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Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792948/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-significant-differences-in-gene-expression-between-appressoria-and-hyphae-in-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides
#1
Meiyu Wang, Zongshan Zhou, Jianyuan Wu, Zhirui Ji, Junxiang Zhang
Fruit rot caused mainly by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major cause of pre- and/or post-harvest diseases, which seriously constrains production, marketing, and export of fruits. To infect the host, this fungus evolves a specialized infection structure called the appressorium. Extensive past studies have characterized many appressorium-related genes in C. gloeosporioides, separately. However, a comprehensive understanding of the genes contributing to appressorium formation is far from complete. Here, global changes in gene expression were analyzed between appressoria and hyphae using RNA-Seq...
May 21, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792548/comparison-of-the-ocular-penetration-and-pharmacokinetics-between-natamycin-and-voriconazole-after-topical-instillation-in-rabbits
#2
Xin Zhao, Yang Tong, Xiaotong Wang, Xian Zhang, Shichao Chen, Hong Lu
PURPOSE: To investigate the ocular penetration of natamycin (NAT) and voriconazole (VRC) after topical instillation in New Zealand white rabbits using simplified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the first 2 groups, 72 rabbits were used for single-dose testing (36 for NAT, 36 for VRC), in which 50 μL of 5.0% NAT or 1...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792138/therapeutic-potential-of-phytomedicines-and-novel-polymeric-strategies-for-significant-management-of-candidiasis
#3
Surbhi Rohilla, D C Bhatt, Aditi Gupta
BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections caused by genus Candida. The genus composed of around 200 species. The most virulent among all are, Candida albicans followed by various non-albicans species. Despite of various treatments available, the incidence of severe systemic fungal infections is increasing, and with it the related morbidity and mortality, in relation to the misuse of antimicrobials and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal species...
May 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791841/functional-genomic-screening-reveals-core-modulators-of-echinocandin-stress-responses-in-candida-albicans
#4
Tavia Caplan, Elizabeth J Polvi, Jinglin L Xie, Shoshana Buckhalter, Michelle D Leach, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790637/chemo-enzymatic-total-synthesis-of-oxosorbicillinol-sorrentanone-rezishanones-b-and-c-sorbicatechol-a-bisvertinolone-and-epoxysorbicillinol
#5
Anna Sib, Tobias Alexander Marius Gulder
The sorbicillinoids are a large family of fungal natural products, many of which possessing highly challenging molecular architectures. Depending on their individual structures they exhibit strong biological activities ranging from radical scavenging and anti-infective properties to cytotoxicity. Despite the resulting strong biomedical potential of these natural products and the interest of the total synthetic community owing to their fascinating structures, many sorbicillinoids are currently not synthetically accessible, thus hampering in depth biological characterization and structural diversification...
May 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790574/investigations-on-velvet-regulatory-mutants-confirm-the-role-of-host-tissue-acidification-and-secretion-of-proteins-in-the-pathogenesis-of-botrytis-cinerea
#6
Nathalie Müller, Michaela Leroch, Julia Schumacher, David Zimmer, Anne Könnel, Klaus Klug, Thomas Leisen, David Scheuring, Frederik Sommer, Timo Mühlhaus, Michael Schroda, Matthias Hahn
The Botrytis cinerea VELVET complex regulates light-dependent development and virulence. The goal of this study was to identify common virulence defects of several VELVET mutants and to reveal their molecular basis. Growth, differentiation, physiology, gene expression and infection of fungal strains were analyzed, and quantitative comparisons of in planta transcriptomes and secretomes were performed. VELVET mutants showed reduced release of citric acid, the major acid secreted by the wild-type, whereas no significant role for oxalic acid was observed...
May 23, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790456/evaluation-of-neuroimaging-findings-of-central-nervous-system-complications-in-heart-transplant-recipients
#7
Hale Turnaoglu, Ahmet Muhtesem Agildere, Feride Kural Rahatli, Fuldem Yildirim Donmez, Ruhsen Ocal, Taner Sezer, Ufuk Can, Atilla Sezgin, Sait Aslamaci
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we presented neuroradiologic findings and diagnoses of neurologic complications in a series of heart transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at Başkent University Hospital. We searched the hospital and radiology databases and identified 109 heart transplant recipients. Thirty-one of these recipients had neuroradiologic evaluations secondary to presentation of neurologic symptoms after heart transplant, with 18 patients evaluated with computed tomography and 22 patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (overlap of imaging-defined groups occurred in 9 recipients)...
