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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324923/the-operation-of-the-day-care-centre-of-alzheimer-hellas-saint-helen-and-of-the-memory-clinic-of-papanikolaou-general-hospital-from-2007-to-2017
#1
Chrysa Papasozomenou, Eleni Poptsi, Eirini Maria Tabaki, Magda Tsolaki
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, there is a rapid increase of neurocognitive disorders (ND), while Alzheimer disease (AD), is the most frequent type of neurodegeneration. Therefore, Day Care Centers (DCC) and Memory Clinics (MC) have been created in order to correspond to the rising needs of people with ND. The aim of the study was to record clinical and demographic characteristics of people with ND from the broader area of Thessaloniki. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data bases were collected and were analyzed in order to examine demographical characteristics of all visitors of the DCC of Alzheimer Hellas and of visitors of the Papanikolaou General Hospital, during the years 2007-2017...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318507/mid-term-prognosis-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-with-high-proliferative-potential-really-an-aggressive-variant
#2
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Hidefumi Jokura, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
Pituitary adenomas with high proliferation rate and rapid growth are well known, but the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and treatment algorithm remain unclear. The clinical characteristics and mid-term prognosis of patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas with high proliferative potential were retrospectively investigated. This study identified 53 patients with Ki-67 labeling index of > 3% among 845 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (6.3%) initially treated by surgery. Prophylactic treatment was not applied for patients with residual tumor, but salvage treatment was performed if tumor progression was identified within the follow-up period...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317065/nature-exposure-sufficiency-and-insufficiency-the-benefits-of-environmental-preservation
#3
John R Reddon, Salvatore B Durante
Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI)...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315804/white-matter-tauopathy-transient-functional-loss-and-novel-myelin-remodeling
#4
Joshua Jackson, Gabby Bianco, Angelo O Rosa, Katrina Cowan, Peter Bond, Oleg Anichtchik, Robert Fern
Early white matter (WM) changes are common in dementia and may contribute to functional decline. We here examine this phenomenon in an induced dementia model for the first time. We report a novel and selective form of myelin injury as the first manifestation of tauopathy in the adult central nervous system. Myelin pathology rapidly followed the induction of a P301 tau mutation associated with fronto-temporal dementia in humans (rTG4510 line). Damage involved focal disruption of the ad-axonal myelin lamella and internal oligodendrocyte tongue process, followed by myelin remodeling with features of re-myelination that included myelin thinning and internodal shortening...
January 8, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310343/cerebrospinal-fluid-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-test-for-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-an-18-year-old-woman-a-case-report
#5
Yuan Yao, Xiaoping Dong, Hongzhi Guan, Qiang Lu
RATIONALE: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) mainly occurs in the elderly, with the peak age of onset ranging from 55 to 75 years. The symptoms of sCJD are not unique, and laboratory tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)14-3-3 protein have low sensitivity or specificity. Therefore, excluding treatable diseases and establishing a diagnosis could be difficult in young patients with suspected sCJD. Recently, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been used in the diagnosis of sCJD, with more than 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297596/neuropathology-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-synucleinopathies
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Coon, Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Eduardo E Benarroch
The synucleinopathies-Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure-result from distinct patterns of abnormal α-synuclein aggregation throughout the nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction in these disorders results from variable involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks. The major pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies is Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites; of multiple system atrophy, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions; and of pure autonomic failure, peripheral neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions...
