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Tetrahydrocannabinol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220044/pregnenolone-blocks-cannabinoid-induced-acute-psychotic-like-states-in-mice
#1
A Busquets-Garcia, E Soria-Gómez, B Redon, Y Mackenbach, M Vallée, F Chaouloff, M Varilh, G Ferreira, P-V Piazza, G Marsicano
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219717/effects-of-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-glucose-uptake-in-the-rat-brain
#2
I Miederer, K Uebbing, J Röhrich, S Maus, N Bausbacher, K Krauter, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, R Urban
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected...
February 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217094/in-vivo-evidence-for-therapeutic-properties-of-cannabidiol-cbd-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Georgia Watt, Tim Karl
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is affecting an increasing number of people. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for new, more effective therapeutics. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212939/cannabis-exacerbates-depressive-symptoms-in-rat-model-induced-by-reserpine
#4
Yasser A Khadrawy, Hussein G Sawie, Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman N Hosny
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207408/evaluation-of-cannabinoids-concentration-and-stability-in-standardized-preparations-of-cannabis-tea-and-cannabis-oil-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Roberta Pacifici, Emilia Marchei, Francesco Salvatore, Luca Guandalini, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193575/applying-sewage-epidemiology-approach-to-estimate-illicit-drug-consumption-in-a-tropical-context-bias-related-to-sewage-temperature-and-ph
#6
Damien A Devault, Yves Lévi, Sara Karolak
Illicit drug consumption can be estimated from drug target residue (DTR) in wastewater, with the reliability of results being partly linked to DTR stability in the sewage network. However, wastewater temperature and pH drive the stability of molecules and, in this context, tropical conditions must be studied to specify the impact of residence time in the sewage network on DTR degradation. Warmth enhances biotic and abiotic processes such as degradation, leading to a decrease in oxygen content, and consequently, early diagenesis conditions in wastewater...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192758/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-simple-and-simultaneous-quantification-of-cannabinoids
#7
Rohitash Jamwal, Ariel R Topletz, Bharat Ramratnam, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Cannabis is used widely in the United States, both recreationally and for medical purposes. Current methods for analysis of cannabinoids in human biological specimens rely on complex extraction process and lengthy analysis time. We established a rapid and simple assay for quantification of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), 11-hydroxy Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol (THCCOOH) in human plasma by U-HPLC-MS/MS usingΔ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-D3 (THC-D3) as the internal standard...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188235/cannabis-edibles-blood-and-oral-fluid-cannabinoid-pharmacokinetics-and-evaluation-of-oral-fluid-screening-devices-for-predicting-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-blood-and-oral-fluid-following-cannabis-brownie-administration
#8
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Maria Andersson, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: Roadside oral fluid (OF) Δ(9)-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) detection indicates recent cannabis intake. OF and blood THC pharmacokinetic data are limited and there are no on-site OF screening performance evaluations after controlled edible cannabis. CONTENT: We reviewed OF and blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and performance evaluations of the Draeger DrugTest®5000 (DT5000) and Alere™ DDS®2 (DDS2) on-site OF screening devices. We also present data from a controlled oral cannabis administration session...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188044/cannabinoids-in-treatment-resistant-epilepsy-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Brooke K O'Connell, David Gloss, Orrin Devinsk
Treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) affects 30% of epilepsy patients and is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. Cannabis-based therapies have been used to treat epilepsy for millennia, but only in the last few years have we begun to collect data from adequately powered placebo-controlled, randomized trials (RCTs) with cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis derivative. Previously, information was limited to case reports, small series, and surveys reporting on the use of CBD and diverse medical marijuana (MMJ) preparations containing: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD, and many other cannabinoids in differing combinations...
February 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185872/neuronal-and-molecular-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-implications-for-novel-schizophrenia-treatments
#10
REVIEW
Justine Renard, Christopher Norris, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Growing clinical and pre-clinical evidence points to a critical role for cannabidiol (CBD), the largest phytochemical component of cannabis, as a potential pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental pro-psychotic side-effects, CBD possesses no known psychoactive or dependence-producing properties. However, evidence has demonstrated that CBD strongly modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and may possess promising anti-psychotic properties...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176545/rapid-quantification-of-free-and-glucuronidated-thccooh-in-urine-using-coated-well-plates-and-lc-ms-ms-analysis
#11
Marianne Hädener, Wolfgang Weinmann, Dave R van Staveren, Stefan König
AIM: Generally, urine drug testing for cannabis abuse involves measuring total concentrations of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) obtained by enzymatic and/or alkaline hydrolysis of THCCOOH-glucuronide. As hydrolysis can be inconsistent and incomplete, direct measurement of the two metabolites is preferable. Methodology & results: We developed a high-throughput LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of free and glucuronidated THCCOOH in urine using coated 96-well plates for analyte extraction and column-switching chromatography...
