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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107515/regulatory-mechanisms-underlying-the-expression-of-prolactin-receptor-in-chicken-granulosa-cells
#1
Shenqiang Hu, Raj Duggavathi, David Zadworny
Prolactin (PRL) has both pro- and anti-gonadal roles in the regulation of avian ovarian functions through its interaction with the receptor (PRLR). However, neither the pattern of expression of PRLR nor its regulatory mechanisms during follicle development have been clearly defined. The objective of the present study was to investigate mechanisms of PRLR expression in chicken granulosa cells. Levels of PRLR transcript were highest in the stroma and walls of follicles < 2 mm in diameter and progressively declined with the maturation of follicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107509/development-of-combining-of-human-bronchial-mucosa-models-with-xposeali%C3%A2-for-exposure-of-air-pollution-nanoparticles
#2
Jie Ji, Anna Hedelin, Maria Malmlöf, Vadim Kessler, Gulaim Seisenbaeva, Per Gerde, Lena Palmberg
BACKGROUND: Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents. METHODS: In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI) with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107383/effects-of-forced-swimming-stress-on-erk-and-histone-h3-phosphorylation-in-limbic-areas-of-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats
#3
Noemi Morello, Ornella Plicato, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marina Quartu, Maria Giuseppa Corda, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maurizio Giustetto
Stressful events evoke molecular adaptations of neural circuits through chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. However, the identity of the molecular pathways activated by stress in experimental models of depression is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of acute forced swimming (FS) on the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 (pERK) and histone H3 (pH3) in limbic brain areas of genetic models of vulnerability (RLA, Roman low-avoidance rats) and resistance (RHA, Roman high-avoidance rats) to stress-induced depression-like behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106103/sox2-and-rb1-in-esophageal-small-cell-carcinoma-their-possible-involvement-in-pathogenesis
#4
Hirotaka Ishida, Atsuko Kasajima, Takashi Kamei, Tsuyoshi Miura, Naomi Oka, Samaneh Yazdani, Yohei Ozawa, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Akira Sakurada, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Yoichi Tanaka, Masafumi Kurosumi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Noriaki Ohuchi, Hironobu Sasano
Clinicopathological features and pathogenesis of esophageal small-cell carcinoma remain unclear. We hypothesized common cellular origin and pathogenesis in small-cell carcinoma of esophagus and lung associated with SOX2 overexpression and loss of Rb1. Expression of squamous-basal markers (CK5/6 and p40), glandular markers (CK18 and CEA), SOX2, and Rb1 were evaluated in 15 esophageal small-cell carcinomas, 46 poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and 88 small-cell lung carcinoma, as well as 16 embryonic esophagus...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105981/cryopreservation-of-hepatocyte-microbeads-for-clinical-transplantation
#5
Suttiruk Jitraruch, Anil Dhawan, Robin D, Celine Filippi, Sharon C, Leanne Glover, Ragai R
Intraperitoneal transplantation of hepatocyte microbeads is an attractive option for the management of acute liver failure. Encapsulation of hepatocytes in alginate microbeads supports their function and prevents immune attack of the cells. Establishment of banked cryopreserved hepatocyte microbeads is important for emergency use. The aim of this study was to develop an optimised protocol for cryopreservation of hepatocyte microbeads for clinical transplantation using modified freezing solutions. Four freezing solutions with potential for clinical application were investigated...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105732/comparison-of-the-proliferation-and-excretion-of-bartonella-quintana-between-body-and-head-lice-following-oral-challenge
#6
J H Kim, D J Previte, K S Yoon, E Murenzi, J E Koehler, B R Pittendrigh, S H Lee, J M Clark
Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice...
January 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105525/characterization-of-the-cell-polarity-gene-crumbs-during-the-early-development-and-maintenance-of-the-squid-vibrio-light-organ-symbiosis
#7
Suzanne M Peyer, Elizabeth A C Heath-Heckman, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ...
January 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105281/n-1-benzyl-3-5-dimethyl-1h-pyrazol-4-yl-benzamides-antiproliferative-activity-and-effects-on-mtorc1-and-autophagy
#8
Teng Ai, Rose Willett, Jessica Williams, Rui Ding, Daniel J Wilson, Jiashu Xie, Do-Hyung Kim, Rosa Puertollano, Liqiang Chen
Guided by antiproliferative activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells, we have performed preliminary structure-activity relationship studies on N-(1-benzyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzamides. Two selected compounds showed submicromolar antiproliferative activity and good metabolic stability. Both compounds reduced mTORC1 activity and increased autophagy at the basal level. In addition, they disrupted autophagic flux by interfering with mTORC1 reactivation and clearance of LC3-II under starvation/refeed conditions, as evidenced by accumulation of LC3-II and abnormal LC3 labeled punctae...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104682/out-ranking-brca1-in-mutation-carriers
#9
REVIEW
Emma Nolan, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Jane E Visvader
Beyond prophylactic mastectomy, there are currently very few options available to BRCA1 mutation carriers to help reduce their risk of developing breast cancer. An effective prevention therapy therefore remains a pressing area of need. Accumulating evidence points to amplification of the progesterone signaling axis in precancerous tissue from BRCA1 mutation carriers. Given that RANKL is an important paracrine mediator of hormonal signaling in breast tissue, there has been considerable interest in exploring a potential role for this pathway in oncogenesis...
