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Rapid dementia

Marissa B Guzzo, Hoa T Nguyen, Thanh H Pham, Monika Wyszczelska-Rokiel, Hieronim Jakubowski, Kerstin A Wolff, Sam Ogwang, Joseph L Timpona, Soumya Gogula, Michael R Jacobs, Markus Ruetz, Bernhard Kräutler, Donald W Jacobsen, Guo-Fang Zhang, Liem Nguyen
The methylfolate trap, a metabolic blockage associated with anemia, neural tube defects, Alzheimer's dementia, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, was discovered in the 1960s, linking the metabolism of folate, vitamin B12, methionine and homocysteine. However, the existence or physiological significance of this phenomenon has been unknown in bacteria, which synthesize folate de novo. Here we identify the methylfolate trap as a novel determinant of the bacterial intrinsic death by sulfonamides, antibiotics that block de novo folate synthesis...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Lynn A Schroeder, Olivier Rufra, Nicolas Sauvageot, François Fays, Vannina Pieri, Nico J Diederich
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To explore rapid eye movement density (RD) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) and to investigate its usefulness as surrogate marker of excessive daytime sleepiness, a frequent complaint in IPD patients. METHODS: Retrospective polysomnography study on 81 subjects without dementia: 29 patients with early-stage IPD (disease duration >3 y), 21 patients with middle- stage IPD (disease duration >3 and <8 y) and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Kousaku Saotome, Akira Matsushita, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshiaki Kato, Kei Nakai, Koichi Murata, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Akira Matsumura
PURPOSE: A fast spin-echo sequence based on the Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data acquisition and reconstruction method for correcting motion during scans. Previous studies attempted to verify the in vivo capabilities of motion-corrected PROPELLER in real clinical situations. However, such experiments are limited by repeated, stray head motion by research participants during the prescribed and precise head motion protocol of a PROPELLER acquisition...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
E Candeias, A I Duarte, I Sebastião, M A Fernandes, A I Plácido, C Carvalho, S Correia, R X Santos, R Seiça, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a highly concerning public health problem of the twenty-first century. Currently, it is estimated that T2D affects 422 million people worldwide with a rapidly increasing prevalence. During the past two decades, T2D has been widely shown to have a major impact in the brain. This, together with the cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia upon T2D, may arise from the complex interaction between normal brain aging and central insulin signaling dysfunction. Among the several features shared between T2D and some neurodegenerative disorders (e...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Tamara Shiner, Anat Mirelman, Mali Gana Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Elissa Ash, Ron Cialic, Naomi Nevler, Tanya Gurevich, Noa Bregman, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi
Importance: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are a risk factor for the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These mutations are common among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) and appear to have an effect on the natural history of the disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and genetic characteristics of an AJ cohort of patients diagnosed with DLB, assess the association of phenotype of DLB with GBA mutations, and explore the effects of these mutations on the clinical course of the disease...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Connie Luk, Samantha Jones, Claire Thomas, Nick C Fox, Tze H Mok, Simon Mead, John Collinge, Graham S Jackson
Importance: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder associated with the accumulation of infectious abnormal prion protein through a mechanism of templated misfolding. A recent report has described the detection of abnormal prion protein in the urine of patients with variant CJD (vCJD) using protein misfolding by cyclic amplification, which was apparently absent in the more common sporadic form of CJD (sCJD). A noninvasive diagnostic test could improve early diagnosis of sCJD and, by screening donations, mitigate the potential risks of prion transmission through human urine-derived pharmaceuticals...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options...
October 22, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Jennie Ponsford
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. METHOD: Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. RESULTS: Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa, Alfonso Caracuel, Miguel Pérez-García, Ivan Panyavin, Alejandra Morlett-Paredes, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current status of professional neuropsychology in Spain, with particular focus on the areas of professional training, current work situation, evaluation and diagnostic practice, rehabilitation, teaching, and research. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-nine self-identified professionals in neuropsychology from Spain completed an online survey between July and December of 2013. Respondents had an average age of 35.8 years and 77% were women...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
M Parkinson, S M Carr, R Rushmer, C Abley
INTRODUCTION: Advances in longevity and medicine mean that many more people in the UK survive life-threatening diseases but are instead susceptible to life-limiting diseases such as dementia. Within the next 10 years those affected by dementia in the UK is set to rise to over 1 million, making reliance on family care of people with dementia (PWD) essential. A central challenge is how to improve family carer support to offset the demands made by dementia care which can jeopardise carers' own health...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Jindong Ding Petersen, Volkert Siersma, Connie Thurøe Nielsen, Mikkel Vass, Frans Boch Waldorff
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Aida Suárez-González, Sharon A Savage, Diana Caine
Patients with semantic dementia (SD) can rapidly and successfully re-learn word labels during cognitive intervention. This new learning, however, usually remains rigid and context-dependent. Conceptual enrichment (COEN) training is a therapy approach aimed to produce more flexible and generalisable learning in SD. In this study we compare generalisation and maintenance of learning after COEN with performance achieved using a classical naming therapy (NT). The study recruited a 62-year-old woman with SD. An AB1ACAB2 experimental design was implemented, with naming performance assessed at baseline, post- intervention, 3 and 6 weeks after the end of each treatment phase...
