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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449484/clinical-presentation-and-characteristics-of-25-adult-cases-of-pulmonary-sequestration
#1
Mateusz Polaczek, Inga Baranska, Malgorzata Szolkowska, Jacek Zych, Piotr Rudzinski, Janusz Szopinski, Tadeusz Orlowski, Kazimierz Roszkowski-Sliz
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital abnormality of lung tissue. Only few series of adult cases are reported. The aim was to describe clinical characteristics in adult cases of PS and to compare outcomes in different clinical situations. METHODS: Using MSD engine we searched for cases of PS that have been diagnosed between Jan 1st, 2005 and Dec 31st, 2015. Clinical data was retrospectively gathered. Statistica v.12 (StatSoft, Inc.) was used for statistical analyses...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448018/live-imaging-of-antifungal-activity-by-human-primary-neutrophils-and-monocytes-in-response-to-a-fumigatus
#2
Shan F Brunel, Jude M Bain, Jill King, Lena J Heung, Shinji Kasahara, Tobias M Hohl, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts with a high case-fatality rate. Research investigating immunological responses against A. fumigatus has been limited by the lack of consistent and reliable assays for measuring the antifungal activity of specific immune cells in vitro. A new method is described to assess the antifungal activity of primary monocytes and neutrophils from human donors against A. fumigatus using FLuorescent Aspergillus REporter (FLARE) conidia...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446912/temporal-and-spatial-variability-of-fungal-structures-and-host-responses-in-an-incompatible-rust-wheat-interaction
#3
Chris K Sørensen, Rodrigo Labouriau, Mogens S Hovmøller
Information about temporal and spatial variability of fungal structures and host responses is scarce in comparison to the vast amount of genetic, biochemical, and physiological studies of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we used avirulent wild type and virulent mutant isolates of Puccinia striiformis to characterize the interactions in wheat carrying yellow rust Yr2 resistance. Both conventional and advanced microscopic techniques were used for a detailed study of morphology and growth of fungal colonies and associated host cell responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445703/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-for-filamentous-fungal-keratitis-role-of-observer-experience
#4
Ahmad Kheirkhah, Zeba A Syed, Vannarut Satitpitakul, Sunali Goyal, Rodrigo Müller, Elmer Y Tu, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To determine sensitivity and specificity of laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (LS-IVCM) for detection of filamentous fungi in patients with microbial keratitis and to evaluate the effect of observer's imaging experience on these parameters. DESIGN: Retrospective, reliability study METHODS: This study included 21 patients with filamentous fungal keratitis and 24 patients with bacterial keratitis (as controls). The etiology of infection was confirmed based on the response to specific therapy regardless of culture results...
April 23, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445212/plasma-concentration-of-itraconazole-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-treated-with-itraconazole-oral-solution
#5
Atsushi Marumo, Shuichi Miyawaki, Naoaki Dan, Ken Ishiyama
BACKGROUND: The prophylactic administration of itraconazole (ITCZ) is effective for preventing mycotic infections during chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, fungal infections can occur when the ITCZ does not reach an effective concentration. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to monitor the plasma concentration of ITCZ and hydroxyl-ITCZ (OH-ITCZ) weekly and to verify whether the day 3 plasma concentration of ITCZ could predict the subsequent acquisition of an effective plasma concentration...
April 25, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444889/invasive-fungal-infections-in-paediatric-patients-treated-with-macromolecular-immunomodulators-other-than-tumour-necrosis-alpha-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
An expanding list of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and biologic therapeutics is currently entering clinical practice, particularly in the areas of oncology, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. These agents are directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity and may therefore be associated with serious and opportunistic infections. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the literature on invasive fungal infections (IFIs) occurring in association with mAbs and fusion proteins other than tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, including therapeutics modulating T-cell-mediated pathologies (muromonab, abatacept, belatacept, ipilimumab, basiliximab, daclizumab), inducing lymphopenia (alemtuzumab), depleting CD20+ B cells (rituximab) and interfering with various targets (anakinra, natalizumab, blodalumab, ixekizumab and others) with a focus on children, and to provide a framework of evaluating the risk for IFIs in this population...
