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Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651230/comparative-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-between-prunus-persica-genotypes-resistant-and-susceptible-to-taphrina-deformans-suggest-a-molecular-basis-of-resistance
#1
Camila Goldy, Laura A Svetaz, Claudia A Bustamante, Marco Allegrini, Gabriel H Valentini, María F Drincovich, Alisdair R Fernie, María V Lara
The worldwide-distributed leaf peach curl disease is caused by the biotroph Taphrina deformans. To characterize the plant-fungus interaction, resistant and susceptible Prunus persica genotypes grown in the orchard were studied. Asymptomatic leaves were tested for fungal presence. In all resistant leaves analyzed the fungus was not detected. Conversely, leaves from the susceptible genotype were categorized according to the presence or absence of the pathogen. Comparative metabolomic analysis disclosed the metabolite composition associated with resistant and susceptible interactions, and of compounds involved in fungal growth inhibition such as chlorogenic acid, whose in vitro antifungal activity was verified in this work...
June 17, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651026/binding-of-human-plasminogen-and-high-molecular-mass-kininogen-by-cell-surface-exposed-proteins-of-candida-parapsilosis
#2
Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Dorota Zajac, Grazyna Bras, Oliwia Bochenska, Maria Rapala-Kozik, Andrzej Kozik
Pathogenic microbes can recruit to their cell surface human proteins that are components of important proteolytic cascades involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis and innate immune response. Once located at the bacterial or fungal surface, such deployed proteins might be utilized by pathogens to facilitate invasion and dissemination within the host organism by interfering with functionality of these systems or by exploiting specific activity of the bound enzymes. Aim of the study presented here was to characterize this phenomenon in Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice - an important causative agent of systemic fungal infections (candidiases and candidemias) in humans...
June 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650761/cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-of-the-first-metatarsal-head-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#3
Jae Hoon Ahn, ChanJoo Park, Choong Woo Lee, Yoon-Chung Kim
Most fungal infections primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of osteomyelitis involving the first metatarsal head due to Cryptococcus neoformans in a previously healthy immunocompetent patient. She was treated with surgical debridement combined with antifungal drug therapy for 6 months. At 5-year follow-up, she remained symptom free with full range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Fungal osteomyelitis should be considered as a possible cause in osteolytic lesions in the metatarsal bone...
May 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649744/mannose-binding-lectin-deficient-donors-increase-the-risk-of-bacterial-infection-and-bacterial-infection-related-mortality-after-liver-transplantation
#4
J Lombardo, G Sanclemente, J Colmenero, M Español-Rego, M T Arias, P Ruiz, E Mauro, L Sastre, G Crespo, A Rimola, A Moreno, F Lozano, M Navasa
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is synthesized by the liver and binds to microbes. MBL2 gene polymorphisms produce intermediate/low/null- or normal-MBL serum levels (MBL-deficient or MBL-sufficient phenotypes, respectively). We aimed to evaluate the incidence and severity of infection, rejection and survival within 1 year after liver transplantation (LT) according to donor and recipient MBL2 gene polymorphisms. A repeated-event analysis for infection episodes (negative binomial regression, Andersen-Gill model) was performed in 240 LT...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649699/a-wrky-transcription-factor-from-withania-somnifera-regulates-triterpenoid-withanolide-accumulation-and-biotic-stress-tolerance-through-modulation-of-phytosterol-and-defense-pathways
#5
Anup Kumar Singh, Sarma Rajeev Kumar, Varun Dwivedi, Avanish Rai, Shaifali Pal, Ajit K Shasany, Dinesh A Nagegowda
Withania somnifera produces pharmacologically important triterpenoid withanolides that are derived via phytosterol pathway; however, their biosynthesis and regulation remain to be elucidated. A jasmonate- and salicin-inducible WRKY transcription factor from W. somnifera (WsWRKY1) exhibiting correlation with withaferin A accumulation was functionally characterized employing virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression studies combined with transcript and metabolite analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649561/psd1-effects-on-candida-albicans-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#6
Sónia Gonçalves, Patrícia M Silva, Mário R Felício, Luciano N de Medeiros, Eleonora Kurtenbach, Nuno C Santos
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649485/scedosporium-apiospermum-brain-abscesses-in-a-patient-after-near-drowning-a-case-report-with-10-year-follow-up-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Sandra C Signore, Christoph P Dohm, Gunther Schütze, Mathias Bähr, Pawel Kermer
Scedosporium apiospermum is known to be a fungal pathogen affecting immunocompromised as well as non-immunodeficient patients. Although this fungus is found rarely, an infection can lead to severe and even fatal disease. Here, we describe the case of a 41-year-old female who developed multiple Scedosporium apiospermum brain abscesses after near-drowning with aspiration of contaminated mud and water. She showed various neurological symptoms. The patient recovered after removal of abscesses in combination with long-term antifungal treatment...
