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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155026/personalized-nanomedicine-for-cns-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Ajeet Kaushik, Rahul Dev Jayant, Vinay Bhardwaj, Madhavan Nair
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are rapidly increasing globally. Currently used therapeutic agents to treat CNS diseases exhibit significant efficacy. However, the inability of these drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasiveness of the technologies to achieve localized drug delivery in disease-specific parts of the brain have thwarted pain-free and complete treatment of CNS diseases. Therefore, the safe, non-invasive, and targeted delivery of drugs to the brain using nanoparticles (NPs) is currently receiving considerable research attention...
November 15, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#2
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128327/clinical-predictors-of-stroke-mimics-in-patients-treated-with-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-according-to-a-normal-multimodal-computed-tomography-imaging
#3
Stephane Olindo, Martin Chardonnet, Pauline Renou, Cyrielle Coignion, Sabrina Debruxelles, Mathilde Poli, Sharmila Sagnier, François Rouanet, Igor Sibon
BACKGROUND: Multimodal computed tomography imaging (MCTI) is increasingly used for rapid assessment of acute stroke. We investigated characteristics and final diagnoses of patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) while admission imaging was unremarkable. METHODS: From our prospectively collected stroke database (2013-2016), we identified consecutive patients treated with rt-PA on the basis of an unremarkable brain MCTI and assessed with a 24-hour follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125945/periodic-eeg-patterns-in-sporadic-creutzfeld-jakob-disease-can-be-benzodiazepine-responsive-and-be-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#4
Justus Marquetand, Susanne Knake, Adam Strzelczyk, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Holger Lerche, Matthis Synofzik, Niels K Focke
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges in EEG and a history of rapidly progressive dementia are known to be associated with sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (sCJD). Doubts regarding this rare but fatal diagnosis can arise, when episodic symptoms (seizures, psychiatric features, speech disturbances) are present and the EEG shows epileptiform discharges within this periodicity. This scenario may indicate non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), which is - in contrast to sCJD - a treatable and frequent condition...
November 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123489/plasmapheresis-responsive-rapid-onset-dementia-with-predominantly-frontal-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy
#5
Dominique Endres, Magnus S Vry, Petra Dykierek, Anne N Riering, Eva Lüngen, Oliver Stich, Rick Dersch, Nils Venhoff, Daniel Erny, Irina Mader, Philipp T Meyer, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures. Case presentation: Here, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113605/rapid-review-of-cognitive-screening-instruments-in-mci-proposal-for-a-process-based-approach-modification-of-overlapping-tasks-in-select-widely-used-instruments
#7
Unai Díaz-Orueta, Alberto Blanco-Campal, Teresa Burke
BACKGROUND: A detailed neuropsychological assessment plays an important role in the diagnostic process of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). However, available brief cognitive screening tests for this clinical population are administered and interpreted based mainly, or exclusively, on total achievement scores. This score-based approach can lead to erroneous clinical interpretations unless we also pay attention to the test taking behavior or to the type of errors committed during test performance...
November 8, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111000/natural-history-and-predictors-of-survival-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#8
Maura Cosseddu, Alberto Benussi, Stefano Gazzina, Marta A Manes, Valentina Dell'Era, Viviana Cristillo, Rosanna Turrone, Antonella Alberici, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by high functional disability and rapidly progressive dependency. The predictors of survival are still unclear. METHODS: The predictors of survival were evaluated in a group of clinically diagnosed PSP patients, focusing primarily on extensive cognitive assessment. RESULTS: The mean survival time from symptom onset was 8.25±3.0years. Sex, age at onset, education, occupation and severity of extrapyramidal symptoms did not correlate with survival...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103041/association-of-the-new-variant-tyr424asp-at-tbk1-gene-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-cognitive-decline
#9
Irene Piaceri, Valentina Bessi, Sabrina Matà, Cristina Polito, Andrea Tedde, Valentina Berti, Silvia Bagnoli, Arianna Braccia, Monica Del Mastio, Alberto Moggi Pignone, Alberto Pupi, Sandro Sorbi, Benedetta Nacmias
A new risk gene associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has recently been identified: the Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene. Up to now, 90 TBK1 variants have been described in ALS patients with or without frontotemporal dementia (FTD), thus making TBK1 the third or fourth most frequent genetic cause of ALS and FTD. A point mutation analysis in a cohort of 69 Italian ALS patients was performed in order to analyze the frequency of TBK1 mutations and the correlation with clinical phenotypes. The analysis identified the novel variant p...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101940/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-diagnosis-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is diagnosed by a clinical history of dream enactment accompanied by polysomnographic rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is strongly associated with neurodegenerative disease, especially synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. A history of RBD may begin several years to decades before onset of any clear daytime symptoms of motor, cognitive, or autonomic impairments, suggesting that RBD is the presenting manifestation of a neurodegenerative process...