May 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789990/fatal-pulmonary-and-cerebellar-zygomycosis-due-to-rhizomucor-pusillus-in-a-ringed-seal-pusa-hispida
#8
Shotaro Nakagun, Masako Okazaki, Takahito Toyotome, Nobuki Sugiyama, Kenichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
A 4-year-old captive ringed seal (Pusa hispida) was treated with subcutaneous antibacterial injections for pus exuding wounds in the skin and associated blubber following a bite attack. Three months after the incident, the animal presented nystagmus and died the following day. At necropsy, there was a 25 × 18 × 25 mm well-delineated, opaque nodular mass in the lung, besides the skin ulcers and localized areas of discoloration in the blubber correlating with the bite wound and injection sites. Histopathology of the pulmonary mass demonstrated severe eosinophilic inflammatory infiltration among numerous intralesional fungal hyphae...
May 22, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789366/loss-of-upc2p-inducible-erg3-transcription-is-sufficient-to-confer-niche-specific-azole-resistance-without-compromising-candida-albicans-pathogenicity
#9
Arturo Luna-Tapia, Hubertine M E Willems, Josie E Parker, Hélène Tournu, Katherine S Barker, Andrew T Nishimoto, P David Rogers, Steven L Kelly, Brian M Peters, Glen E Palmer
Inactivation of sterol Δ5,6 -desaturase (Erg3p) in the prevalent fungal pathogen Candida albicans is one of several mechanisms that can confer resistance to the azole antifungal drugs. However, loss of Erg3p activity is also associated with deficiencies in stress tolerance, invasive hyphal growth, and attenuated virulence in a mouse model of disseminated infection. This may explain why relatively few erg3 -deficient strains have been reported among azole-resistant clinical isolates. In this study, we examined the consequences of Erg3p inactivation upon C...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789361/breaching-pathogeographic-barriers-by-the-bat-white-nose-fungus
#10
Johanna Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher
Bat white-nose syndrome has become associated with unparalleled mortality in bat species across the United States since 2006. In a recent article, Drees and colleagues (mBio 8:e01941-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01941-17) utilized both whole-genome sequencing and microsatellite data to explore the origin and spread of the causative agent of bat white-nose syndrome, Pseudogymnoascus destructans The research by Drees et al. supports the hypothesis that P. destructans was introduced into North America from Europe, with molecular dating suggesting a divergence from European isolates approximately 100 years ago...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788921/signatures-of-host-specialization-and-a-recent-transposable-element-burst-in-the-dynamic-one-speed-genome-of-the-fungal-barley-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#11
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Barbara Kracher, Stefan Kusch, Makoto Yoshikawa-Maekawa, Saskia Bauer, Carsten Pedersen, Pietro D Spanu, Takaki Maekawa, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Ralph Panstruga
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildews are biotrophic pathogenic fungi infecting a number of economically important plants. The grass powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis, has become a model organism to study host specialization of obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens. We resolved the large-scale genomic architecture of B. graminis forma specialis hordei (Bgh) to explore the potential influence of its genome organization on the co-evolutionary process with its host plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). RESULTS: The near-chromosome level assemblies of the Bgh reference isolate DH14 and one of the most diversified isolates, RACE1, enabled a comparative analysis of these haploid genomes, which are highly enriched with transposable elements (TEs)...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788443/pediatric-infectious-diseases-meets-the-future
#12
Janet R Gilsdorf, Paul Spearman, Janet A Englund, Tina Q Tan, Kristina A Bryant
Pediatric infectious diseases physicians are dedicated to the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections in children. As such, we play large, and important, roles in the clinical care of children from birth to late adolescence and in infection prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, research pertaining to infections, public health, international and global health, and advocacy for children's health. Furthermore, we are critical to the education of future physicians (in general), pediatricians, and infectious diseases doctors...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788431/novel-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-via-neurapheresistm-therapy
#13
Gordon J Smilnak, Lefko T Charalambous, Drew Cutshaw, Alykhan M Premji, Charles D Giamberardino, Christi G Ballard, Andrew P Bartuska, Tiffany U Ejikeme, Huaxin Sheng, Laura Zitella Verbick, Blake A Hedstrom, Promila C Pagadala, Aaron R McCabe, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has emerged as the most common life-threatening fungal meningitis worldwide. Current management involves a sequential, longitudinal regimen of antifungals; despite a significant improvement in survival compared to uniform mortality without treatment, this drug paradigm has not led to a consistent cure. NeurapheresisTM therapy, extracorporeal filtration of yeasts from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infected hosts, is presented here as a novel, one-time therapy for CM. In vitro filtration of CSF through this platform yielded a five-log reduction in concentration of the yeast and a one-log reduction in its polysaccharide antigen over 24 hours...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788070/vt-1598-inhibits-the-in-vitro-growth-of-mucosal-candida-strains-and-protects-against-fluconazole-susceptible-and-resistant-oral-candidiasis-in-il-17-signalling-deficient-mice