February 8, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169144/the-legal-status-of-cannabis-marijuana-and-cannabidiol-cbd-under-u-s-law
#12
REVIEW
Alice Mead
In the United States, federal and state laws regarding the medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids are in conflict and have led to confusion among patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers. Currently, cannabis is legal for medical purposes in 50% of the states, and another seventeen states allow products that are high in cannabidiol (CBD) and low in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) for medical use. Many of these artisanal products are sold in dispensaries or over the internet. However, none of these products has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
February 3, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167229/population-pharmacokinetics-model-of-thc-used-by-pulmonary-route-in-occasional-cannabis-smokers
#13
A Marsot, C Audebert, L Attolini, B Lacarelle, J Micallef, O Blin
Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main source of the pharmacological effect. Some studies have been carried out and showed significant variability in the described models as the values of the estimated pharmacokinetic parameters. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for THC in occasional cannabis smokers. Twelve male volunteers (age: 20-28years, body weight: 62.5-91.0kg), tobacco (3-8 cigarette per day) and cannabis occasional smokers were recruited from the local community...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162792/synthetic-pot-not-your-grandfather-s-marijuana
#14
REVIEW
Benjamin M Ford, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Paul L Prather
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes...
January 27, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161834/cannabinoid-receptors-in-regulating-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#15
Ulrike Taschler, Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Cannabinoid receptors are fundamentally involved in all aspects of intestinal physiology, such as motility, secretion, and epithelial barrier function. They are part of a broader entity, the so-called endocannabinoid system which also includes their endocannabinoid ligands and the ligands' synthesizing/degrading enzymes. The system has a strong impact on the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and is believed to maintain homeostasis in the gut by controlling hypercontractility and by promoting regeneration after injury...
February 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156443/a-single-dose-comparative-bioavailability-study-of-dronabinol-oral-solution-versus-dronabinol-capsules-in-healthy-volunteers
#16
Neha Parikh, William G Kramer, Varun Khurana, Santosh Vetticaden
: 198 Background: The capsule formulation of dronabinol, a pharmaceutical tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is approved for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS and for cancer chemotherapy-associated nausea/vomiting in patients with inadequate response to conventional antiemetics. A new oral formulation (i.e., dronabinol solution) was evaluated in a bioequivalence study versus currently marketed dronabinol capsules. METHODS: In an open-label, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 4-period, single-dose crossover study, healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 1 of 2 treatment sequences (T-R-T-R or R-T-R-T; T = dronabinol 4...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156442/effect-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-dronabinol-oral-solution-versus-dronabinol-capsules-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
D Alexander Oh, Neha Parikh, Varun Khurana, Santosh Vetticaden
: 199 Background: Dronabinol, a pharmaceutical tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), capsule is approved for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS and for cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting in patients with inadequate response to conventional antiemetic therapy. Food effects on absorption and bioavailability of a new dronabinol oral solution was compared with marketed capsules. METHODS: In an open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study, healthy volunteers were randomized to receive dronabinol oral solution 4...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154257/antibody-fragments-for-on-site-testing-of-cannabinoids-generated-via-in-vitro-affinity-maturation
#18
Izumi Morita, Hiroyuki Oyama, Mayumi Yasuo, Kazuhisa Matsuda, Kengo Katagi, Aya Ito, Hiroka Tatsuda, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto, Norihiro Kobayashi
Law enforcement against illicit use of cannabis and related substances requires rapid, feasible, and reliable tools for on-site testing of cannabinoids. Notably, methods based on cannabinoid-specific antibodies enable efficient screening of multiple specimens. Antibody engineering may accelerate development of modern and robust testing systems. Here, we used in vitro affinity maturation to generate a single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) that recognizes with high affinity the psychoactive cannabinoid, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145799/-it-takes-longer-but-when-it-hits-you-it-hits-you-videos-about-marijuana-edibles-on-youtube
#19
Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles, Haley E Stelzer-Monahan, Tatiana Bierut, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
BACKGROUND: Interest in marijuana edibles has increased as perceptions of harm from marijuana have decreased. Media and peer influences impact youth substance use, and YouTube is the most popular video-sharing website. No studies have examined the content and accessibility of YouTube videos related to marijuana edibles. OBJECTIVES: To describe the messages conveyed to viewers in YouTube videos about edibles and determine their accessibility to youth. METHODS: On June 12, 2015, we searched YouTube for videos about marijuana/cannabis/weed edibles...
February 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138971/evaluation-of-divided-attention-psychophysical-task-performance-and-effects-on-pupil-sizes-following-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration
#20
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Megan E Taylor, Osama A Abulseoud, Thomas H Woodward, Marilyn A Huestis
Establishing science-based driving per se blood Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) limits is challenging, in part because of prolonged THC detection in chronic, frequent users. Therefore, documenting observable signs of impairment is important for driving under the influence of drugs. We evaluated frequent and occasional cannabis smokers' performance on the modified Romberg balance, one leg stand (OLS), and walk and turn (WAT) tasks, and pupil size effects following controlled placebo (0.001% THC), smoked, vaporized and oral (6...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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