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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679609/cannabis-sativa-marijuana-alters-blood-chemistry-and-the-cytoarchitecture-of-some-organs-in-sprague-dawley-rat-models
#1
Nosarieme Omoregie Abey
There is evidence that Cannabis whose active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly abused neuroactive substance, among young adults. This work investigated the effects of Cannabis sativa on the cytoarchitecture of some key organs and the blood chemistry of rat models. Twenty-one (21) male Sprague Dawley rats were fed different percentage of cannabis chow (0%, 5% and 10%) for a period of seven (7) weeks. Rats were subjected to intermittent cognitive function test and sacrificed after the seventh week, collecting the blood, brain and other important tissues for analysis which include; brain total protein and nitric oxide concentration, blood chemistry and histopathology...
April 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670357/dronabinol-oral-solution-in-the-management-of-anorexia-and-weight-loss-in-aids-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Melissa E Badowski, Paa Kwesi Yanful
The true incidence of anorexia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer is not well classified owing to the fact that there is a lack of standardized definitions and recent clinical data in these settings. Dronabinol, or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a synthetic molecule that closely mimics the action of Cannabis sativa L., a naturally occurring compound activated in the central nervous system by cannabinoid receptors. Dronabinol exerts its effects by directly acting on the vomiting and appetite control centers in the brain, which in turn increases appetite and prevents vomiting...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659874/carfentanil-in-impaired-driving-cases-and-the-importance-of-drug-seizure-data
#3
Nicholas B Tiscione, Ilene Alford
Drug seizures containing carfentanil continue to increase in Palm Beach County, FL, USA despite international efforts to control the distribution of the drug. The analysis of drug seizures from the county in 2016 and 2017 demonstrated that carfentanil was the most commonly identified fentanyl analog and was most often detected in combination with heroin, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and/or other fentanyl analogs. Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid requiring a method with adequate sensitivity for detection in blood specimens from impairment cases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656267/a-naturalistic-examination-of-the-perceived-effects-of-cannabis-on-negative-affect
#4
Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration of Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). METHOD: Data from the app StrainprintTM (which provides medical cannabis users a means of tracking changes in symptoms as a function of different doses and chemotypes of cannabis) were analyzed using multilevel modeling...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648861/an-assessment-of-concurrent-cannabidiol-and-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-administration-in-place-aversion-and-taste-avoidance-conditioning
#5
Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Katharine H Nelson, Claudia J Woloshchuk, Anthony L Riley
Rising interest in medical marijuana has prompted research into its phytocannabinoid constituents, particularly Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Coadministration of CBD with THC has been shown to modulate a number of THC's effects, including its negative stimulus properties (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, psychosis) in a clinical setting. The present series of experiments extended these analyses by examining the ability of CBD to impact the aversive effects of THC as assessed in a combined taste and place conditioning procedure...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630019/transfer-of-inhaled-cannabis-into-human-breast-milk
#6
Teresa Baker, Palika Datta, Kathleen Rewers-Felkins, Heather Thompson, Raja R Kallem, Thomas W Hale
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transfer of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites into human breast milk after maternal inhalation of 0.1 g cannabis containing 23.18% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. METHODS: In this pilot pharmacokinetic study, breast milk samples were collected from mothers who regularly consumed cannabis, were 2-5 months postpartum, and exclusively breastfeeding their infants. Women were anonymously recruited for the study. After discontinuing cannabis for at least 24 hours, they were directed to obtain a baseline breast milk sample, then smoke a preweighed, analyzed, standardized strain of cannabis from one preselected dispensary, and collect breast milk samples at specific time points: 20 minutes and 1, 2, and 4 hours...
April 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619743/subcellular-localization-defines-modification-and-production-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid-synthase-in-transiently-transformed-nicotiana-benthamiana
#7
Marcus Geissler, Jascha Volk, Felix Stehle, Oliver Kayser, Heribert Warzecha
OBJECTIVE: Through heterologous expression of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) coding sequence from Cannabis sativa L. in Nicotiana benthamiana, we evaluated a transient plant-based expression system for the production of enzymes involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis. RESULTS: Thcas was modularized according to the GoldenBraid grammar and its expression tested upon alternative subcellular localization of the encoded catalyst with and without fusion to a fluorescent protein...
