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Mara Turri, Francesco Teatini, Francesco Donato, Giampietro Zanette, Valeria Tugnoli, Luciano Deotto, Bruno Bonetti, Giovanna Squintani
Background. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) (nabiximols or Sativex® ) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing THC and CBD at an approximately 1:1 fixed ratio. Its administration for the treatment of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established. MS patients generally complain of different kinds of pain, including spasticity-related and neuropathic pain. In this study, we compared and evaluated pain modulation and thermal/pain threshold of MS patients before and after THC/CBD administration...
June 21, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Robert M Chow, Bryan Marascalchi, Winfred B Abrams, Nathalie A Peiris, Charles A Odonkor, Steven P Cohen
Marijuana is the most widely consumed illicit substance in the United States, and an increasing number of states have legalized it for both medicinal and recreational purposes. As it becomes more readily available, there will be a concurrent rise in the number of users and, consequently, the number of motor vehicle operators driving under the influence. This article examines the cognitive and psychomotor effects of cannabis, as well as current policy concerning driving under the influence of drugs. The authors performed a MEDLINE search on the epidemiology of cannabis use, its cognitive and psychomotor effects, and policies regarding driving under the influence of drugs...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Koby Cohen, Aviv M Weinstein
There is a growing use of novel psychoactive substances containing synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects similar to those of natural cannabis, yet, these drugs are more potent and dangerous, and have been associated with dangerous adverse effects. Here, we review current literature on the epidemiology, acute, and chronic effects of synthetic and natural cannabinoid-based drugs. Synthetic drugs contain a mixture of psychoactive compounds that mostly bind cannabinoid receptors with high potency...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Sheng-Wei Chang, Jack Wellmerling, Xiaoli Zhang, Rachael E Rayner, Wissam Osman, Sara Mertz, Amal O Amer, Mark E Peeples, Prosper N Boyaka, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka
BACKGROUND: Marijuana consumption is on the rise in the US but the health benefits of cannabis smoking are controversial and the impact of cannabis components on lung homeostasis is not well-understood. Lung function requires a fine regulation of the ion channel CFTR, which is responsible for fluid homeostasis and mucocilliary clearance. The goal of this study was to assess the effect that exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive substance present in marijuana, has on CFTR expression and function...
June 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Håvard Furuhaugen, Ragnhild E G Jamt, Galina Nilsson, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: To study the use of alcohol and drugs among the general driving population in the south-eastern part of Norway and to compare the findings with the results from a similar roadside survey in 2008-9. METHODS: A roadside survey of drivers of cars, vans, motorcycles and mopeds was performed from April 2016 to April 2017 in collaboration with the Mobile Police Service. Oral fluid was collected using the Quantisal device and analysed for alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jessica Rice, Michelle Cameron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis and cannabinoids have been used medically and recreationally for thousands of years and recently there has been a growing body of research in this area. With increased access now that medical marijuana is available in many jurisdictions, patients and providers want to know more about the evidence for benefits and risks of cannabinoid use. This paper provides an overview of the available cannabinoid-based formulations, a summary of the highest quality evidence for the use of cannabinoids for treating spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and a discussion of possible dosing regimens based on information from these studies...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Jacques D Nguyen, Tony M Kerr, Yanabel Grant, Sophia A Vandewater, Maury Cole, Michael A Taffe
RATIONALE: Previous studies report sex differences in some, but not all, responses to cannabinoids in rats. The majority of studies use parenteral injection; however, most human use is via smoke inhalation and, increasingly, vapor inhalation. OBJECTIVES: To compare thermoregulatory and locomotor responses to inhaled ∆9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their combination using an e-cigarette-based model in male and female rats METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices for the assessment of body temperature and locomotor activity...
June 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Clara T Schoeder, Maria Kaleta, Andhika B Mahardhika, Agnieszka Olejarz-Maciej, Dorota Łażewska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Christa E Müller
GPR18 is a cannabinoid-activated orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is selectively expressed on immune cells. Despite its significant potential as a drug target for inflammatory diseases and cancer immunotherapy, only very few GPR18 ligands have been described to date. In the present study we investigated the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of (Z)-2-(3-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)benzylidene)-6,7-dihydro-2H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazin-3(5H)-one (PSB-CB5, 5), the most potent GPR18 antagonist described to date...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Oliver Grimm, Martin Löffler, Sandra Kamping, Aljoscha Hartmann, Cathrin Rohleder, Markus Leweke, Herta Flor
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are two substances from cannabis sativa that have beenimplicated in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. We concentrated on a previously validated neuroimaging phenotype, fronto-striatal connectivity across different striatal seeds, because of this loop's relevance to executive functioning, decision making, salience generation and motivation and its link to various neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, we studied the effect of THC and CBD on fronto-striatal circuitry by a seed-voxel connectivity approach using seeds from the caudate and the putamen...
