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Tetrahydrocannabinol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728424/annals-express-false-negative-results-in-the-immunoassay-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-can-adulterants-be-detected-by-sample-check-test
#1
Barbara Matriciani, Bernd Huppertz, Ruprecht Keller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: The dilution or adulteration of urine is a serious problem in drugs of abuse (DOA) testing. Tests to identify adulteration are currently available. This study investigated the ability of the CEDIA® sample check to detect adulteration. METHODS: Eight different DOAs were added to a urine sample obtained from a healthy, drug free subject: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, D-amphetaminesulfate, ethyl-D-glucuronide, morphine sulfate, oxazepam, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#2
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719234/the-in-vivo-effects-of-the-cb1-positive-allosteric-modulator-gat229-on-intraocular-pressure-in-ocular-normotensive-and-hypertensive-mice
#3
Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, Alex J Straiker, Pushkar M Kulkarni, Roger G Pertwee, Ganesh A Thakur, William H Baldridge, Melanie E M Kelly
PURPOSE: Orthosteric cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) activation leads to decreases in intraocular pressure (IOP). However, use of orthosteric CB1 agonists chronically has several disadvantages, limiting their usefulness as clinically relevant drugs. Allosteric modulators interact with topographically distinct sites to orthosteric ligands and may be useful to circumvent some of these disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the novel CB1-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) GAT229 on IOP...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707583/cannabis-an-overview-of-its-adverse-acute-and-chronic-effects-and-their-implications
#4
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700290/lower-risk-cannabis-use-guidelines-a-comprehensive-update-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#5
Benedikt Fischer, Cayley Russell, Pamela Sabioni, Wim van den Brink, Bernard Le Foll, Wayne Hall, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694184/engineering-yeasts-as-platform-organisms-for-cannabinoid-biosynthesis
#6
Bastian Zirpel, Friederike Degenhardt, Chantale Martin, Oliver Kayser, Felix Stehle
Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a plant derived secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis sativa l. The discovery of the human endocannabinoid system in the late 1980s resulted in a growing number of known physiological functions of both synthetic and plant derived cannabinoids. Thus, manifold therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of research. Here we reconstituted the final biosynthetic cannabinoid pathway in yeasts. The use of the soluble prenyltransferase NphB from Streptomyces sp...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692581/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-suppresses-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#7
Joseph E Henriquez, Michael D Rizzo, Matthias A Schulz, Robert B Crawford, Peter Gulick, Norbert E Kaminski
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a crucial role in host antiviral immune response through secretion of type I interferon. Interferon alpha (IFNα), a type I IFN, is critical for mounting the initial response to viral pathogens. A consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection is a decrease in both pDC number and function, but prolonged pDC activity has been linked with progression from HIV infection to the development of AIDS. Patients with HIV in the United States routinely use cannabinoid-based therapies to combat the side effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692429/synthetic-cannabinoids-the-hidden-side-of-spice-drugs
#8
Nicholas Pintori, Barbara Loi, Maddalena Mereu
Spice drugs are herbal mixtures sprayed with synthetic cannabinoids designed to mimic the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana [Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC)] and synthesized by introducing modifications to the chemical structure of parental compounds aiming to circumvent legal regulations. Synthetic cannabinoid use/abuse can be devastating as toxicological effects and adverse reactions cannot be entirely predicted and may vary with the dose, route of administration, individual vulnerability and concomitant intake with other drugs...
July 7, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686594/cannabinoids-disrupt-memory-encoding-by-functionally-isolating-hippocampal-ca1-from-ca3
#9
Roman A Sandler, Dustin Fetterhoff, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Vasilis Z Marmarelis
Much of the research on cannabinoids (CBs) has focused on their effects at the molecular and synaptic level. However, the effects of CBs on the dynamics of neural circuits remains poorly understood. This study aims to disentangle the effects of CBs on the functional dynamics of the hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapse by using data-driven nonparametric modeling. Multi-unit activity was recorded from rats doing an working memory task in control sessions and under the influence of exogenously administered tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary CB found in marijuana...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-cbd-on-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-self-administration-in-male-and-female-long-evans-rats
#10
Alison G P Wakeford, Bradley B Wetzell, Rebecca L Pomfrey, Matthew M Clasen, William W Taylor, Briana J Hempel, Anthony L Riley
Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents...
July 6, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680405/cannabinoids-and-vanilloids-in-schizophrenia-neurophysiological-evidence-and-directions-for-basic-research
#11
REVIEW
Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Jana B De Ross, Jaime E C Hallak, Joao P Leite, Lezio S Bueno-Junior
Much of our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia comes from behavioral measures in rodents, like prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle and open-field locomotion, which are commonly used along with neurochemical approaches or drug challenge designs. Such methods continue to map fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor gating, hyperlocomotion, social interaction, and underlying monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic disturbances. These strategies will require, however, a greater use of neurophysiological tools to better inform clinical research...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678776/crystal-structures-of-agonist-bound-human-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1
#12
Tian Hua, Kiran Vemuri, Spyros P Nikas, Robert B Laprairie, Yiran Wu, Lu Qu, Mengchen Pu, Anisha Korde, Shan Jiang, Jo-Hao Ho, Gye Won Han, Kang Ding, Xuanxuan Li, Haiguang Liu, Michael A Hanson, Suwen Zhao, Laura M Bohn, Alexandros Makriyannis, Raymond C Stevens, Zhi-Jie Liu
The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the principal target of the psychoactive constituent of marijuana, the partial agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Here we report two agonist-bound crystal structures of human CB1 in complex with a tetrahydrocannabinol (AM11542) and a hexahydrocannabinol (AM841) at 2.80 Å and 2.95 Å resolution, respectively. The two CB1-agonist complexes reveal important conformational changes in the overall structure, relative to the antagonist-bound state, including a 53% reduction in the volume of the ligand-binding pocket and an increase in the surface area of the G-protein-binding region...
