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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816239/hippocampal-protein-kinase-c-signaling-mediates-the-short-term-memory-impairment-induced-by-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol
#1
Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Maria Gomis-González, Victòria Salgado-Mendialdúa, Lorena Galera-López, Emma Puighermanal, Elena Martín-García, Rafael Maldonado, Andrés Ozaita
Cannabis affects cognitive performance through the activation of the endocannabinoid system, and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. Using the novel object-recognition memory test in mice, we found that the main psychoactive component of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), alters short-term object-recognition memory specifically involving protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling. Indeed, the systemic or intra-hippocampal pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitors, prevented the short-term, but not the long-term, memory impairment induced by THC...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815938/optimization-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-hydrolysis-and-quantification-of-eight-urinary-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Cristina Sempio, Karl B Scheidweiler, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Prolonged urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users confounds identification of recent cannabis intake that may be important in treatment, workplace, clinical, and forensic testing programs. In addition, differentiation of synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from cannabis plant products might be an important interpretive issue. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) urine concentrations were evaluated during previous controlled cannabis administration studies following tandem alkaline/E...
June 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811178/acute-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-administration-in-female-rats-attenuates-immediate-responses-following-losses-but-not-multi-trial-reinforcement-learning-from-wins
#3
Scott A Wong, Sienna H Randolph, Victorita E Ivan, Aaron J Gruber
Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of marijuana and has potent effects on decision-making, including a proposed reduction in cognitive flexibility. We demonstrate here that acute THC administration differentially affects some of the processes that contribute to cognitive flexibility. Specifically, THC reduces lose-shift responding in which female rats tend to immediately shift choice responses away from options that result in reward omission on the previous trial. THC, however, did not impair the ability of rats to flexibly bias responses toward feeders with higher probability of reward in a reversal task...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808073/unintentional-cannabis-intoxication-in-toddlers
#4
Isabelle Claudet, Sébastien Mouvier, Magali Labadie, Cécile Manin, Anne-Pascale Michard-Lenoir, Didier Eyer, Damien Dufour
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). METHODS: A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort...
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806081/chlorination-kinetics-of-11-nor-9-carboxy-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-effects-of-ph-and-humic-acid
#5
Allison L Mackie, Yuri Park, Graham A Gagnon
The main psychoactive compound in marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its metabolites are emerging organic contaminants that have been detected in waste and surface waters. As legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use continues, the effects of increased use and potency of marijuana on water and wastewater treatment processes and the environment should be considered. This study examined degradation kinetics of the main urinary metabolite of THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) with chlorine...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803323/effect-of-footshock-stress-on-place-conditioning-produced-by-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-inhibitor-urb597-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Marieka V DeVuono, Kiri L Wills, Danielle V MacPherson, Kelly M Hrelja, Linda A Parker
RATIONALE: Unlike other drugs of abuse, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC) is generally aversive in rodent conditioned place preference models, but little is known about how stress may modify THC affective properties. OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the potential of footshock stress to enhance the rewarding effects of THC and the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, as it has been shown to enhance their anxiolytic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of footshock stress 24 h prior to each conditioning trial on the rewarding/aversive effects of THC (1, 0...
August 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802951/smoke-on-the-water-oral-fluid-analysis-at-sea
#7
Andrew Griffiths, Richard Leonars, Lenore Hadley, Mark Stephenson, Richard Teale
This study outlines the operational challenges and findings of an illicit drug oral fluid testing program carried out on the skippers (those in charge) of water vessels in Queensland, Australia. Between 2010 and 2016, 953 tests of skippers were conducted on water (waterside) for three proscribed illicit drugs; delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), methylamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylendioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). 126 (13%) of the skippers tested returned an on-site positive during waterside testing, 125 were confirmed positive for one or more illicit drug by subsequent laboratory analysis, whilst one skipper did not provide an oral fluid sample for confirmatory analysis...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780725/a-review-of-oral-cannabinoids-and-medical-marijuana-for-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-a-focus-on-pharmacokinetic-variability-and-pharmacodynamics
#8
REVIEW
Melissa E Badowski
PURPOSE: Oral cannabinoids (i.e., dronabinol, nabilone) containing the active component of marijuana, delta(Δ)9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are available for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with cancer who have failed to adequately respond to conventional antiemetic therapy. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of oral cannabinoids for patients with CINV...