September 28, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Sonia Marcone, Jean-François Gagnon, Sarah Lecomte, Hélène Imbeault, Frédérique Limoges, Ronald B Postuma, Josie-Anne Bertrand, Sven Joubert, Isabelle Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) is a cognitive function defined as the ability to perform an intention at an appropriate moment in the future. In the aging population, PM is essential for maintaining independent daily living. Introduced as a simple and quick way to assess PM in clinical settings, the envelope task has to date received very limited empirical and practical interest. METHODS: The present study investigated the task's clinical utility in detecting PM impairment in a sample composed of 49 healthy older adults (OA), 41 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 64 individuals with amnestic and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of heterogeneous etiology: 17 of idiopathic nature, 20 presenting an idiopathic rapid-eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and 27 patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
September 26, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Woojae Myung, Chunsoo Lee, Jin Hong Park, Sook-Young Woo, Seonwoo Kim, Sangha Kim, Jae Won Chung, Hyo Shin Kang, Shinn-Won Lim, Junbae Choi, Duk L Na, Seong Yoon Kim, Jae-Hong Lee, Seol-Heui Han, Seong Hye Choi, Sang Yun Kim, Bernard J Carroll, Doh Kwan Kim
High occupational attainment has been known as a marker of cognitive reserve. Previous studies in the general population have shown that high occupational attainment is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, few studies have assessed the effect of occupational attainment on the clinical course of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we evaluated whether individuals with high occupational attainment show more rapid progression from MCI to AD. Participants (n = 961) with MCI were recruited from a nationwide, hospital-based multi-center cohort, and were followed for up to 60 months (median: 17...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Clay Angel, Kristen Brooks, Julie Fourie
CONTEXT: Delirium is common among inpatients aged 65 years and older and is associated with multiple adverse consequences, including increased length of stay (LOS). However, delirium is frequently unrecognized and poorly understood. At one hospital, baseline management of delirium on medical-surgical units varied greatly, and psychiatric consultations focused exclusively on crisis management. OBJECTIVE: To implement a multidisciplinary program for rapid identification and proactive management of patients with delirium on medical-surgical units...
September 9, 2016: Permanente Journal
Jenny Linnoila, Sean J Pittock
Autoimmune neurology is a rapidly evolving new subspecialty driven by the discovery of novel neural- (neuronal- or glial-) specific autoantibodies and their target antigens. The neurologic manifestations affecting the central nervous system include encephalitis, dementia, epilepsy, and movement and sleep disorders. Laboratory testing is now available for most of these neural-specific autoantibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers, in some instances directing the physician toward specific cancer types (e...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Dongbing Lai, Huiping Xu, Daniel Koller, Tatiana Foroud, Sujuan Gao
Dementia patients exhibit considerable heterogeneity in individual trajectories of cognitive decline, with some patients showing rapid decline following diagnoses while others exhibiting slower decline or remaining stable for several years. Dementia studies often collect longitudinal measures of multiple neuropsychological tests aimed to measure patients' decline across a number of cognitive domains. We propose a multivariate finite mixture latent trajectory model to identify distinct longitudinal patterns of cognitive decline simultaneously in multiple cognitive domains, each of which is measured by multiple neuropsychological tests...
2016: Journal of Applied Statistics
Timothy M Morgan, Bob Soh
AIMS: To test the feasibility of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray as prospective treatment for dementia. METHODS: A single dose, crossover absolute bioavailability and safety study was conducted with rivastigmine intravenous solution (1 mg) and nasal spray (3.126 mg) in eight healthy elderly individuals, aged 58 to 75 years. RESULTS: The absolute bioavailability (F) of the nasal spray was significant at 0.62 (0.15) for F > 0 (p < 0...
September 18, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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