January 3, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283444/vasodilator-dysfunction-and-oligodendrocyte-dysmaturation-in-aging-white-matter
#7
Zsolt Bagi, Dieter D Brandner, Phuong Le, David W McNeal, Xi Gong, Huijuan Dou, David J Fulton, Allison Beller, Thuan Ngyuen, Eric B Larson, Thomas J Montine, C Dirk Keene, Stephen A Back
OBJECTIVE: Microvascular brain injury (mVBI) is a common pathologic correlate of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) that leads to white matter injury (WMI). VCID appears to arise from chronic recurrent white matter ischemia that triggers oxidative stress and an increase in total oligodendrocyte lineage cells. We hypothesized that mVBI involves vasodilator dysfunction of white matter penetrating arterioles and aberrant oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) responses to WMI...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282241/balancing-sexual-expression-and-risk-of-harm-in-elderly-persons-with-dementia
#8
Jessica Abellard, Carla Rodgers, Alicia L Bales
Assessing decision-making capacity in older individuals with dementia, now known as major neurocognitive disorder (MND), is a complex and challenging endeavor. There is a dearth of literature that touches on the sensitive and controversial topic of sexuality in institutionalized settings, despite the rapid increase in the global population of older individuals. In this article, we assert that evaluations of sexual expression in institutionalized older individuals with MND is essential, as there are concerns specific to risks and benefits of sexual expression in elderly persons with MND that should be considered...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276596/applicability-of-long-term-electroencephalography-in-pre-mortem-diagnosis-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-a-case-report
#9
Sanaz Attaripour Isfahani, Michelle Dougherty, Gediminas Peter Gliebus
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease accounts for more than 90% of all sporadic prion disease cases. The molecular MM2 genotype has been divided into cortical and thalamic subtypes based on structures involved and is characterized clinically by progressive dementia without ataxia or typical electroencephalography changes. Proposed diagnostic criteria for MM2 cortical type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease include progressive dementia, cortical hyper-intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, increased cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein level, and the exclusion of other types of dementia...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259496/immunosenescence-in-aging-between-immune-cells-depletion-and-cytokines-up-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Ventura, Marco Casciaro, Sebastiano Gangemi, Rosalba Buquicchio
Background: The immunosenescence is a relatively recent chapter, correlated with the linear extension of the average life began in the nineteenth century and still in progress. The most important feature of immunosenescence is the accumulation in the "immunological space" of memory and effector cells as a result of the stimulation caused by repeated clinical and subclinical infections and by continuous exposure to antigens (inhalant allergens, food, etc.). This state of chronic inflammation that characterizes senescence has a significant impact on survival and fragility...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259137/distinct-differences-in-prion-like-seeding-and-aggregation-between-tau-protein-variants-provide-mechanistic-insights-into-tauopathies
#11
Kevin H Strang, Cara L Croft, Zachary A Sorrentino, Paramita Chakrabarty, Todd E Golde, Benoit I Giasson
The accumulation of aberrantly aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)1 defines a spectrum of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the MAPT gene cause frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), characterized by neuronal pathological tau inclusions in the form of neurofibrillary tangles and Pick bodies, and in some cases glial tau pathology. Increasing evidence points to the importance of prion-like seeding as a mechanism for the pathological spread in tauopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248770/development-and-validation-of-an-uhplc-esi-qtof-ms-method-for-quantification-of-the-highly-hydrophilic-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-eliminating-all-d-enantiomeric-peptide-rd2-in-mouse-plasma
#12
Michelle Hupert, Anne Elfgen, Elena Schartmann, Sarah Schemmert, Brigitte Buscher, Janine Kutzsche, Dieter Willbold, Beatrix Santiago-Schübel
During preclinical drug development, a method for quantification of unlabeled compounds in blood plasma samples from treatment or pharmacokinetic studies in mice is required. In the current work, a rapid, specific, sensitive and validated liquid chromatography mass-spectrometric UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was developed for the quantification of the therapeutic compound RD2 in mouse plasma. RD2 is an all-D-enantiomeric peptide developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease finally leading to dementia...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246677/secular-trends-in-dementia-and-cognitive-impairment-of-u-s-rural-and-urban-older-adults
#13
Margaret M Weden, Regina A Shih, Mohammed U Kabeto, Kenneth M Langa
INTRODUCTION: This is a nationally representative study of rural-urban disparities in the prevalence of probable dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND). METHODS: Data on non-institutionalized U.S. adults from the 2000 (n=16,386) and 2010 (n=16,311) cross-sections of the Health and Retirement Study were linked to respective Census assessments of the urban composition of residential census tracts. Relative risk ratios (RRR) for rural-urban differentials in dementia and CIND respective to normal cognitive status were assessed using multinomial logistic regression...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244089/the-historical-progression-from-adl-scrutiny-to-iadl-to-advanced-adl-assessing-functional-status-in-the-earliest-stages-of-dementia
#14
Robert Fieo, Laura Zahodne, Ming X Tang, Jennifer J Manly, Ron Cohen, Yaakov Stern
Background: Decrements in instrumental activities (IADL) have been observed in the prodromal phase of dementia. Given the long pre-dementia stage in neuro-degenerative diseases, it has been proposed that subtle functional changes may precede clinical IADL impairment. Incorporating more challenging advanced ADLs (e.g., volunteer work) into the assessment process may increase the sensitivity of functional measures, thus expanding the window for monitoring or interventions. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study (follow-ups, 18-24 month), subjects aged >60 (n=3635)...