April 4, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607411/verbal-memory-performance-and-reduced-cortical-thickness-of-brain-regions-along-the-uncinate-fasciculus-in-young-adult-cannabis-users
#8
Nina Levar, Alan N Francis, Matthew J Smith, Wilson C Ho, Jodi M Gilman
Introduction: Memory impairment is one of the most commonly reported effects of cannabis use, especially among those who initiate use earlier, perhaps due to the effects of delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol on cannabinoid (CB1) receptors in the brain. Studies have increasingly investigated whether cannabis use is associated with impairments in verbal memory, and with alterations in brain structures underlying verbal memory. The uncinate fasciculus (UF), a long-range white matter tract, connects regions with densely localized CB1 receptors that are important in verbal memory...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607409/a-novel-observational-method-for-assessing-acute-responses-to-cannabis-preliminary-validation-using-legal-market-strains
#9
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Raeghan Mueller, Sophie L YorkWilliams, Sarah Hagerty, Angela D Bryan, Kent E Hutchison
Background: The development of novel cannabis research methods that are compatible with current federal regulations is imperative to conduct studies of the effects of legal market cannabis. There is very little research on higher strength, higher Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which has become increasingly available since legalization. Research on strains containing cannabidiol (CBD), a second primary, but nonpsychotomimetic, cannabinoid, is very limited. Materials and Methods: Using a novel observational methodology, regular cannabis users were asked to use one of two legal market cannabis strains that they purchased from a local dispensary (one strain containing 8% THC and 16% CBD (THC+CBD) and one containing a 17% THC concentration, but no CBD (THC)...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607408/therapeutic-effects-of-prolonged-cannabidiol-treatment-on-psychological-symptoms-and-cognitive-function-in-regular-cannabis-users-a-pragmatic-open-label-clinical-trial
#10
Nadia Solowij, Samantha J Broyd, Camilla Beale, Julie-Anne Prick, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika van Hell, Chao Suo, Peter Galettis, Nagesh Pai, Shanlin Fu, Rodney J Croft, Jennifer H Martin, Murat Yücel
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition and elevated psychological symptoms, particularly psychotic-like experiences. While Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is thought to be primarily responsible for these deleterious effects, cannabidiol (CBD) is purported to have antipsychotic properties and to ameliorate cognitive, symptomatic, and brain harms in cannabis users. However, this has never been tested in a prolonged administration trial in otherwise healthy cannabis users...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604295/cannabinoid-receptor-mediated-disruption-of-sensory-gating-and-neural-oscillations-a-translational-study-in-rats-and-humans
#11
Patrick D Skosnik, Mihály Hajós, Jose A Cortes-Briones, Chad R Edwards, Brian P Pittman, William E Hoffmann, Andrew R Sewell, Deepak C D'Souza, Mohini Ranganathan
Cannabis use has been associated with altered sensory gating and neural oscillations. However, it is unclear which constituent in cannabis is responsible for these effects, or whether these are cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) mediated. Therefore, the present study in humans and rats examined whether cannabinoid administration would disrupt sensory gating and evoked oscillations utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) and local field potentials (LFPs), respectively. Human subjects (n = 15) completed four test days during which they received intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9 -THC + CBD, or placebo...
March 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602148/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid-a-thc-a-in-urine-of-a-15-month-old-child-a-case-report
#12
Luca Morini, Jessica Quaiotti, Matteo Moretti, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Tajana, Angelo Groppi, Claudia Vignali
INTRODUCTION: The acidic forms of cannabinoids, THC-A and CBD-A are naturally present in cannabis plants and preparations and are generally decarboxylated to the active compounds before the use (e.g. thermally decarboxylated through smoking). Hence, the identification of the acidic compounds in urine could be an evidence of cannabis ingestion rather than a passive exposure to smoke. This case report described a 15-month-old child that suffered an acute intoxication by accidental cannabis ingestion...
May 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601658/chromatographic-characterisation-of-11-phytocannabinoids-quantitative-and-fit-to-purpose-performance-as-a-function-of-extra-column-variance
#13
Matthew Noestheden, Gareth Friedlander, Jason Anspach, Scott Krepich, K C Hyland, Wesley F Zandberg
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) is utilised as a therapeutic and recreational drug. With the legalisation of cannabis in many countries and the anticipated regulation of potency that will accompany legalisation, analytical testing facilities will require a broadly applicable, quantitative, high throughput method to meet increased demand. Current analytical methods for the biologically active components of cannabis (phytocannabinoids) suffer from low throughput and/or an incomplete complement of relevant phytocannabinoids...
