output. Using marmoset monkeys as a model system, we first addressed whether the initial conditions for vocal output and its sequential structure are perinatally influenced. Using dizygotic twins and Markov analyses of their vocal sequences, we found that in the first postnatal week, twins had more similar vocal sequences to each other than to their non-twin siblings...
May 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Karlene T Barrett, Ryan T Dosumu-Johnson, J Andrew Daubenspeck, Rachael D Brust, Vasileios Kreouzis, Jun Chul Kim, Aihua Li, Susan M Dymecki, Eugene E Nattie
UNLABELLED: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases often have abnormalities of the brainstem raphe serotonergic (5-HT) system. We hypothesize that raphe dysfunction contributes to a failure to autoresuscitate from multiple hypoxic events, leading to SIDS. We studied autoresuscitation in two transgenic mouse models in which exocytic neurotransmitter release was impaired via conditional expression of the light chain from tetanus toxin (tox) in raphe neurons expressing serotonergic bacterial artificial chromosome drivers Pet1 or Slc6a4...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nicole R Bush, Zoe K Caron, Katherine S Blackburn, Abbey Alkon
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of two branches, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, and controls the function of internal organs (e.g., heart rate, respiration, digestion) and responds to everyday and adverse experiences (1). ANS measures in children have been found to be related to behavior problems, emotion regulation, and health (2-7). Therefore, understanding the factors that affect ANS development during early childhood is important. Both branches of the ANS affect young children's cardiovascular responses to stimuli and have been measured noninvasively, via external monitoring equipment, using valid and reliable measures of physiological change (8-11)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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