November 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097599/brains-with-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-and-copathology-showed-a-prolonged-end-stage-of-disease
#11
Aitzol Miguelez-Rodriguez, Jorge Santos-Juanes, Ikerne Vicente-Etxenausia, Katty Perez de Heredia-Goñi, Beatriz Garcia, Luis M Quiros, Laura Lorente-Gea, Isabel Guerra-Merino, Jose J Aguirre, Ivan Fernandez-Vega
AIMS: To investigate the expression of major proteins related to primary neurodegenerative diseases and their prognostic significance in brains with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty consecutive cases of confirmed CJD during the period 2010-2015 at Basque Brain bank were retrospectively reviewed. Moreover, major neurodegenerative-associated proteins (phosphorylated Tau, 4R tau, 3R tau, alpha-synuclein, TDP43, amyloid beta) were tested...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095328/c9orf72-intermediate-repeat-expansion-in-a-patient-with-psychiatric-disorders-and-progressive-cerebellar-ataxia
#12
Mario Meloni, Rita Farris, Paolo Solla, Marcello M Mascia, Francesco Marrosu, Antonino Cannas
INTRODUCTION: Large expansions of the noncoding GGGGCC repeat (more than 30) in the first intron of the C9ORF72 gene have been demonstrated to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Recent papers have investigated the possible pathogenic role and associated clinical phenotypes of hexanucleotide expansions with intermediate repeat lengths ranging between 20 and 29 repeats. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 71-year-old Sardinian female patient with a long history of psychiatric disorders such as mixed anxiety-depressive disorder associated with somatization disorder and histrionic personality who developed a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome, mild cognitive impairment, pyramidal signs, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder with imaging abnormalities on the DaTSCAN single-photon emission computed tomography indicating an alteration in the presynaptic dopaminergic system...
November 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095104/pathological-examination-is-required-for-the-case-of-rapidly-progressive-dementia-with-only-positive-result-of-rt-quic-assay
#13
Yuichi Hayashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082576/longitudinal-cortical-thinning-and-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-early-versus-late-stage-subcortical-vascular-mci
#14
Juyoun Lee, Sang Won Seo, Jin-Ju Yang, Young Kyoung Jang, Jin San Lee, Yeo Jin Kim, Juhee Chin, Jong Min Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Kyung-Han Lee, Jae Hong Lee, Jae Seung Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Heejin Yoo, Ae Young Lee, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Biomarker changes in cognitively impaired patients with small vessel disease is largely unknown. We evaluated the rate of amyloid/lacune progression, cortical thinning, and cognitive decline in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) patients. METHODS: Seventy two svMCI patients were divided into early stage (ES-svMCI, n=39) and late stage (LS-svMCI, n=33) according to their clinical dementia rating sum of box score. Patients were annually followed-up with neuropsychological tests and brain MRI for three years, and underwent a second [(11) C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET within a mean interval of 32...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080930/dysfunction-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone-mediates-sleep-disturbances-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jin-Zhi Song, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Xiao Hu, Yu-Nu Ma, Hui Ding, Hui Ye, Yong-He Zhang
Sleep disturbances are prevalent among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and often precede the onset and progression of dementia. However, there are no reliable animal models for investigating sleep disturbances in patients with sporadic AD (sAD), which accounts for more than 90% of all AD cases. In the present study, we characterize the sleep/wake cycles and explore a potential mechanism underlying sleep disturbance in a rat model of sAD induced via intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079685/early-weight-loss-in-parkinsonism-predicts-poor-outcomes-evidence-from-an-incident-cohort-study
#16
Kirsten Cumming, Angus D Macleod, Phyo K Myint, Carl E Counsell
OBJECTIVE: To compare weight change over time in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), those with atypical parkinsonism, and matched controls; to identify baseline factors that influence weight loss in parkinsonism; and to examine whether it predicts poor outcome. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Parkinsonism Incidence in North-East Scotland (PINE) study, an incident, population-based prospective cohort of parkinsonian patients and age- and sex-matched controls with annual follow-up...
October 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077801/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-clinical-neuropsychology-of-movement-disorders
#17
Alexander I Tröster
The special issue on the clinical neuropsychology of movement disorders provides an overview for the non-subspecialist clinical neuropsychologist and other clinical neuroscientists of the neuropsychological features, assessment and treatment of Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementias, atypical parkinsonian disorders (corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, and multiple system atrophy), Huntington's disease, dystonia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Additionally, articles provide overviews of neuropsychological and ethical issues related to deep brain stimulation and a discussion of non-pharamcologic and non-invasive treatment of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072553/prospective-memory-impairment-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#18
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tomáš Nikolai, Jiří Nepožitek, Pavla Peřinová, David Kemlink, Pavel Dušek, Iva Příhodová, Simona Dostálová, Veronika Ibarburu, Jiří Trnka, Karel Kupka, Zuzana Mecková, Jiří Keller, Josef Vymazal, Evžen Růžička, Karel Šonka, Petr Dušek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if prospective memory (PM) is impaired in idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). RBD is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and by REM sleep without muscle atonia. iRBD is considered as the initial stage of neurodegeneration with pathological storage of alpha-synuclein. METHOD: Sixty iRBD patients with polysomnography-confirmed RBD without parkinsonism and dementia and 30 demographically matched normal controls (NC) were enrolled in the present study...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#19
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067342/the-effects-of-noncoding-aquaporin-4-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-cognition-and-functional-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Kevin G Burfeind, Charles F Murchison, Shawn K Westaway, Matthew J Simon, Deniz Erten-Lyons, Jeffrey A Kaye, Joseph F Quinn, Jeffrey J Iliff
INTRODUCTION: The glymphatic system is a brain-wide perivascular network that facilitates clearance of proteins, including amyloid β, from the brain interstitium through the perivascular exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. The astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is required for glymphatic system function, and impairment of glymphatic function in the aging brain is associated with altered AQP4 expression and localization. In human cortical tissue, alterations in AQP4 expression and localization are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) status and pathology...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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