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Tetrahydrocannabinol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457829/species-specific-susceptibility-to-cannabis-induced-convulsions
#1
Benjamin J Whalley, Hong Lin, Lynne Bell, Thomas Hill, Amesha Patel, Roy A Gray, C Elizabeth Roberts, Orrin Devinsky, Michael Bazelot, Claire M Williams, Gary J Stephens
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous claims are made for cannabis' therapeutic utility upon human seizures, but concerns persist about risks. A potential confounder is the presence of both Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), variously reported to be pro- and anti-convulsant, and cannabidiol (CBD), widely confirmed as anticonvulsant. Therefore, we investigated effects of prolonged exposure to different Δ9 -THC/CBD cannabis extracts on seizure activity and associated measures of endocannabinoid (eCB) system signalling...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457201/validity-of-oral-fluid-test-for-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-drivers-using-the-2013-national-roadside-survey-data
#2
Huiyan Jin, Sharifa Z Williams, Stanford T Chihuri, Guohua Li, Qixuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of marijuana is a serious traffic safety concern in the United States. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active compound in marijuana. Although blood THC testing is a more accurate measure of THC-induced impairment, measuring THC in oral fluid is a less intrusive and less costly method of testing. METHODS: We examined whether the oral fluid THC test can be used as a valid alternative to the blood THC test using a sensitivity and specificity analysis and a logistic regression, and estimate the quantitative relationship between oral fluid THC concentration and blood THC concentration using a correlation analysis and a linear regression on the log-transformed THC concentrations...
February 19, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454037/melatonin-attenuates-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced-reduction-in-rat-sperm-motility-and-kinematics-in-vitro
#3
Isiaka Abdullateef Alagbonsi, Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki
The use of Cannabis sativa (CS) has been widely demonstrated to have detrimental effect on male reproductive functions. Despite the well-known existence of endocannabinoid and melatonergic systems in semen, the physiological significance of their interaction is not understood. We recently showed that melatonin exacerbates the CS-induced gonadotoxicity in-vivo. To overcome the limitations associated with our in-vivo studies and further understand the role of cannabinoid-melatonin relationship in sperm functions, this study investigated the in-vitro effect of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or melatonin on motility and kinematics of capacitating rat sperms...
February 14, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453495/comparison-of-concentrations-of-drugs-between-blood-samples-with-and-without-fluoride-additive-important-findings-for-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-amphetamine
#4
Christopher Wiedfeld, Julia Krueger, Gisela Skopp, Frank Musshoff
Fluoride is a common stabilizing agent in forensic toxicology to avoid the frequent problem of degradation of drugs in blood samples especially described for cocaine. In cases only samples with addition of fluoride are available, it is a crucial question if also concentrations of common drugs other than cocaine (amphetamines, opiates and cannabinoids) are affected by fluoride. So far, there are only rare literature data available on discrepant results especially for Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In this study, comparative analysis of positive tested paired routine plasma/serum samples (n = 375), collected at the same time point (one device with and one without fluoride), was carried out with special focus on cannabinoids...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450258/the-cannabinoids-%C3%AE-8-thc-cbd-and-hu-308-act-via-distinct-receptors-to-reduce-corneal-pain-and-inflammation
#5
Dinesh Thapa, Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, James T Toguri, Meggie D Caldwell, Melanie E M Kelly
Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB 1 R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB 2 R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Methods: Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CB 2 R knockout (CB 2 R -/- ) mice...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446742/development-of-an-in-vitro-drug-delivery-efficiency-test-for-a-pulmonary-toxicokinetic-pig-study
#6
Nadine Schaefer, Ann-Katrin Kroll, Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer, Peter H Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Since their appearance on the drugs of abuse market, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are gaining increasing toxicological relevance. They are consumed without knowledge of their toxicokinetic (TK) and toxicodynamic properties and human studies are not allowed due to ethical reasons. A controlled animal TK study following nebulization of 4-ethylnaphthalene-1-yl-(1-pentylindole-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210), 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indole-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to pigs should be helpful for better interpretation of analytical results in cases of misuse or poisoning...
