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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944988/evaluation-and-treatment-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-patients-with-central-nervous-system-abnormalities-current-views-and-new-vistas
#1
REVIEW
E Ann Yeh, Jay Greenberg, Oussama Abla, Giulia Longoni, Eli Diamond, Michelle Hermiston, Brandon Tran, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Carl E Allen, Kenneth L McClain
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can include mass lesions of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormalities of the cerebellum, pons, and basal ganglia. The term neurodegenerative (ND) CNS-LCH has been given to the MRI signal abnormalities and neurologic dysfunction, although initially patients may have no clinical symptoms. Standardized evaluations to better understand the natural history and response to therapy are needed...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944920/periodic-acid%C3%A2-schiff-staining-method-for-function-detection-of-liver-cells-is-affected-by-2-horse-serum-in-induction-medium
#2
Hui Hui, Wenjun Ma, Jiejie Cui, Mengjia Gong, Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tongchuan He, Yang Bi, Yun He
Developing a thorough understanding of experimental methods of hepatic differentiation in hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) should expand the knowledge of hepatocyte induction in vitro and may help to develop cell transplantation therapies for the clinical usage of HPCs in liver diseases. A previous induction method effectively induced differentiation and metabolic abilities in HPCs. Periodic acid‑Schiff (PAS) staining is used to identify glycogen synthesis and hepatocyte function; however, this method failed to detect induced hepatocytes...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944750/microsporidia-obligate-intracellular-pathogens-within-the-fungal-kingdom
#3
Bing Han, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens related to Fungi. These organisms have a unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which upon appropriate environmental stimulation rapidly discharges out of the spore, pierces a host cell's membrane, and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the host cell. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that microsporidia are related to the Fungi, being either a basal branch or sister group. Despite the description of microsporidia over 150 years ago, we still lack an understanding of the mechanism of invasion, including the role of various polar tube proteins, spore wall proteins, and host cell proteins in the formation and function of the invasion synapse...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944078/a-pore-forming-protein-implements-vlr-activated-complement-cytotoxicity-in-lamprey
#4
Fenfang Wu, Bo Feng, Yong Ren, Di Wu, Yue Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Shangwu Chen, Anlong Xu
Lamprey is a basal vertebrate with a unique adaptive immune system, which uses variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen recognition. Our previous study has shown that lamprey possessed a distinctive complement pathway activated by VLR. In this study, we identified a natterin family member-lamprey pore-forming protein (LPFP) with a jacalin-like lectin domain and an aerolysin-like pore-forming domain. LPFP had a high affinity with mannan and could form oligomer in the presence of mannan. LPFP could deposit on the surface of target cells, form pore-like complex resembling a wheel with hub and spokes, and mediate powerful cytotoxicity on target cells...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943955/p53-inhibits-the-upregulation-of-sirtuin-1-expression-induced-by-c-myc
#5
Fang Yuan, Lu Liu, Yonghong Lei, Peifu Tang
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a conserved NAD(+) dependent deacetylase, is a mediator of life span by calorie restriction. However, Sirt1 may paradoxically increase the risk of cancer. Accordingly, the expression level of Sirt1 is selectively elevated in numerous types of cancer cell; however, the mechanisms underlying the differential regulation remain largely unknown. The present study demonstrated that oncoprotein c-Myc was a direct regulator of Sirt1, which accounts for the upregulation of Sirt1 expression only in the cells without functional p53...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943917/mechanisms-of-cxcr7-induction-in-malignant-melanoma-development
#6
Xiao-Jing Li, Pai Liu, Wei-Wei Tian, Zhi-Feng Li, Bao-Guo Liu, Jian-Fang Sun
Malignant melanoma (MM) is a highly malignant skin tumor. The mechanism of MM pathogenesis and its signaling pathways are not well characterized. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) has been reported to regulate cancer cell invasion. The present study sought to investigate the effects of CXCR7 on MM development. First, CXCR7 expression levels were assessed in the skin tumor tissue of patients with MM. Then, CXCR7 small hairpin RNA was used in M14 melanoma cells in a Transwell culture model and in a transplanted mouse model to test the effects of CXCR7...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943910/wound-fluids-affect-mir-21-mir-155-and-mir-221-expression-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines-and-this-effect-is-partially-abrogated-by-intraoperative-radiation-therapy-treatment
#7
Karolina Zaleska, Anna Przybyła, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Mateusz Wichtowski, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Wiktoria Suchorska, Dawid Murawa
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease occurring in women. Conservative breast cancer surgery followed by radiation therapy is currently the standard treatment for this type of cancer. The majority of metastases occur within the scar, which initiated a series of studies. As a result, clinical trials aimed to assess whether localized radiotherapy, as intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), may more effective in inhibiting the formation of local recurrence compared with the standard postoperative whole breast radiotherapy...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943852/metabolic-stress-induced-activation-of-ampk-and-inhibition-of-constitutive-phosphoproteins-controlling-smooth-muscle-contraction-evidence-for-smooth-muscle-fatigue
