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Tetrahydrocannabinol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022873/adolescent-thc-exposure-in-female-rats-leads-to-cognitive-deficits-through-a-mechanism-involving-chromatin-modifications-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017688/cannabinoids-in-pain-management-and-palliative-medicine
#2
Winfried Häuser, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Lukas Radbruch, Frank Petzke
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting interpretations of the evidence regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in pain management and palliative medicine. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review (SR) of systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective long-term observational studies of the use of cannabinoids in pain management and palliative medicine. Pertinent publications from January 2009 to January 2017 were retrieved by a selective search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Medline...
September 22, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987305/unintentional-marijuana-exposure-presenting-as-altered-mental-status-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-a-case-series
#3
Anita A Thomas, Suzan Mazor
BACKGROUND: Unintentional tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in pediatric patients can present as altered mental status. Altered mental status in a pediatric patient often leads to invasive diagnostic testing. CASE REPORT: The following cases describe 3 pediatric patients in Washington state who presented to a tertiary care children's hospital emergency department (ED) with altered mental status, later found to have urine toxicology screening positive for inactive THC metabolite (positive THC toxicology screen)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983686/8%C3%AE-oh-thc-and-8%C3%AE-11-dioh-thc-minor-metabolites-with-major-informative-value
#4
Angela Gasse, Heidi Pfeiffer, Helga Köhler, Jennifer Schürenkamp
The ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolites 8β-hydroxy-THC and 8β,11-dihydroxy-THC are mentioned in the literature as potential blood markers of recent cannabis use. However, the formation of these metabolites in in vivo detectable concentrations has been described controversially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the in vivo metabolism of 8β-hydroxy-THC and 8β,11-dihydroxy-THC in order to evaluate their potential as blood markers of recent cannabis use. First, we developed and validated a solid-phase-extraction method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to enable the selective and very sensitive determination of 8β-hydroxy-THC and 8β,11-dihydroxy-THC...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977394/development-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-four-cannabinoids-in-umbilical-cord-tissue
#5
Fang Wu, Triniti L Scroggin, Torri D Metz, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In utero exposure to marijuana may cause various short- and long-term health problems, such as stillbirth, low birth weight and decreased cognitive function. Detection of in utero marijuana exposure with a relatively new specimen type, umbilical cord tissue, can be used to plan treatment and guide social management. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) assay was developed for the simultaneous identification of four cannabinoids in umbilical cord tissue, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9--THC (THC-COOH), 11-hydroxy-∆9-THC (11-OH-THC) and cannabinol (CBN)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976920/chronic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-thc-exposure-differently-affects-histone-modifications-in-the-adolescent-and-adult-rat-brain
#6
Pamela Prini, Federica Penna, Emanuele Sciuccati, Tiziana Alberio, Tiziana Rubino
Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for the psychiatric consequences of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁸-THC) exposure, however, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability remain to be established. Histone modifications are emerging as important epigenetic mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, thus, we investigated the impact of chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure on histone modifications in different brain areas of female rats. We checked histone modifications associated to both transcriptional repression (H3K9 di- and tri-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation) and activation (H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation) after adolescent and adult chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976704/human-serum-albumin-a-modulator-of-cannabinoid-drugs
#7
Loris Leboffe, Alessandra di Masi, Viviana Trezza, Fabio Polticelli, Paolo Ascenzi
The endocannabinoid system is a unique neuromodulatory system that affects a wide range of biological processes and maintains the homeostasis in all mammal body systems. In recent years, several pharmacological tools to target endocannabinoid neurotransmission have been developed, including direct and indirect cannabinoid agonists and cannabinoid antagonists. Due to their hydrophobic nature, cannabinoid agonists and antagonists need to bind specific transporters to allow their distribution in body fluids. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein, is a key determinant of drug pharmacokinetics...