August 5, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772109/differentiation-of-cannabis-subspecies-by-thca-synthase-gene-analysis-using-rflp
#9
Natasa Cirovic, Miljana Kecmanovic, Dusan Keckarevic, Milica Keckarevic Markovic
Cannabis sativa subspecies, known as industrial hemp (C. sativa sativa) and marijuana (C. sativa indica) show no evident morphological distinctions, but they contain different levels of psychoactive Δ-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (THC), with considerably higher concentration in marijuana than in hemp. C. sativa subspecies differ in sequence of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, responsible for THC production, and only one active copy of the gene, distinctive for marijuana, is capable of producing THC in concentration more then 0,3% in dried plants, usually punishable by the law...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771093/placebo-effects-of-edible-cannabis-reported-intoxication-effects-at-a-30-minute-delay
#10
Mallory J E Loflin, Mitch Earleywine, Stacey Farmer, Melissa Slavin, Rachel Luba, Marcel Bonn-Miller
Previous research has demonstrated the ability of non-active smoked cannabis cigarettes to induce subjective effects of intoxication (i.e., placebo effect). No studies have been conduced to test whether edible forms of cannabis, which are associated with a significant delay in onset of effect, are able to induce a placebo effect. In the present study, 20 participants were told that they would receive an edible cannabis lollipop containing a high dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but were instead given a placebo control...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750809/assessing-allosteric-modulation-of-cb1-at-the-receptor-and-cellular-levels
#11
Caitlin E Scott, Debra A Kendall
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is abundant in the central nervous system and regulates neuronal transmission and other key physiological processes including those leading to pain, inflammation, memory, and feeding behavior. CB1 is activated by the endogenous ligands, arachidonoyl ethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, by various synthetic ligands (e.g., CP55940), and by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. These CB1 ligands are orthosteric and transduce downstream signals by binding CB1 and primarily inducing Gi coupling, but Gs and β-arrestin coupling are also possible...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736802/psychotropic-substances-in-house-dusts-a-preliminary-assessment
#12
Angelo Cecinato, Paola Romagnoli, Mattia Perilli, Catia Balducci
Psychotropic substances (PSs) are known to affect air and waters, while scarce attention has been paid to their occurrence in settled dusts although they can reach important concentrations there; moreover, no procedures have been developed for this specific purpose. In this study, a list of PSs (i.e., nicotine, cotinine, caffeine, cocaine, cannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, amphetamine, heroin, and methadone) were characterized in dusts from Rome and Fiumicino international airport, Italy, and from Ouargla city, Algeria...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736128/the-effect-of-pro-nanolipospheres-pnl-formulation-containing-natural-absorption-enhancers-on-the-oral-bioavailability-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-and-cannabidiol-cbd-in-a-rat-model
#13
Irina Cherniakov, Dvora Izgelov, Abraham J Domb, Amnon Hoffman
The lipophilic phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) show therapeutic efficacy in various medical conditions. Both molecules are poorly water soluble and subjected to extensive first pass metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a limited oral bioavailability of approximately 9%. We have developed an advanced lipid based Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System termed Advanced Pro-NanoLiposphere (PNL) pre-concentrate. The PNL is composed of lipid and emulsifying excipients of GRAS status and are known to increase solubility and reduce Phase I metabolism of lipophilic active compounds...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728424/annals-express-false-negative-results-in-the-immunoassay-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-can-adulterants-be-detected-by-sample-check-test
#14
Barbara Matriciani, Bernd Huppertz, Ruprecht Keller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: The dilution or adulteration of urine is a serious problem in drugs of abuse (DOA) testing. Tests to identify adulteration are currently available. This study investigated the ability of the CEDIA® sample check to detect adulteration. METHODS: Eight different DOAs were added to a urine sample obtained from a healthy, drug free subject: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, D-amphetaminesulfate, ethyl-D-glucuronide, morphine sulfate, oxazepam, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#15
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719234/the-in-vivo-effects-of-the-cb1-positive-allosteric-modulator-gat229-on-intraocular-pressure-in-ocular-normotensive-and-hypertensive-mice
#16
Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, Alex J Straiker, Pushkar M Kulkarni, Roger G Pertwee, Ganesh A Thakur, William H Baldridge, Melanie E M Kelly
PURPOSE: Orthosteric cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) activation leads to decreases in intraocular pressure (IOP). However, use of orthosteric CB1 agonists chronically has several disadvantages, limiting their usefulness as clinically relevant drugs. Allosteric modulators interact with topographically distinct sites to orthosteric ligands and may be useful to circumvent some of these disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the novel CB1-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) GAT229 on IOP...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707583/cannabis-an-overview-of-its-adverse-acute-and-chronic-effects-and-their-implications
#17
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700290/lower-risk-cannabis-use-guidelines-a-comprehensive-update-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
Benedikt Fischer, Cayley Russell, Pamela Sabioni, Wim van den Brink, Bernard Le Foll, Wayne Hall, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694184/engineering-yeasts-as-platform-organisms-for-cannabinoid-biosynthesis
#19
Bastian Zirpel, Friederike Degenhardt, Chantale Martin, Oliver Kayser, Felix Stehle
Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a plant derived secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis satival. The discovery of the human endocannabinoid system in the late 1980s resulted in a growing number of known physiological functions of both synthetic and plant derived cannabinoids. Thus, manifold therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of research. Here we reconstituted the final biosynthetic cannabinoid pathway in yeasts. The use of the soluble prenyltransferase NphB from Streptomyces sp...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692581/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-suppresses-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#20
Joseph E Henriquez, Michael D Rizzo, Matthias A Schulz, Robert B Crawford, Peter Gulick, Norbert E Kaminski
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a crucial role in host antiviral immune response through secretion of type I interferon. Interferon alpha (IFNα), a type I IFN, is critical for mounting the initial response to viral pathogens. A consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection is a decrease in both pDC number and function, but prolonged pDC activity has been linked with progression from HIV infection to the development of AIDS. Patients with HIV in the United States routinely use cannabinoid-based therapies to combat the side effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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