#8
Corey A Smith, Amy S Miner, Robert W Barbee, Paul H Ratz
Metabolic stress diminishes smooth muscle contractile strength by a poorly defined mechanism. To test the hypothesis that metabolic stress activates a compensatory cell signaling program to reversibly downregulate contraction, arterial rings and bladder muscle strips in vitro were deprived of O2 and glucose for 30 and 60 min ("starvation") to induce metabolic stress, and the phosphorylation status of proteins involved in regulation of contraction and metabolic stress were assessed in tissues under basal and stimulated conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943268/regulated-efflux-of-photoreceptor-outer-segment-derived-cholesterol-by-human-rpe-cells
#9
Federica Storti, Gabriele Raphael, Vera Griesser, Katrin Klee, Faye Drawnel, Carolin Willburger, Rebecca Scholz, Thomas Langmann, Arnold von Eckardstein, Jürgen Fingerle, Christian Grimm, Cyrille Maugeais
Genetic studies have linked age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to genes involved in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) handles large amounts of lipids, among others cholesterol, partially derived from internalized photoreceptor outer segments (OS) and lipids physiologically accumulate in the aging eye. To analyze the potential function of ABCA1 in the eye, we measured cholesterol efflux, the first step of HDL generation, in RPE cells...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943261/retinal-microcirculation-imaging-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#10
W Birkhoff, J de Vries, G Dent, A Verma, J L Kerkhoffs, A H F van Meurs, M de Kam, M Moerland, J Burggraaf
OBJECTIVES: To explore the feasibility of a new quantitative method for microvascular function: non-invasive retinal function imaging (RFI). in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and healthy controls and have it benchmarked against Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) measurements. METHODS: The variability of Microvascular measurements was assessed in 8 SCD patients and 8 healthy matched controls. Measurements were conducted twice on two different study days. RFI was performed for assessment of arterial and venous retinal blood flow...
September 21, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942513/loco-regional-extensions-of-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumors-a-retrospective-radiological-analysis-of-100-patients
#11
Loïc Duron, Flavie Sadones, Philippe Thiesse, Cécile Cellier, Claire Alapetite, François Doz, Didier Frappaz, Hervé J Brisse
PURPOSE: The current staging system of central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) includes a binary classification in "localized" or "metastatic" disease based on the absence or presence of leptomeningeal dissemination. Loco-regional tumor dissemination has been barely described whereas its accurate definition might be useful in terms of prognosis and treatment, especially for radiation therapy planning. Our purpose was therefore to describe MR patterns and prevalence of loco-regional extensions of these tumors...
September 23, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942480/acute-inhibition-of-estradiol-synthesis-impacts-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-adaptation-and-cerebellar-long-term-potentiation-in-male-rats
#12
Cristina V Dieni, Aldo Ferraresi, Jacqueline A Sullivan, Sivarosa Grassi, Vito E Pettorossi, Roberto Panichi
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation is an ideal model for investigating how the neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the modification of behavior by regulating synaptic activities. We hypothesized that E2 impacts VOR adaptation by affecting cerebellar synaptic plasticity at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF) synapse. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the acute effect of blocking E2 synthesis on gain increases and decreases in adaptation of the VOR in male rats using an oral dose (2...
September 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942294/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-trichoblastoma-in-the-rabbit
#13
M K Kok, J K Chambers, N Ushio, A Watamori, Y Miwa, H Nakayama, K Uchida
Trichoblastoma is the most common skin tumour in the rabbit. The aim of the present study was to characterize the histological and immunohistochemical features of trichoblastoma in 27 rabbits. Common sites of tumour occurrence were the neck (6/30, 20%), head (5/30, 16.7%), flank (4/30, 13.3%) and hindlimb (4/30, 13.3%). Histologically, rabbit trichoblastoma was categorized into ribbon (10/30, 33.3%), trabecular (8/30, 26.7%) and mixed types (12/30, 40%). The tumour tissue showed close interaction with the surrounding stroma where prominent fibroblastic aggregation, known as papillary mesenchymal bodies, was frequently observed (24/30; 80%)...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942148/high-glucose-derived-endothelial-microparticles-increase-active-caspase-3-and-reduce-microrna-let-7a-expression-in-endothelial-cells
#14
Tyler D Bammert, Jamie G Hijmans, Whitney R Reiakvam, Ma'ayan V Levy, Lillian M Brewster, Zoe A Goldthwaite, Jared J Greiner, Kelly A Stockelman, Christopher A DeSouza
The experimental aim of this study was to determine the effects of high glucose-induced endothelial microparticles (EMPs) on endothelial cell susceptibility to apoptosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured (3rd passage) and plated in 6-well plates at a density of 5.0 × 10(5) cells/condition. Cells were incubated with media containing 25 mM d-glucose (concentration representing a diabetic glycemic state) or 5 mM d-glucose (normoglycemic condition) for 48 h to generate EMPs. EMP identification (CD144(+) expression) and concentration was determined by flow cytometry...
