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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534652/a-review-of-the-evidence-of-zolpidem-efficacy-in-neurological-disability-after-brain-damage-due-to-stroke-trauma-and-hypoxia-a-justification-of-further-clinical-trials
#1
J A Sutton, R P Clauss
During 15 years, 23 clinical reports and 6 studies have demonstrated associations between sub-sedative doses of zolpidem and recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. Clinical findings include unexpected awakenings from vegetative states and regressions of stroke symptoms after dosing that disappear during elimination and reappear on repeat dosing. Initially single-photon emission computed tomography scans showed improved perfusion within, around and distant from infarctions. Then positron emission tomography scans and electroencephalography detected renewed metabolic and neuronal activity...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523253/cell-therapy-products-in-alzheimer-disease
#2
REVIEW
Hyeon Jin Song, Tae-Hee Kim, Hae-Hyeog Lee, Jun-Mo Kim, Yoo Jin Park, Arum Lee, Soo Ah Kim, Hye Ji Choi
We are rapidly becoming an aging society, with the ongoing increase in challenges of the elderly. The age-related cognitive decline in accordance with aging society is of major importance in public health. Recent studies have proved the impacts of sex-steroid hormone on the brain; compliant with aging, menopause and decrease in estrogen have an effect on the occurrence and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. A new hypothesis states that Alzheimer's disease is a postmenopausal dementia, and is a negative form of estrogen deficiency...
April 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513079/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-synucleinopathies
#3
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Angelica R Boeve, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by dream enactment and complex motor behaviors during rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia) during polysomnography. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder may be idiopathic or symptomatic and in both settings is highly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration, especially Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509083/detection-of-csf-14-3-3-protein-in-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-patients-using-a-new-automated-capillary-western-assay
#4
A Fourier, A Dorey, A Perret-Liaudet, I Quadrio
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a fatal rapidly progressive dementia. The detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is included in the WHO diagnostic criteria for the pre-mortem diagnosis of CJD. The aim of this study is to assess CSF 14-3-3 protein analytical and diagnostic performances using a new automated capillary Western technology (Simple Western technology-SW). For the validation of this assay, samples from a cohort of 268 patients suspected from sCJD were analyzed: 77 sCJD (including 40 definite sCJD) and 191 non-CJD samples were tested using both SW and the current Western Blot (WB) assays...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505974/state-of-play-in-alzheimer-s-disease-genetics
#5
Jin-Bao Zhu, Chen-Chen Tan, Lan Tan, Jin-Tai Yu
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the main form of dementia in the elderly, is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive cognitive dysfunction and behavior impairment. AD exhibits a considerable heritability and great advances have been made in approaches to searching the genetic etiology of AD. In AD genetic studies, methods have developed from classic linkage-based and candidate-gene-based association studies to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next generation sequencing...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501143/do-we-know-how-to-diagnose-epilepsy-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
B Cretin, N Philippi, O Bousiges, L Dibitonto, F Sellal, C Martin-Hunyadi, F Blanc
Epilepsy is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). First described as generalized in dementia patients, epileptic AD patients are nowadays fully described in earlier stages of the disease (with mild or subjective cognitive impairment). At such early stages, patients may present not only with generalized seizures, but also with focal seizures (commonly localized in the frontal or temporal lobe). Thus, partial or generalized epilepsy is part of the semiological spectrum of AD that should be borne in mind at all stages of disease to ensure early identification and prevent the risk of repeated seizures (such as accidents, injury, progression of cognitive impairment)...
May 10, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495476/studies-on-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-mechanism-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-metabolomics-and-hippocampal-proteomics
#7
Weiwei Lin, Jianmei Zhang, Yanmeng Liu, Ruijun Wu, Haisong Yang, Xiaobo Hu, Xiaomei Ling
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia, but precise diagnosis and treatment are not sufficient so far. The purpose of this study is to develop biomarkers and therapeutic targets for diagnosis and better understanding of AD. As a result, lysophosphatidylcholine and intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism including sphinganine-1-phosphate, sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, and sphingosine in plasma were annotated as potential biomarkers by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS. Besides, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) including GstA3, Gstm1, Gstm5, Gstm3, Gstk1 and Gstp1 were significantly enhanced in AD hippocampus by using label free nano-LC-MS/MS...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491313/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-a-case-of-e200k-mutation-related-spongiform-encephalopathy-with-non-diagnostic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-testing
#8
Pravin George, Christopher R Newey, Karin P Mente, Erik P Pioro
OBJECTIVE: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathy. The E200K mutation is found in a majority of genetically transmitted Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. METHODS: We describe the case and associated neuroimaging of an E200K-129M gene-mutation-related fatal spongiform encephalopathy with resultant clinical insomnia and thalamic changes. RESULTS: A 46-year-old Caucasian male presented with, who was well until 2 months prior to admission, a rapidly progressive dementia followed by a change in personality with auditory and visual hallucinations...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481984/the-dna-damage-response-ddr-is-induced-by-the-c9orf72-repeat-expansion-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Manal A Farg, Anna Konopka, Kai Ying Soo, Daisuke Ito, Julie D Atkin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansions in a non-coding region of C9orf72 are the major cause of familial ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) worldwide. The C9orf72 repeat expansion undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation to produce five dipeptide repeat proteins (DRPs), including poly(GR) and poly(PR). Whilst it remains unclear how mutations in C9orf72 lead to neurodegeneration in ALS/FTD, dysfunction to the nucleolus and R loop formation are implicated as pathogenic mechanisms...