December 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237665/intermittent-catatonia-and-complex-automatisms-caused-by-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-in-dementia
#15
Robynne George, Alex Langford
An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department following bizarre behaviour. Police had noticed him driving erratically through his village. He did not stop when instructed, drove slowly home and appeared 'vacant' on questioning. While in hospital, he had approximately 15 episodes of catatonia, involving rigidity, negativism, mutism except echolalia and perseveration, automatic obedience and utilisation phenomena, lasting 2-20 min each. Between episodes, he was amnestic but otherwise well. Electroencephalography demonstrated bifrontal slowing with left-sided emphasis, and captured two focal onset partial seizures with the clinical correlate of the syndrome described above...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232183/loss-of-substantia-nigra-hyperintensity-at-3-0-t-mr-imaging-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-comparison-with-123i-fp-cit-spect
#16
Yun Jung Bae, Jong-Min Kim, Kyeong Joon Kim, Eunhee Kim, Hyun Soo Park, Seo Young Kang, In-Young Yoon, Jee-Young Lee, Beomseok Jeon, Sang Eun Kim
Purpose To examine whether the loss of nigral hyperintensity (NH) on 3.0-T susceptibility-weighted (SW) magnetic resonance (MR) images can help identify high synucleinopathy risk in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Materials and Methods Between March 2014 and April 2015, 18 consecutively recruited patients with iRBD were evaluated with 3.0-T SW imaging and iodine 123-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane (123I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography and compared with 18 healthy subjects and 18 patients with Parkinson disease (PD)...
December 12, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226870/alzheimer-s-disease-progression-factors-influencing-cognitive-decline
#17
Camilla Ferrari, Gemma Lombardi, Cristina Polito, Giulia Lucidi, Silvia Bagnoli, Irene Piaceri, Benedetta Nacmias, Valentina Berti, Debora Rizzuto, Laura Fratiglioni, Sandro Sorbi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present high variability in the rate of cognitive decline. Despite the wide knowledge on factors influencing dementia risk, little is known on what accounts for AD progression. Previous studies on this topic have mainly analyzed each factor separately without taking into account the interaction between genetic and non-genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of demographic, clinical, therapeutic, and genetic factors and their interaction on cognitive decline among newly diagnosed AD patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220880/development-of-a-new-biochip-array-for-apoe4-classification-from-plasma-samples-using-immunoassay-based-methods
#18
Sigrun Badrnya, Tara Doherty, Ciaran Richardson, Robert I McConnell, John V Lamont, Michael Veitinger, Stephen P FitzGerald, Maria Zellner, Ellen Umlauf
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a key player in lipid transport and metabolism and exists in three common isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE4. The presence of the E4 allelic variant is recognized as a major genetic risk factor for dementia and other chronic (neuro)degenerative diseases. The availability of a validated assay for rapid and reliable APOE4 classification is therefore advantageous. METHODS: Biochip array technology (BAT) was successfully applied to identify directly the APOE4 status from plasma within 3 h, through simultaneous immunoassay-based detection of both specific APOE4 and total APOE levels...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214114/calcium-dysregulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-target-for-new-drug-development
#19
Yong Wang, Yun Shi, Huafeng Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia among aged people whose population is rapidly increasing. AD not only seriously affects the patient's physical health and quality of life, but also adds a heavy burden to the patient's family and society. It is urgent to understand AD pathogenesis and develop the means of prevention and treatment. AD is a chronic devastating neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Current approaches for management focus on helping patients relieve or delay the symptoms of cognitive dysfunction...
August 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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