February 14, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441730/potency-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-other-cannabinoids-in-cannabis-in-england-in-2016-implications-for-public-health-and-pharmacology
#7
David J Potter, Kathy Hammond, Shaun Tuffnell, Christopher Walker, Marta Di Forti
BACKGROUND: In 2005 and 2008, studies reported that cannabis in England had become dominated by the sinsemilla (unseeded female) form. The average potency (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] content) of this material had doubled over the previous decade. Cannabis resin then circulating contained approximately equal ratios of THC and cannabidiol (CBD), whereas sinsemilla was almost devoid of CBD. Despite raised health concerns regarding sinsemilla use and the development of psychotic disorders, no update on street cannabis potency has been published since 2008...
February 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423994/functional-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-versus-%C3%AE-9-thc-in-mice-on-body-temperature-nociceptive-threshold-anxiety-cognition-locomotor-exploratory-parameters-and-depression
#8
Shaul Schreiber, Miaad Bader, Tatiana Lenchinski, Inbar Meningher, Vardit Rubovitch, Yiffat Katz, Etia Cohen, Yankel Gabet, Michal Rotenberg, Ehud Udi Wolf, Chaim G Pick
Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive substances designed to mimic the euphorigenic effects of the natural cannabis. Novel unregulated compounds appear once older compounds become illegal. It has been previously reported that synthetic cannabinoids are different than Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) as they have chemical structures unrelated to Δ9 -THC, different metabolism and, often, greater toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of three novel synthetic cannabinoids and pure Δ9 -THC on body temperature, nociceptive threshold, anxiety, memory function, locomotor and exploratory parameters, and depression...
February 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421753/occurrence-of-illicit-drugs-in-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-the-south-of-italy
#9
Alida Cosenza, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Donatella Piscionieri, Serena Fanara, Francesca Di Gaudio, Gaspare Viviani
In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG)...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420073/open-label-pilot-study-of-injectable-naltrexone-for-cannabis-dependence
#10
Daniel P Notzon, Meredith A Kelly, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, Amy L Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, John J Mariani, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND: There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis use disorders (CUD), despite the evaluation of numerous medications. Notably, chronic dosing of oral naltrexone decreases self-administration of cannabis in human laboratory studies. OBJECTIVES: To test the feasibility of long-acting injectable naltrexone for the treatment of CUD, while obtaining preliminary safety and efficacy data. METHODS: Twelve adult participants (seven male) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence enrolled into an 8-week, open-label pilot study conducted at an academic treatment research clinic...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414765/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induces-endocannabinoid-accumulation-in-mouse-hepatocytes-antagonism-by-fabp1-gene-ablation
#11
Avery L McIntosh, Gregory G Martin, Huan Huang, Danilo Landrock, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Phytocannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), bind and activate cannabinoid receptors (CB)-thereby piggy-backing on the same pathway endogenous endocannabinoids (EC). The recent discovery that liver fatty acid binding protein-1 (FABP1) is the major cytosolic chaperone protein with high affinity for both Δ9-THC and EC suggests that Δ9-THC may alter hepatic EC levels. Therefore, the impact of Δ9-THC or EC treatment on endogenous ECs such as N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels was examined in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) and liver fatty acid binding protein-1 (Fabp1) gene ablated (LKO) mice...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408718/detection-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-in-oral-fluid-blood-and-urine-following-oral-consumption-of-low-content-thc-hemp-oil
#12
Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Glyn Hansen, Ashley Dowell, Dale Savins, Richard Buchta, Reinilda Catubig, Robert Houlden, Con K K Stough
Hemp-derivative (Cannabis sativa L.) food products containing trace levels of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are proposed for consumption in Australia and New Zealand; however, it is unclear whether use of these products will negatively affect existing drug screening protocols. This double-blind, within-subjects, cross-over trial assessed 35 adults (17 male; 18 female), aged 22-52 years [Mean=30.7, Standard Deviation (S.D)±7.6]. Low dose THC oil [5mL bearer sesame oil containing 10mg/kg THC (0.046mg THC per 5mL dose)]; high dose THC oil [5mL bearer sesame oil containing 20mg/kg THC (0...