#14
Timothy J Break, Jigar V Desai, Kelley R Healey, Mukil Natarajan, Elise M N Ferre, Christina Henderson, Adrian Zelazny, Ulrich Siebenlist, Christopher M Yates, Oren J Cohen, Robert J Schotzinger, David S Perlin, Edward P Garvey, Michail S Lionakis
Background: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) treatment often induces drug resistance, posing long-term challenges. A novel broad-spectrum fungal CYP51 inhibitor, VT-1598, specifically targets fungal CYP51, but not human CYP enzymes. Objectives: To determine the efficacy of VT-1598 in the treatment of oral Candida infection caused by fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates. Methods: The MICs of VT-1598 and fluconazole for 28 Candida isolates recovered from patients with inherited CMC were determined using CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 guidelines...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788061/regulation-of-the-heat-shock-transcription-factor-hsf1-in-fungi-implications-for-temperature-dependent-virulence-traits
#15
Amanda O Veri, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
The impact of fungal pathogens on human health is devastating. For fungi and other pathogens, a key determinant of virulence is the capacity to thrive at host temperatures, with elevated temperature in the form of fever as a ubiquitous host response to defend against infection. A prominent feature of cells experiencing heat stress is the increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that play pivotal roles in the refolding of misfolded proteins in order to restore cellular homeostasis. Transcriptional activation of this heat shock response is orchestrated by the essential heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787746/two-photon-microscopy-of-fungal-keratitis-affected-rabbit-cornea-ex-vivo-using-moxifloxacin-as-a-labeling-agent
#16
Jun Ho Lee, Viet-Hoan Le, Seunghun Lee, Jin Hyoung Park, Jin Ah Lee, Hungwon Tchah, Sungjee Kim, Myoung Joon Kim, Ki Hean Kim
Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a three dimensional (3D) microscopic technique based on nonlinear two-photon fluorescence, which has been tested as an alternative to reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for detecting fungal keratitis via optical imaging. Although TPM provided images with better contrast than RCM for fungal keratitis, its imaging speed was relatively low because of weak intrinsic signal. Moxifloxacin, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antibiotic, was recently used as a cell-labeling agent for TPM...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787274/polymeric-interventions-for-microbial-infections-a-review
#17
Melanie A Hutnick, Jonathan K Pokorski
The world is facing a growing crisis of microbial infections, where resistant strains are rapidly outpacing the development of new therapeutics. In an effort to combat this, the polymer community is developing new ways to improve upon drug delivery, synthesizing novel antimicrobial polymers, and using polymer technology to harness combination therapies. This review focuses primarily on the use of polymers to treat both bacterial and fungal infections in recent years. A bevy of work has illustrated that polymer technologies can have a huge impact in treating bacterial infections...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785921/case-report-successful-treatment-of-chromoblastomycosis-caused-by-fonsecaea-monophora-in-a-patient-with-psoriasis-using-itraconazole-and-acitretin
#18
Fangfang Bao, Qihua Wang, Changping Yu, Panpan Shang, Lele Sun, Guizhi Zhou, Mei Wu, Furen Zhang
Chromoblastomycosis is a worldwide chronic subcutaneous infection caused by dematiaceous fungi and clinically characterized by verrucous lesions. Herein, we report a rare case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Fonsecaea monophora in a 60-year-old male carpenter with a 40-year history of psoriasis from Shandong in northern China. A fungal infection coexisting with psoriasis presents a management dilemma. Our patient responded well to combined itraconazole and acitretin therapy and the lesions resolved completely after 1 month of treatment...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#19
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784167/outcomes-of-boston-keratoprosthesis-type-1-reimplantation-multicentre-study-results
#20
Jay C Wang, Christopher J Rudnisky, Michael W Belin, Joseph B Ciolino
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the visual and anatomical outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis (Kpro) type 1 reimplantation. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of multicentre prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 303 eyes that underwent Kpro implantation between January 2003 and July 2008 by 1 of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centres, 13 eyes of 13 patients who underwent reimplantation of Boston Kpro type 1 were compared with 13 eyes of 13 diagnosis-matched patients who underwent initial implantation...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
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