October 4, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967368/is-cannabis-an-effective-treatment-for-joint-pain
#8
REVIEW
Richard J Miller, Rachel E Miller
Cannabis has been used to treat pain for thousands of years. However, since the early part of the 20th century, laws restricting cannabis use have limited its evaluation using modern scientific criteria. Over the last decade, the situation has started to change because of the increased availability of cannabis in the United States for either medical or recreational purposes, making it important to provide the public with accurate information as to the effectiveness of the drug for joint pain among other indications...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951549/cb1-receptor-activation-on-vglut2-expressing-glutamatergic-neurons-underlies-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%AE-9-thc-induced-aversive-effects-in-mice
#9
Xiao Han, Yi He, Guo-Hua Bi, Hai-Ying Zhang, Rui Song, Qing-Rong Liu, Josephine M Egan, Eliot L Gardner, Jing Li, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cannabis can be rewarding or aversive. Cannabis reward is believed to be mediated by activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) on GABAergic neurons that disinhibit dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying cannabis aversion in rodents. In the present study, CB1Rs are found not only on VTA GABAergic neurons, but also on VTA glutamatergic neurons that express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VgluT2). We then used Cre-Loxp transgenic technology to selectively delete CB1Rs in VgluT2-expressing glutamatergic neurons (VgluT2-CB1 (-/-)) and Cre-dependent viral vector to express light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 into VTA glutamatergic neurons...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948698/detection-of-in-utero-cannabis-exposure-by-umbilical-cord-analysis
#10
Jiyoung Kim, Ana de Castro, Elena Lendoiro, Angelines Cruz-Landeira, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Marta Concheiro
According to 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 5.3% of pregnant women smoked marijuana in the past month. This prevalence is expected to increase as a growing number of states and countries are now considering legalization. Although umbilical cord is becoming a useful objective tool to detect in utero drug exposure, currently data about analytical methods and its utility to detect cannabis exposure are scarce. The objective of this work was to develop a method for the determination of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxyTHC (THC-OH), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), 8-β-11-dihydroxyTHC (THC-diOH), THC and THCCOOH glucuronides, and cannabidiol (CBD) in umbilical cord by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with dual ionization source...
September 25, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948486/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-phytomedicines-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Zahra Shahpiri, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Marjan Moghaddam Nia, Fariba Najafi, Roja Rahimi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that can cause cognition, mobility, and sensory impairments. It is considered one of the most common non-traumatic causes of disability in the world. The aim of the present article was to review the clinical evidence related to medicinal plants in the management of MS symptoms. Electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, and Scopus, were searched for entries from 1966 to February 2017...
September 25, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947487/cannabinoid-cb1-discrimination-effects-of-endocannabinoids-and-catabolic-enzyme-inhibitors
#12
Michael Z Leonard, Shakiru O Alapafuja, Lipin Ji, Vidyanand G Shukla, Yingpeng Liu, Spyros P Nikas, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jack Bergman, Brian D Kangas
An improved understanding of the endocannabinoid system has provided new avenues of drug discovery and development toward the management of pain and other behavioral maladies. Exogenous cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor agonists such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are increasingly utilized for their medicinal actions; however, their utility is constrained by concern regarding abuse-related subjective effects. This has led to growing interest in the clinical benefit of indirectly enhancing the activity of the highly labile endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and/or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via catabolic enzyme inhibition...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944449/cannabis-use-among-patients-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-center-in-a-state-with-legalized-medicinal-and-recreational-use
#13
Steven A Pergam, Maresa C Woodfield, Christine M Lee, Guang-Shing Cheng, Kelsey K Baker, Sara R Marquis, Jesse R Fann
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is purported to alleviate symptoms related to cancer treatment, although the patterns of use among cancer patients are not well known. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and methods of use among cancer patients, the perceived benefits, and the sources of information in a state with legalized cannabis. METHODS: A cross-sectional, anonymous survey of adult cancer patients was performed at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center in Washington State...