April 26, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444565/technological-applications-of-organo-montmorillonites-in-the-removal-of-pyrimethanil-from-water-adsorption-desorption-and-flocculation-studies
#7
Federico M Flores, Tomas Undabeytia, Esmeralda Morillo, Rosa M Torres Sánchez
Pyrimethanil (2-aniline-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidine, PRM) is used in fruit packing plants to control fungal infections and diseases. The effluents greatly polluted with this fungicide, as a point source contamination, need to be technologically treated for their regeneration before they reach water bodies. This work evaluates the use of organo-montmorillonites, synthetized in our laboratory, for their application in adsorption and coagulation/flocculation processes for the removal of PRM from water. The adsorption-desorption performance of PRM in a raw montmorillonite (Mt) and several organo-montmorillonites (organo-Mt) obtained by different amounts and types of exchanged surfactants (octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and didodecyldimethylammonium (DDAB) bromides and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMA)) was studied...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444360/role-of-early-onset-neutropenia-in-development-of-candidemia-in-premature-infants
#8
Nermin Ramy, Mohamed Hashim, Heba Abou Hussein, Happy Sawires, Maha Gaafar, Ayat El Maghraby
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early-onset neutropenia (EON) on the development of candidemia in premature infants and evaluate other risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit of Cairo University Hospital. Fifty neutropenic premature infants were matched to 50 non-neutropenics. Subjects were then regrouped into candidemics and non-candidemics to study other risk factors such as central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition, drugs as corticosteroids and others...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442603/aspergillus-fumigatus-trehalose-regulatory-subunit-homolog-moonlights-to-mediate-cell-wall-homeostasis-through-modulation-of-chitin-synthase-activity
#9
Arsa Thammahong, Alayna K Caffrey-Card, Sourabh Dhingra, Joshua J Obar, Robert A Cramer
Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Here we characterize genes, called tslA and tslB, which encode proteins that contain domains similar to those corresponding to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase but lack critical catalytic residues for phosphatase activity...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440395/microrna-mediated-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-are-dependent-on-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-monocytes
#10
Hong Chen, Yi Jin, Huan Chen, Ningxin Liao, Yan Wang, Jianghan Chen
Cryptococcosis is a significant invasive fungal infection with noteworthy morbidity and mortality that is usually caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) or Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii). Epidemiological studies have indicated that C. neoformans are more often reported in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It has been well established that the cytokine profile of the host markedly affects the outcome of cryptococcal disease, and the negative regulators of microRNAs(miRs or miRNAs) are critically important for immunomodulation...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440301/the-environmental-yeast-cryptococcus-liquefaciens-produces-capsular-and-secreted-polysaccharides-with-similar-pathogenic-properties-to-those-of-c-neoformans
#11
Glauber R de S Araújo, Gustavo J C Freitas, Fernanda L Fonseca, Paulo Emilio C Leite, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wanderley de Souza, Daniel A Santos, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections, including cryptococcosis, are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients. Although Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main agents of human cryptococcosis, opportunistic infections by environmental species, such as C. liquefaciens, have been observed recently. The main Cryptococcus virulence factor is the production and secretion of polysaccharides (PS). Previously, we showed that both species produce PS of similar composition. Here, we examined the ultrastructure and biological activity of capsular and secreted PS from C...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439794/the-effectiveness-of-voriconazole-in-therapy-of-candida-glabrata-s-biofilms-oral-infections-and-its-influence-on-the-matrix-composition-and-gene-expression
#12
Célia F Rodrigues, Bruna Gonçalves, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Sónia Silva, Joana Azeredo, Mariana Henriques
Candida glabrata is one of most prevalent yeast in fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Its azole resistance results in a low therapeutic response, particularly when associated with biofilms. The main goal of this work was to study the effectiveness of voriconazole (Vcz) against C. glabrata biofilms oral pathologies, as esophageal or oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined in pre-formed 24-h-biofilms and ERG genes expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Protein quantification was performed using BCA(®) Kit, carbohydrate was estimated according to the Dubois assay and β-1,3 glucans concentration were determined using Glucatell(®) kit...
April 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439781/batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-and-the-decline-and-survival-of-the-relict-leopard-frog
#13
Jef R Jaeger, Anthony W Waddle, Rebeca Rivera, D Tyler Harrison, Silas Ellison, Matthew J Forrest, Vance T Vredenburg, Frank van Breukelen
Epizootic disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major driver of amphibian declines, yet many amphibians declined before the pathogen was described. The Relict Leopard Frog, Rana onca (=Lithobates onca), was nearly extinct, with the exception of populations within a few geothermal springs. Growth of Bd, however, is limited by high water temperature, and geothermal springs may have provided refuge during outbreaks of chytridiomycosis. We conducted field surveys and laboratory experiments to assess the susceptibility of R...