January 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104464/genetic-defects-in-pi3k%C3%AE-affect-b-cell-differentiation-and-maturation-leading-to-hypogammaglobulineamia-and-recurrent-infections
#10
Marjolein Wentink, Virgil Dalm, Arjan C Lankester, Pauline A van Schouwenburg, Liesbeth Schölvinck, Tomas Kalina, Radana Zachova, Anna Sediva, Annechien Lambeck, Ingrid Pico-Knijnenburg, Jacques J M van Dongen, Malgorzata Pac, Ewa Bernatowska, Martin van Hagen, Gertjan Driessen, Mirjam van der Burg
BACKGROUND: Mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1 cause activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS) by dysregulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. METHODS: We studied precursor and peripheral B-cell differentiation and apoptosis via flowcytometry. Furthermore, we performed AKT-phosphorylation assays and somatic hypermutations (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) analysis. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients of whom 3 had new mutations in PIK3CD or PIK3R1. Patients had low total B-cell numbers with increased frequencies of transitional B cells and plasmablasts, while the precursor B-cell compartment in bone marrow was relatively normal...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104455/a-novel-role-for-endothelial-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-mitochondrial-redox-balance
#11
Jade Bailey, Andrew Shaw, Roman Fischer, Brent J Ryan, Benedikt M Kessler, James McCullagh, Richard Wade-Martins, Keith M Channon, Mark J Crabtree
The redox co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by endothelial NOS (eNOS) and is an important redox-dependent signalling molecule in the endothelium. Loss of endothelial BH4 is observed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) states and results in decreased NO and increased superoxide (O2(-)) generation via eNOS uncoupling. Genetic mouse models of augmented endothelial BH4 synthesis have shown proof of concept that endothelial BH4 can alter CVD pathogenesis...
January 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104429/using-lysine-adducts-of-human-serum-albumin-to-investigate-the-disposition-of-exogenous-formaldehyde-in-human-blood
#12
Luca G Regazzoni, Hasmik Grigoryan, Zhiying Ji, Xi Chen, Sarah I Daniels, Deyin Huang, Sylvia Sanchez, Naijun Tang, Fenna C M Sillé, Anthony T Iavarone, Evan R Williams, Luoping Zhang, Stephen M Rappaport
Formaldehyde is a human carcinogen that readily binds to nucleophiles, including proteins and DNA. To investigate whether exogenous formaldehyde produces adducts in extracellular fluids, we characterized modifications to human serum albumin (HSA) following incubation of whole blood, plasma, and saliva with formaldehyde at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100μM. The only HSA locus that showed the presence of formaldehyde modifications was Lys199. A N(6)-Lys adduct with added mass of 12Da, representing a putative intramolecular crosslink, was detected in biological fluids that had been incubated with formaldehyde but not in control fluids...
January 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104249/il-17-signalling-in-astrocytes-promotes-glutamate-excitotoxicity-indications-for-the-link-between-inflammatory-and-neurodegenerative-events-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Milos Kostic, Nikola Zivkovic, Ana Cvetanovic, Ivana Stojanovic, Miodrag Colic
OBJECTIVE: Th-17 cells have been exclusively referred to inflammatory events in multiple sclerosis (MS), while their importance in the development of glutamate excitotoxicity and the consequent neurodegeneration has been a completely unexplored concept. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to assess IL-17A effect on astrocyte ability to metabolize and release glutamate, considering that astrocytes had the central role in glutamate homeostasis. METHODS: By using primary rat astrocyte cultures, astrocyte ability to uptake glutamate was estimated by the alterations of glutamate transporters (GLAST and GLT-1) expression, whereas changes in glutamine synthetase expression were used to estimate the ability to metabolize glutamate...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103949/activation-of-human-b-cells-negatively-regulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-production
#14
Nicolas Molnarfi, Kristbjörg Bjarnadóttir, Mahdia Benkhoucha, Catherine Juillard, Patrice H Lalive
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicate that B cells can exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory activities. Similar to interleukin (IL)-10-competent B cells, we recently showed that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-producing regulatory B cells limit the induction of autoimmune neuroinflammation in mice, making them potentially important in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. METHODS: In this study, we compared B cell production of TGF-β1 and IL-10, the two most studied regulatory cytokines, and the pro-inflammatory B cell-derived IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor cytokines under basal conditions and following polyclonal stimulation with dual B cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking and Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 engagement...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103910/epithelioid-schwannoma-of-the-skin-displaying-unique-histopathological-features-a-teaching-case-giving-rise-to-diagnostic-difficulties-on-a-morphological-examination-of-a-resected-specimen-with-a-brief-literature-review
#15
Sohsuke Yamada, Mari Kirishima, Tsubasa Hiraki, Michiyo Higashi, Kazuhito Hatanaka, Akihide Tanimoto
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid schwannoma as a rare variant poses a challenge to all pathologists, as this uncommon entity is extremely difficult to conclusively diagnose by morphological analyses on a resected sample alone owing to its unique histopathological features. However, few papers have described the detailed clinicopathological characteristics of epithelioid schwannoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old female presented with a history of a flat and slightly elevated firm and tan plaque accompanied by occasional tenderness, measuring 10 × 8 mm, in the right joint of her hand 1 year before resection...