September 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940606/the-roles-of-aamixta1-in-regulating-the-initiation-of-glandular-trichomes-and-cuticle-biosynthesis-in-artemisia-annua
#15
Pu Shi, Xueqing Fu, Qian Shen, Meng Liu, Qifang Pan, Yueli Tang, Weimin Jiang, Zongyou Lv, Tingxiang Yan, Yanan Ma, Minghui Chen, Xiaolong Hao, Pin Liu, Ling Li, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
The glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) on Artemisia annua leaves have the capacity to secrete and store artemisinin, a compound which is the most effective treatment for uncomplicated malaria. An effective strategy to improve artemisinin content is therefore to increase the density of GSTs in A. annua. However, the formation mechanism of GSTs remains poorly understood. To explore the mechanisms of GST initiation in A. annua, we screened myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor genes from a GST transcriptome database and identified a MIXTA transcription factor, AaMIXTA1, which is expressed predominantly in the basal cells of GST in A...
September 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940446/the-pd-1-and-pd-l1-pathway-in-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis
#16
Julie Ahn, Justin A Bishop, Richard B S Roden, Clint T Allen, Simon R A Best
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment may enable a persistent human papillomavirus infection in the setting of an otherwise normal immune system. We hypothesized that expression of the T-lymphocyte co-inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 would be increased in the recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) microenvironment compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded respiratory papilloma and normal controls were obtained under institutional review board approval, stained for CD4, CD8, FoxP3, and PD-1, and scored by automated cell count...
September 22, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940253/pbrm1-restricts-the-basal-activity-of-innate-immune-system-through-repressing-rig-i-like-receptor-signaling-and-is-a-potential-prognostic-biomarker-for-colon-cancer
#17
Xing-Sheng Shu, Yingying Zhao, Yanmei Sun, Lan Zhong, Yingduan Cheng, Yixiang Zhang, Kaile Ning, Qian Tao, Yejun Wang, Ying Ying
It has long been known that patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The innate immune system of host cells provides a first-line defence against pathogenic infection, whereas uncontrolled inflammatory response under homeostatic conditions usually leads to pathological consequences, as exemplified by the chronic inflammation of IBD. The key molecules and pathways keeping innate immunity in check are still poorly defined. Here, we report that chromatin remodeler polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is a repressor of innate immune signaling mediated by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940132/formation-of-multiple-oocyte-follicles-in-culture
#18
Alice P Christensen, Emeline Peyrache, Heidy Kaune, Suzannah A Williams
Basement membranes are found in every organ of the body. They provide structure and a selective filter for molecules. The ovary is no different with the follicular basal lamina (FBL) separating the granulosa and theca cells, facilitating regulation of the changing follicular environment providing appropriate conditions for the developing oocyte. The FBL is modified in C1galt1 Mutant mice (C1galt1 (FF):ZP3Cre) resulting from oocyte-specific deletion of C1galt1. Changes in the FBL lead to follicles joining to generate multiple-oocyte follicles (MOFs); where two or more oocytes are contained within a single follicle...
September 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939680/mobilizing-transit-amplifying-cell-derived-ectopic-progenitors-prevents-hair-loss-from-chemotherapy-or-radiation-therapy
#19
Wen-Yen Huang, Shih-Fan Lai, Hsien-Yi Chiu, Michael Chang, Maksim Plikus, Chih-Chieh Chan, You-Tzung Chen, Po-Nien Tsao, Tsung-Lin Yang, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Peter Chi, Sung-Jan Lin
Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HF mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR)...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939367/comparison-of-three-human-platelet-lysates-used-as-supplements-for-in-vitro-expansion-of-corneal-endothelium-cells
#20
Tsung-Jen Wang, Ming-Sheng Chen, Ming-Li Chou, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
BACKGROUND: Human platelet lysates (HPLs) are emerging as the new gold standard supplement of growth media for ex vivo expansion of cells for transplant. However, variations do exist in the way how HPLs are prepared. In particular, uncertainties still exist regarding the type of HPL most suitable for corneal endothelium cells (CEC) expansion, especially as these cells have limited proliferative capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three distinct HPL preparations were produced, with or without calcium chloride/glass beads activation, and with or without heat treatment at 56°C for 30min...
August 31, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
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