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649366/pneumocystis-jirovecii-detection-in-asymptomatic-patients-what-does-its-natural-history-tell-us
#8
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an unusual ascomycetous fungus that can be detected in the lungs of healthy individuals. Transmission from human to human is one of its main characteristics in comparison with other fungi responsible for invasive infections. P. jirovecii is transmitted through the air between healthy individuals, who are considered to be the natural reservoir, at least transiently. In immunocompromised patients, P. jirovecii multiplies, leading to subacute infections and acute life-threatening pneumonia, called Pneumocystis pneumonia [PCP]...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649308/association-between-spirometry-controlled-chest-ct-scores-using-computer-animated-biofeedback-and-clinical-markers-of-lung-disease-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Thomas Kongstad, Kent Green, Frederik Buchvald, Marianne Skov, Tania Pressler, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
Background: Computed tomography (CT) of the lungs is the gold standard for assessing the extent of structural changes in the lungs. Spirometry-controlled chest CT (SCCCT) has improved the usefulness of CT by standardising inspiratory and expiratory lung volumes during imaging. This was a single-centre cross-sectional study in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using SCCCT we wished to investigate the association between the quantity and extent of structural lung changes and pulmonary function outcomes, and prevalence of known CF lung pathogens...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648816/how-light-affects-the-life-of-botrytis
#10
REVIEW
Julia Schumacher
Fungi, like other organisms, actively sense the environmental light conditions in order to drive adaptive responses, including protective mechanisms against the light-associated stresses, and to regulate development. Ecological niches are characterized by different light regimes, for instance light is absent underground, and light spectra from the sunlight are changed underwater or under the canopy of foliage due to the absorption of distinct wavelengths by bacterial, algal and plant pigments. Considering the fact that fungi have evolved to adapt to their habitats, the complexities of their 'visual' systems may vary significantly...
June 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647921/proteome-profile-of-aspergillus-terreus-conidia-at-germinating-stage-identification-of-probable-virulent-factors-and-enzymes-from-mycotoxin-pathways
#11
Raman Thakur, Jata Shankar
Aspergillus terreus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. The main risk group of individuals for this organism is leukopenic patients, individuals having cancers, bone marrow transplant persons and those who have immunological disorders. The lack of early diagnostic marker for A. terreus and intrinsic resistance to Amphotericin B, further limits the successful therapy of A. terreus-associated infections. The germination of inhaled conidia is the key step to establish successful invasion in host tissues or organs...