March 30, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580953/effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-channelrhodopsin-2-kinetics
#14
Dominic Gioia, Minfu Xu, Wesley Wayman, John Woodward
Channelrhodopsins are light activated ion channels used extensively over the past decade to probe the function of genetically defined neuronal populations and distinct neural circuits with high temporal and spatial precision. The widely used Channelrhodopsin-2 variant (ChR2) is an excitatory opsin that undergoes conformational changes in response to blue light, allowing non-selective passage of protons and cations across the plasma membrane thus leading to depolarization. In the addiction neuroscience field, opsins such as ChR2 provide a means to disambiguate the overlapping circuitry involved in mediating the reinforcing and aversive effects of drugs of abuse as well as to determine the plasticity that can occur in these circuits during the development of dependence...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574698/biphasic-effects-of-thc-in-memory-and-cognition
#15
REVIEW
Edward J Calabrese, Alberto Rubio-Casillas
A generally undesired effect of cannabis smoking is a reversible disruption of short term memory induced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. However, this paradigm has been recently challenged by a group of scientists who have shown that THC is also able to improve neurological function in old animals when chronically administered at low concentrations. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that THC paradoxically promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer Disease, protects from inflammation-induced cognitive damage and restores memory and cognitive function in old mice...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559524/activity-based-detection-of-cannabinoids-in-serum-and-plasma-samples
#16
Annelies Cannaert, Jolien Storme, Cornelius Hess, Volker Auwärter, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids are the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Addiction. The rapid proliferation of novel analogs makes the detection of these new derivatives challenging and has initiated considerable interest in the development of so-called "untargeted" screening strategies to detect these compounds. METHODS: We developed new, stable bioassays in which cannabinoid receptor activation by cannabinoids led to recruitment of truncated β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) to the cannabinoid receptors, resulting in functional complementation of a split luciferase, allowing readout via bioluminescence...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555320/steroid-profiles-in-both-blood-serum-and-seminal-plasma-are-not-correlated-and-do-not-reflect-sperm-quality-study-on-the-male-reproductive-health-of-fifty-young-swiss-men
#17
Zufferey Fanny, Rahban Rita, Garcia Arnaud, Gagnebin Yoric, Boccard Julien, Tonoli David, Jeanneret Fabienne, Stettler Eric, Senn Alfred, Nef Serge, Rudaz Serge, F Rossier Michel
Steroids play an important role in sperm production and quality. These hormones have been extensively studied in blood, but poorly investigated in semen. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the relationship between sperm quality and steroid profiles in blood and semen in a small cohort of young Swiss men. Another objective was to determine whether the presence of xenobiotics or drugs could influence these profiles. Semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines, and steroid profiles in blood serum and seminal plasma were determined by two complementary approaches: a targeted investigation involving the quantification of a limited number of relevant steroids for testing putative correlations with sperm parameters and a global "steroidomic" analysis highlighting their complex metabolic relationship...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550900/short-term-genetic-selection-for-adolescent-locomotor-sensitivity-to-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc
#18
Chelsea R Kasten, Yanping Zhang, Ken Mackie, Stephen L Boehm
Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations...
March 17, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549004/optimization-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid-synthase-production-in-komagataella-phaffii-via-post-translational-bottleneck-identification
#19
Bastian Zirpel, Friederike Degenhardt, Chantale Zammarelli, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Felix Stehle, Oliver Kayser
Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis sativa L. with therapeutic indications like analgesics for cancer pain or reducing spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Here, we investigated the influence of the co-expression of 12 helper protein genes from Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia pastoris) on the functional expression of the Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) heterologously expressed in K. phaffii by screening 21 clones of each transformation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538683/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-pilot-study-of-cannabidiol-rich-botanical-extract-in-the-symptomatic-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Peter M Irving, Tariq Iqbal, Chuka Nwokolo, Sreedhar Subramanian, Stuart Bloom, Neeraj Prasad, Ailsa Hart, Charles Murray, James O Lindsay, Adam Taylor, Rachel Barron, Stephen Wright
Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that could improve disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept study assessed efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD-rich botanical extract in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Methods: Patients aged 18 years or older, with left-sided or extensive UC, Mayo scores of 4-10 (endoscopy scores ≥1), and on stable 5-aminosalicylic acid dosing, were randomized to 10-weeks' CBD-rich botanical extract or placebo capsules...
March 10, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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