April 24, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438973/pulmonary-il-17-lymphocytes-increase-during-pneumocystis-murina-infection-but-are-not-required-for-clearance-of-pneumocystis
#14
Chiara Ripamonti, Lisa R Bishop, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis remains an important pathogen of immunosuppressed patients, causing a potentially life-threatening pneumonia. Despite its medical importance, the immune responses required to control infection, including the role of IL-17, which is important in controlling other fungal infections, have not been clearly defined. Using flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining following stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, we examined interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 production by lung lymphocytes in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice over time following infection with P...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438946/potassium-iodide-potentiates-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-mediated-by-rose-bengal-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#15
Xiang Wen, Xiaoshen Zhang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Ahmed El-Hussein, Ying-Ying Huang, Tadeusz Sarna, Michael R Hamblin
Rose Bengal (RB) is a halogenated xanthene dye that has been used to mediate antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation for several years. While highly active against Gram-positive bacteria, RB is largely inactive in killing Gram-negative bacteria. We have discovered that addition of the non-toxic salt potassium iodide (100mM) potentiates green light (540nm)-mediated killing by up to six extra logs with Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram-positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal yeast Candida albicans...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438376/current-trends-in-the-use-of-two-combination-antifungal-corticosteroid-creams
#16
Chikoti M Wheat, Ryan J Bickley, Yu-Han Hsueh, Bernard A Cohen
Superficial fungal infections are among the most commonly managed skin problems by general practitioners. Although evidence shows combination antifungal/corticosteroid topicals are more expensive and less effective than single-agent antifungals, practitioners continue to prescribe combination agents. We examined current prescription trends of 2 combination antifungal/corticosteroid medications, Lotrisone and Mycolog-II.
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438221/isolated-splenic-tuberculosis-with-subsequent-paradoxical-deterioration-a-case-report
#17
Frederick Wangai, Loice Achieng, George Otieno, Jacqueline Njoroge, Tabitha Wambaire, Jamilla Rajab
BACKGROUND: Isolated tuberculosis of the spleen has been described occasionally in literature, mostly in immunosuppressed individuals with various risk factors. Sequestration in the spleen makes such Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection difficult to diagnose. This report describes an extremely rare case of isolated splenic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent individual. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26 year old Kenyan male presented with pyrexia of unknown origin, with negative screening tests for bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections...
April 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437670/a-case-report-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-fungal-osteomyelitis-mimicking-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-recurrence-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-following-transoral-robotic-surgery
#18
Hong Yu Tan, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Elizabeth Roche, Hiang Khoon Tan
INTRODUCTION: Transoral robotic surgery(TORS) for the excision of oropharyngeal tumour is increasingly considered for its lower rates of postoperative complications and better functional outcomes. However, we report a case of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient with previous radiation therapy years ago who underwent TORS recently. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55year old Chinese female with previous radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma diagnosed in 1986 underwent wide excision of a newly diagnosed oropharyngeal carcinoma with TORS...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437459/management-and-outcomes-of-severe-dengue-patients-presenting-with-sepsis-in-a-tropical-country
#19
Prapit Teparrukkul, Viriya Hantrakun, Nicholas P J Day, T Eoin West, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of infection in adults in tropical countries. Sepsis is a syndrome of systemic manifestations induced by infection of any organisms; including bacterial, fungal and viral agents. Here, we investigated the diagnosis, management and outcomes of dengue patients presenting with sepsis in a prospective study of community-acquired sepsis in Thailand. METHODS: From June to December 2015, 874 adult patients (age≥18 years) with suspected or documented community-acquired infection, with ≥3 diagnostic criteria for sepsis according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2012, and within 24 hours of admission were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437176/echinocandins-in-ocular-therapeutics
#20
Akash Patil, Soumyajit Majumdar
Fungal infections of the eye, especially fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis, are major causes of concern and if left untreated could lead to vision loss. Currently, natamycin (polyene antifungal) is the only commercially available topical agent used for the treatment of ocular fungal infections. The other antifungals, belonging to the polyene and azole classes, are used off-label in treating ocular infections and are administered topically, orally, intraocularly, or systemically. Even though their use through the different routes of administration has shown favorable outcomes, challenges such as poor ocular penetration, low bioavailability, ocular toxicity, and systemic side effects limit their utility...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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