June 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Matthew J Smith, Eva C Alden, Amy A Herrold, Andrea Roberts, Dan Stern, Joseph Jones, Allan Barnes, Kailyn P O'Connor, Marilyn A Huestis, Hans C Breiter
OBJECTIVE: Research typically characterizes cannabis use by self-report of cannabis intake frequency. In an effort to better understand relationships between measures of cannabis use, we evaluated if Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and metabolite concentrations (biometrics) were associated with a calibrated timeline followback (TLFB) assessment of cannabis use. METHOD: Participants were 35 young adult male cannabis users who completed a calibrated TLFB measure of cannabis use over the past 30 days, including time of last use...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Manoj K Doss, Jessica Weafer, David A Gallo, Harriet de Wit
BACKGROUND: It is well established that the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs episodic memory encoding and modulates emotional processing, but little is known about the impact of THC during the retrieval of emotional episodic memories. With the rise of cannabis to treat medical conditions, including those characterized by emotional and episodic memory disturbances, there is an urgent need to determine the effects of THC on memory accuracy and distortion...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Rodrigo Peniche-Amante, André Barciela Veras, Sérgio Machado, Henning Budde
Cannabis sativa is a plant that contains more than 500 components, of which the most studied are Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Several studies have indicated that CBD displays neurobiological effects, including wake promotion. Moreover, experimental evidence has shown that injections of CBD enhance wake-related compounds, such as monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine). However, no clear evidence is available regarding the effects of CBD on additional wake-related neurochemicals such as acetylcholine (ACh)...
June 6, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Nino Fuchs, Anja Mikolić, Suzana Žunec, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Andreja Jurič, Ljerka Prester, Vedran Micek, Marijana Neuberg, Samir Čanović, Gordan Mršić, Nevenka Kopjar
There is growing interest regarding the use of herbal preparations based on Cannabis sativa for medicinal purposes, despite the poorly understood interactions of their main constituent Δ⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with conventional drugs, especially cytostatics. The objective of this pilot study was to prove whether the concomitant intake of THC impaired liver function in male Wistar rats treated with the anticancer drug irinotecan (IRI), and evaluate the toxic effects associated with this exposure. IRI was administered once intraperitoneally (at 100 mg/kg of the body weight (b...
June 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Michael J Wesley, Philip M Westgate, William W Stoops, Thomas H Kelly, Lon R Hays, Joshua A Lile
No medications are approved for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake is modulated by cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists, and there are shared effects between CB agonists and the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. This overlapping neuropharmacology suggested that tiagabine might be useful for CUD. The study determined the ability of tiagabine maintenance to reduce cannabis self-administration using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. Nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis users (N = 12; 3 female, 9 male) completed two 12-day outpatient maintenance phases (0 or 12 mg of tiagabine/day)...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Sade Spencer, Daniela Neuhofer, Vivian C Chioma, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Danielle J Schwartz, Nicholas Allen, Michael D Scofield, Tara Ortiz-Ithier, Peter W Kalivas
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, but knowledge of the neurological consequences of cannabis use is deficient. Two primary components of cannabis are Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We established a THC+CBD model of self-administration and reinstated drug seeking to determine if, similar to other addictive drugs, cannabis produces enduring synaptic changes in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) thought to contribute vulnerability to drug reinstatement...
May 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
David R Maguire, Charles P France
OBJECTIVE: Cannabinoid receptor agonists such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) enhance the antinociceptive potency of mu opioid receptor agonists such as morphine, indicating that opioid/cannabinoid mixtures might be effective for treating pain. However, such enhancement will be beneficial only if cannabinoids do not also enhance adverse effects of opioids, including those related to abuse. In rhesus monkeys, cannabinoids fail to enhance and often decrease self-administration of the mu opioid receptor agonist heroin, suggesting that opioid/cannabinoid mixtures do not have greater reinforcing effects (abuse potential) compared with opioids alone...
June 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Javier Mallada Frechín
AIM: To examine evolution in activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity during long-term use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray. METHODS: Functional impairment was assessed retrospectively (prior to start of treatment) and at the present moment using a 16-item ADL survey; results were compared. A control group without add-on THC:CBD oromucosal spray was included to investigate possible recall bias...
May 31, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Graham Lambert, Charles Cullison, Amina Sadik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
Thomas Franz, Gisela Skopp, Gerlinde Schwarz, Frank Musshoff
Testing hair for cannabis use has increasingly been scrutinized due to exposure to second hand smoke or environmental contamination. Confirmation of drug use involving detection of metabolites such as 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) having very rarely been considered. We developed a new, simplified procedure with regard to expenditure of time and material to determine delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, qualitatively), as well as THC-OH and THC-COOH (quantitatively) from 587 hair samples by LC-MS/MS which was compared to hitherto established methods (n=3)...
May 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dejana Ružić Zečević, Marko Folić, Ziyad Tantoush, Milan Radovanović, Goran Babić, Slobodan M Janković
The anticonvulsant activity of cannabinoids attracted much attention in the last decade. Cannabinoids that are currently investigated with the intention of making them drugs for the treatment of epilepsy are cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Areas covered. In this review, the authors look at the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies with investigational cannabinoids. Relevant literature was searched for in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EBSCO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR and SCINDEX databases...
May 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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