September 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944090/rapid-identification-of-buprenorphine-in-patient-saliva
#14
Stuart Farquharson, Kathryn Dana, Chetan Shende, Zachary Gladding, Jenelle Newcomb, Jessica Dascher, Ismene L Petrakis, Albert J Arias
Buprenorphine is becoming the medication of choice to help patients withdraw from opioid addiction. However, treatment is compromised by the inability of physicians to assess patient usage during scheduled examinations. Here we describe the development of a point-of-care (POC) analyzer that can rapidly measure both illicit and treatment drugs in patient saliva, ideally in the physician's office, and with a degree of accuracy similar to chromatography. The analyzer employs a relatively simple supported liquid extraction to isolate the drugs from the saliva and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect the drugs...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942374/toxicological-findings-in-suspected-drug-impaired-drivers-in-norway-trends-during-1990-2015
#15
Anja Valen, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
This study describes trends in drug use among drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, apprehended by the police in Norway during 1990-2015. Chromatographically determined toxicological findings in blood samples were retrospectively investigated. Drug findings above defined cut-off concentrations were considered positive; hence making the annual prevalence comparable during the 26 years studied. Blood samples from 112,348 drivers were included, of which 63% were positive for drugs; 43% had combined drug with alcohol or other drugs...
September 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942005/relating-observed-psychoactive-effects-to-the-plasma-concentrations-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-and-its-active-metabolite-an-effect-compartment-modeling-approach
#16
Rakesh Awasthi, Guohua An, Maureen D Donovan, Laura L Boles Ponto
The medical use of marijuana is increasing, yet little is known about the exposure-response relationship for its psychoactive effects. It is well known that the plasma concentrations of the principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), do not directly correlate to the observed psychoactive effects. The purpose of this research was to use an effect-compartment modeling approach to predict and relate the concentrations of the psychoactive components (THC and its active metabolite) in the "hypothetical" effect-site compartment to the observed psychoactive effects...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937739/applications-of-iridium-catalyzed-asymmetric-allylic-substitution-reactions-in-target-oriented-synthesis
#17
Jianping Qu, Günter Helmchen
Metal catalyzed allylic substitution is a cornerstone of organometallic and synthetic chemistry. Enantioselective versions have been developed with catalysts derived from transition metals, most notably molybdenum, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, and copper. The palladium- and the iridium-catalyzed versions have turned out to be particularly versatile in organic synthesis because of the very broad scope of the nucleophile and great functional group compatibility. Assets of the iridium-catalyzed reaction are the formation of branched, chiral products from simple monosubstituted allylic substrates, high degrees of regio- and enantioselectivity, and use of modular, readily available chiral ligands...
September 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935439/comparison-of-cannabinoids-with-known-analgesics-using-a-novel-high-throughput-zebrafish-larval-model-of-nociception
#18
L D Ellis, F Berrue, M Morash, J C Achenbach, J Hill, J J McDougall
It has been established that both adult and larval zebrafish are capable of showing nociceptive responses to noxious stimuli; however, the use of larvae to test novel analgesics has not been fully explored. Zebrafish larvae represent a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to traditional mammalian models for the assessment of product efficacy during the initial stages of drug development. In the current study, a novel model of nociception using zebrafish larvae is described. During the recovery from an acute exposure to low levels of acetic acid, larvae display innate changes in behaviour that may be indicative of nociception...
September 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933048/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%A2-9-thc-induce-neurogenesis-and-improve-cognitive-performances-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Rusliza Basir
Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis. Different doses of ∆(9)-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932159/the-use-of-performance-enhancing-substances-doping-by-athletes-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Mohammed Al Ghobain
BACKGROUND: Data on doping violation in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Our aim was to investigate the Saudi experience of anti-doping and review all positive samples and adverse analytical findings (AAFs) of Saudi athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed databases of the Saudi Arabian Anti-Doping Committee from 2008 to May 2016. The samples originated from various sporting events and were collected in and outside sport competitions. The substances investigated were those included in the annual lists of prohibited substances produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)...
September 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
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