July 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678398/cannabinoid-induced-tetrad-in-mice
#13
Mathilde Metna-Laurent, Miguel Mondésir, Agnès Grel, Monique Vallée, Pier-Vincenzo Piazza
Cannabinoid-induced tetrad is a preclinical model commonly used to evaluate if a pharmacological compound is an agonist of the central type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor in rodents. The tetrad is characterized by hypolocomotion, hypothermia, catalepsy, and analgesia, four phenotypes that are induced by acute administration of CB1 agonists exemplified by the prototypic cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This unit describes a standard protocol in mice to induce tetrad phenotypes with THC as reference cannabinoid...
July 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673548/inhibition-of-the-endocannabinoid-regulating-enzyme-monoacylglycerol-lipase-elicits-a-cb1-receptor-mediated-discriminative-stimulus-in-mice
#14
Robert A Owens, Mohammed A Mustafa, Bogna M Ignatowska-Jankowska, M Imad Damaj, Patrick M Beardsley, Jenny L Wiley, Micah J Niphakis, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Substantial challenges exist for investigating the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-mediated discriminative stimulus effects of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA), compared with exogenous CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. Specifically, each is rapidly degraded by the respective hydrolytic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Whereas MAGL inhibitors partially substitute for THC and fully substitute for CP55,940, FAAH inhibitors do not substitute for either drug...
June 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673083/transformation-and-sorption-of-illicit-drug-biomarkers-in-sewer-biofilms
#15
Pedram Ramin, Andreas Libonati Brock, Ana Causanilles, Borja Valverde Pérez, Erik Emke, Pim de Voogt, Fabio Polesel, Benedek Gy Plosz
In-sewer transformation of drug biomarkers (excreted parent drugs and metabolites) can be influenced by the presence of biomass in suspended form as well as attached to sewer walls (biofilms). Biofilms are likely the most abundant and biologically active biomass fraction in sewers. In this study, 16 drug biomarkers were selected, including the major human metabolites of mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Transformation and sorption of these substances were assessed in targeted batch experiments using laboratory-scale biofilm reactors operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
July 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655644/pregnenolone-does-not-interfere-with-the-effects-of-cannabinoids-on-synaptic-transmission-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Anna Krohmer, Martin Brehm, Volker Auwärter, Bela Szabo
The steroid hormone pregnenolone attenuates several in vivo behavioural and somatic effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and it was suggested that pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication. The primary neuronal cannabinoid action behind most of the behavioural and somatic effects of cannabinoids is presynaptic inhibition of synaptic transmission. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that pregnenolone attenuates the inhibition of synaptic transmission elicited by cannabinoids...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648819/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%AE-9-thc-administration-after-neonatal-exposure-to-phencyclidine-potentiates-schizophrenia-related-behavioral-phenotypes-in-mice
#17
Guadalupe Rodríguez, Nichole M Neugebauer, Katherine Lan Yao, Herbert Y Meltzer, John G Csernansky, Hongxin Dong
The clinical onset of schizophrenia often coincides with cannabis use in adolescents and young adults. However, the neurobiological consequences of this co-morbidity are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of Δ9-THC exposure during early adulthood on schizophrenia-related behaviors using a developmental mouse model of schizophrenia. Phencyclidine (PCP) or saline was administered once in neonatal mice (at P7; 10mg/kg). In turn, Δ9-THC or saline was administered sub-acutely later in life to cohorts of animals who had received either PCP or saline (P55-80, 5mg/kg)...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644052/a-little-dab-will-do-ya-in-a-case-report-of-neuro-and-cardiotoxicity-following-use-of-cannabis-concentrates
#18
Shannon S Rickner, Dazhe Cao, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Steven Fleming
CONTEXT: The use of marijuana and cannabis concentrates is increasing, especially following decriminalization in several states. Psychosis and cardiotoxicity have been reported following cannabis use; however, myocardial injury from "dabbing" has not yet been reported. We report a case of hyperthermia, tachycardia, hypertension, severe agitation, neuro-, and cardiotoxicity following the use of "dabs" where there is concomitant confirmatory biological and sample testing. CASE DETAILS: A 17-year-old athletic man developed agitation requiring sedation and intubation for safety, with peak systolic blood pressures in the 190s and hyperthermia (to 102 °F)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644037/lower-risk-cannabis-use-guidelines-a-comprehensive-update-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#19
Benedikt Fischer, Cayley Russell, Pamela Sabioni, Wim van den Brink, Bernard Le Foll, Wayne Hall, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642081/tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-impairs-encoding-but-not-retrieval-of-verbal-information
#20
Mohini Ranganathan, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Peter H Addy, Ashley M Schnakenberg-Martin, Ashley H Williams, Michelle Carbuto, Jacqueline Elander, Brian Pittman, R Andrew Sewell, Patrick D Skosnik, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair the component processes of encoding and retrieval has not been established in humans. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects were recruited from the community...
June 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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