May 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476157/microglia-amplify-inflammatory-activation-of-astrocytes-in-manganese-neurotoxicity
#10
Kelly S Kirkley, Katriana A Popichak, Maryam F Afzali, Marie E Legare, Ronald B Tjalkens
BACKGROUND: As the primary immune response cell in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the microenvironment and respond rapidly to stress, infection, and injury, making them important modulators of neuroinflammatory responses. In diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-induced dementia, activation of microglia precedes astrogliosis and overt neuronal loss. Although microgliosis is implicated in manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity, the role of microglia and glial crosstalk in Mn-induced neurodegeneration is poorly understood...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461128/cognitive-emotional-and-neural-benefits-of-musical-leisure-activities-in-aging-and-neurological-rehabilitation-a-critical-review
#11
REVIEW
Teppo Särkämö
Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed...
April 28, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458021/cerebrolysin-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-by-increasing-the-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-and-decreasing-the-levels-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#12
Zhijuan Liu, Ming Hu, Peiyuan Lu, Hebo Wang, Qianqian Qi, Jing Xu, Yining Xiao, Mingyue Fan, Yanqiu Jia, Dandan Zhang
The incidence of vascular dementia (VaD) has rapidly increased over the past few decades. Although officially approved medications for VaD remain limited, cerebrolysin (CBL) had preventive and treatment effects on VaD in some clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBL protects against cognitive deficits in a rat model of VaD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by increasing the levels of plasticity-related proteins and decreasing the levels of apoptosis-related proteins...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449849/alzheimer-s-disease-in-primary-care-the-significance-of-early-detection-diagnosis-and-intervention
#13
Lawrence Herman, Alireza Atri, Stephen Salloway
The field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is undergoing a profound and rapid change: clinical trials have been redesigned to focus on individuals in the earliest stages of the disease and are including more sensitive measurement tools to better capture changes in cognition and other outcomes. (Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/adwebcast/674 ). Trial participants undergo PET imaging for amyloid load as a hallmark for dementia, as well as genetic testing to determine likelihood of disease progression and response to therapeutic intervention...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449593/montessori-based-activities-among-persons-with-late-stage-dementia-evaluation-of-mental-and-behavioral-health-outcomes
#14
Scott E Wilks, P August Boyd, Samantha M Bates, Daphne S Cain, Jennifer R Geiger
Objectives Literature regarding Montessori-based activities with older adults with dementia is fairly common with early stages of dementia. Conversely, research on said activities with individuals experiencing late-stage dementia is limited because of logistical difficulties in sampling and data collection. Given the need to understand risks and benefits of treatments for individuals with late-stage dementia, specifically regarding their mental and behavioral health, this study sought to evaluate the effects of a Montessori-based activity program implemented in a long-term care facility...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443019/increased-diagnostic-accuracy-of-digital-vs-conventional-clock-drawing-test-for-discrimination-of-patients-in-the-early-course-of-alzheimer-s-disease-from-cognitively-healthy-individuals
#15
Stephan Müller, Oliver Preische, Petra Heymann, Ulrich Elbing, Christoph Laske
The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#16
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436344/inattention-tests-for-delirium
#17
Paul Regal
Voyer and colleagues (2016) report an interesting and important comparison of ten attention/concentration tests for DSM-5 delirium. I have a number of questions and comments as follows: (1) What training did the research assistants have? DSM-5 diagnosis is generally regarded as a decision by medical specialists. When the person has prior dementia, identifying delirium is a high-level medical skill. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can closely mimic delirium unless the examiner focuses on behavioral triggers and the speed of cognitive decline...
April 24, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436186/protective-factors-against-cognitive-decline-among-community-dwelling-middle-aged-and-older-people-in-taiwan-a-6-year-national-population-based-study
#18
Wei-Ju Lee, Chih-Kuang Liang, Li-Ning Peng, Shu-Ti Chiou, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: Dementia and cognitive impairment are important public health challenges to a rapidly aging country. The present study aimed to explore the protective factors against cognitive decline among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people from health, social, and lifestyle perspectives. METHODS: Data of the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study, a population-based cohort study in Taiwan, were retrieved for the study. Overall, 676 participants with intact baseline cognitive function (measured by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire) were enrolled and followed for six years...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431177/altered-functional-connectivity-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#19
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Sanghun Lee, Jung-Hoon Kim, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ick Byun, Min Hee Jeong, Kwang Su Cha, Jeong Woo Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered as a prodromal stage of synucleinopathy. Although loss of functional connectivity is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, network characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) in iRBD are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated resting-state EEG functional connectivity to identify the brain network changes in patients with iRBD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 16 control subjects...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429825/validation-of-the-mds-research-criteria-for-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease-longitudinal-assessment-in-a-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-rbd-cohort
#20
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Jacques Y Montplaisir, Amelie Pelletier, Jean-François Gagnon, Daniela Berg, Ronald B Postuma
BACKGROUND: Recently, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society introduced the prodromal criteria for PD. Objectives Our study aimed to examine diagnostic accuracy of the criteria as well as the independence of prodromal markers to predict conversion to PD or dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed on 121 individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder who were followed annually for 1 to 12 years...
April 21, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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