January 19, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103901/pathogenic-lrrk2-variants-are-gain-of-function-mutations-that-enhance-lrrk2-mediated-repression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#16
Daniel C Berwick, Behzad Javaheri, Andrea Wetzel, Mark Hopkinson, Jonathon Nixon-Abell, Simone Grannò, Andrew A Pitsillides, Kirsten Harvey
BACKGROUND: LRRK2 mutations and risk variants increase susceptibility to inherited and idiopathic Parkinson's disease, while recent studies have identified potential protective variants. This, and the fact that LRRK2 mutation carriers develop symptoms and brain pathology almost indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, has led to enormous interest in this protein. LRRK2 has been implicated in a range of cellular events, but key among them is canonical Wnt signalling, which results in increased levels of transcriptionally active β-catenin...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103616/l-lysine-acts-as-a-serotonin-type-4-receptor-antagonist-to-counteract-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-the-stimulatory-effect-of-serotonergic-agents-on-aldosterone-secretion-in-man
#17
C Duparc, C André, J Ménard, B Godouet-Getti, J Wils, A F Cailleux, L Moreau-Grangé, E Louiset, H Lefebvre
In the normal human adrenal gland, serotonin (5-HT) stimulates aldosterone secretion through the 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R). However, the physiological role of the serotonergic control of adrenocortical function is not known. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of l-Lysine, which has been shown to act as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, to counteract in vitro and in vivo the stimulatory effect of 5-HT4R agonists on aldosterone production. l-Lysine was found to inhibit aldosterone production induced by 5-HT and the 5-HT4R agonists BIMU8 from cultured human adrenocortical cells...
January 19, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103257/activation-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-after-in-vitro-stimulation-with-ifn%C3%A3-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-according-to-the-therapeutic-response-to-ifn%C3%A3
#18
Isaac Hurtado-Guerrero, Maria Jesús Pinto-Medel, Patricia Urbaneja, Jose Luis Rodriguez-Bada, Antonio León, Miguel Guerrero, Óscar Fernández, Laura Leyva, Begoña Oliver-Martos
Interferon beta (IFNß) is a common treatment used for multiple sclerosis (MS) which acts through the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. However, this therapy is not always effective and currently there are no reliable biomarkers to predict therapeutic response. We postulate that the heterogeneity in the response to IFNß therapy could be related to differential activation patterns of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Our aim was to evaluate the basal levels and the short term activation of this pathway after IFNß stimulation in untreated and IFNß treated patients, as well as according to therapeutic response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102470/neuronal-ryanodine-receptors-in-development-and-aging
#19
REVIEW
Nawaf Abu-Omar, Jogita Das, Vivian Szeto, Zhong-Ping Feng
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium-release channels found on the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells. All three RyR isoforms, RyR1-3, are expressed in the brain, with RyR2 predominating. RyRs are localized within the soma, axons, dendritic spines, and presynaptic terminals of neurons. RyRs are highly expressed in the cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory region, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. During the physiological processes of development and aging, the intracellular calcium homeostasis is largely regulated by RyRs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102435/effects-of-tryptophan-containing-peptides-on-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-activity-and-vessel-tone-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#20
Sherif Khedr, Andreas Deussen, Irakli Kopaliani, Birgit Zatschler, Melanie Martin
PURPOSE: Over-activation of the renin-angiotensin axis and worsening of vascular function are critical contributors to the development of hypertension. Therefore, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a key factor of the renin-angiotensin axis, is a first line treatment of hypertension. Besides pharmaceutical ACE inhibitors, some natural peptides have been shown to exert ACE-inhibiting properties with antihypertensive effects and potentially beneficial effects on vascular function...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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