June 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647582/comparison-of-sequencing-the-d2-region-of-the-large-subunit-ribosomal-rna-gene-microseq%C3%A2-versus-the-internal-transcribed-spacer-its-regions-using-two-public-databases-for-identification-of-common-and-uncommon-clinically-relevant-fungal-species
#12
S Arbefeville, A Harris, P Ferrieri
CONTEXT: Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647569/sepsis-in-alcohol-related-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Thierry Gustot, Javier Fernandez, Gyongyi Szabo, Agustin Albillos, Alexandre Louvet, Rajiv Jalan, Richard Moreau, Christophe Moreno
Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) remains the most important cause of death due to alcohol. Infections, particularly bacterial infections, are one of the most frequent and severe complications of advanced ALD, as alcoholic cirrhosis and severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH). The specific mechanisms responsible of this altered host defence become to be deciphered. The aim of the present work is to review the current knowledge about infectious complications in ALD and the pathophysiological mechanisms, distinguishing the role of alcohol consumption and the contribution of different forms of ALD...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646949/recognition-and-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-neonates
#14
Joanne L Calley, Adilia Warris
Fungal infections largely caused by Candida species are responsible for a significant disease burden in neonates and invasive candidiasis in hospitalised neonates has high associated morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of antifungal treatment improves outcome but the recognition and diagnosis of systemic fungal infection in this population is difficult due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the high false negative rate of cultures. There is a need for a practical, sensitive and rapid diagnostic test to enhance identification and early treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645773/abc-protein-cgabcf2-is-required-for-asexual-and-sexual-development-appressorial-formation-and-plant-infection-in-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides
#15
Zongshan Zhou, Jianyuan Wu, Meiyu Wang, Junxiang Zhang
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are exclusively found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we have characterized a gene from Glomerella leaf spot pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that encodes an ABC protein, whose function to date remains unknown. We designated this gene as CgABCF2. Deletion of CgABCF2 showed drastic reduction both growing rate and conidial production in C. gloeosporioides. The Δcgabcf2 mutant did not form the appressoria, lost the capability to infect apple and failed to form lesions on the wounded leaves and fruits...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645771/dectin-1-expression-by-macrophages-and-related-antifungal-mechanisms-in-a-murine-model-of-sporothrix-schenckii-sensu-stricto-systemic-infection
#16
Juliana Aparecida Jellmayer, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Francine Alessandra Manente, Amanda Costa Gonçalves, Marisa Campos Polesi, Alexander Batista-Duharte, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
The available information about the role of Dectin-1 in sporotrichosis is scarce. Hence, we aimed to assess Dectin-1 expression by macrophages and the activation of some related antifungal mechanisms during the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto infection as a first attempt to elucidate the role of this receptor in sporotrichosis. Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast ATCC 16345 and euthanized on days 5, 10 and 15 post-infection, when the following parameters were evaluated: fungal burden in spleen, Dectin-1 expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages, as well as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 ex vivo secretion by these same cells...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644565/long-term-risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-on-anti-tnf-treatment-a-prospective-single-center-cohort-study-in-china
#17
Yue Li, Hui Jun Shu, Hong Lu, Hong Yang, Ji Li, Bei Tan, Jiaming Qian
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF agents have demonstrated to greatly improve management strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical trials and registry studies in Western countries have shown that infections and malignancy are the most concerned complications of anti-TNF treatment. However, data derived from clinical practice in China are limited. The aim of this study is to explore the long-term infection risk of infliximab (IFX) in treating patients with Crohn's disease (CD) from a tertiary IBD center in China...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644403/assessment-of-vulnerability-to-coccidioidomycosis-in-arizona-and-california
#18
Jennifer Shriber, Kathryn C Conlon, Kaitlin Benedict, Orion Z McCotter, Jesse E Bell
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States, particularly Arizona and California. Its incidence has increased, potentially due in part to the effects of changing climatic variables on fungal growth and spore dissemination. This study aims to quantify the county-level vulnerability to coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California and to assess the relationships between population vulnerability and climate variability. The variables representing exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity were combined to calculate county level vulnerability indices...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644079/a-disseminated-cryptococcus-gattii-vgiia-infection-in-a-citron-crested-cockatoo-cacatua-sulphurea-citrinocristata-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#19
Édouard O Maccolini, Philippe J Dufresne, Sophie Ann Aschenbroich, Brittany McHale, Julie-Hélène Fairbrother, Christian Bédard, Julie A Hébert
Cryptococcus gattii infection in mammals and birds has been confined historically to tropical and subtropical regions in Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Since the early 2000s, numerous reports describe the emergence of C. gattii on the Pacific Coast of North America. We report on a C. gattii infection in an 8-year-old male citron-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata) hatched on the Canadian Pacific Coast and raised in the province of Québec, Canada. The bird developed a slow growing ulcerated, fleshy, crusty, and hemorrhagic mass infiltrating the left lower rhamphotheca...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644078/plasma-concentrations-of-itraconazole-voriconazole-and-terbinafine-when-delivered-by-an-impregnated-subcutaneous-implant-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#20
Marcy J Souza, Patrick Redig, Sherry K Cox
Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in both wild and pet birds. Although effective antifungal medications are available, treatment of aspergillosis can require months of medication administration, which entails stressful handling one or more times per day. This study examined the delivery of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine to Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) via an impregnated implant. Implants contained 0.5, 3, 8, or 24 mg of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
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