March 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408467/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-changes-the-brain-lipidome-and-transcriptome-differentially-in-the-adolescent-and-the-adult
#13
Emma Leishman, Michelle Murphy, Ken Mackie, Heather B Bradshaw
Exposing the adolescent brain to drugs of abuse is associated with increased risk for adult onset psychopathologies. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence, with largely unknown effects on the developing brain. Cannabis' major psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial signaling. Therefore, multiple cellular and signaling pathways are affected with a single dose of THC. The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs), N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are members of an interconnected lipidome that includes an emerging class of AEA structural analogs, the lipoamines, additional 2-acyl glycerols, free fatty acids, and prostaglandins (PGs)...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406477/intoxication-from-accidental-marijuana-ingestion-in-pediatric-patients-what-may-lie-ahead
#14
Osei Boadu, Grace Y Gombolay, Verne S Caviness, Chadi M El Saleeby
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. In young children, there are relatively few reports in the literature of acute marijuana intoxication. Here, we describe the case of a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who presented with clinical seizures. A urine toxicology screen showed elevated levels of tetrahydrocannabinol. The source of the drug was not identified. After a short stay in the hospital, the patient fully recovered with only supportive measures. In this report, we also summarize all domestic and international cases of marijuana intoxication in children younger than 6 years, in conjunction with the number of exposures in children of similar age identified by the US National Poison Data System...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385147/nabiximols-combined-with-motivational-enhancement-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-cannabis-dependence-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Jose M Trigo, Alexandra Soliman, Lena C Quilty, Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Selby, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis, Tony P George, David L Streiner, Gregory Staios, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: The current lack of pharmacological treatments for cannabis use disorder (CUD) warrants novel approaches and further investigation of promising pharmacotherapy. We previously showed that nabiximols (27 mg/ml Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/ 25 mg/ml cannabidiol (CBD), Sativex®) can decrease cannabis withdrawal symptoms. Here, we assessed in a pilot study the tolerability and safety of self-titrated nabiximols vs. placebo among 40 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385080/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-in-vivo-haemodynamic-effects-of-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol
#16
REVIEW
Salahaden R Sultan, Sophie A Millar, Saoirse E O'Sullivan, Timothy J England
∆⁸-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. We aimed to systematically review studies of THC and haemodynamic alterations. PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE were searched for relevant studies. Changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and blood flow (BF) were analysed using the Cochrane Review Manager Software. Thirty-one studies met the eligibility criteria. Fourteen publications assessed BP (number, n = 541), 22 HR (n = 567), and 3 BF (n = 45). Acute THC dosing reduced BP and HR in anaesthetised animals (BP, mean difference (MD) -19...
January 31, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382407/changes-in-cannabis-potency-and-first-time-admissions-to-drug-treatment-a-16-year-study-in-the-netherlands
#17
Tom P Freeman, Peggy van der Pol, Wil Kuijpers, Jeroen Wisselink, Ravi K Das, Sander Rigter, Margriet van Laar, Paul Griffiths, Wendy Swift, Raymond Niesink, Michael T Lynskey
BACKGROUND: The number of people entering specialist drug treatment for cannabis problems has increased considerably in recent years. The reasons for this are unclear, but rising cannabis potency could be a contributing factor. METHODS: Cannabis potency data were obtained from an ongoing monitoring programme in the Netherlands. We analysed concentrations of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from the most popular variety of domestic herbal cannabis sold in each retail outlet (2000-2015)...
January 31, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379971/contemporary-routes-of-cannabis-consumption-a-primer-for-clinicians
#18
Jeramy Peters, Joseph Chien
Although cannabis use is federally prohibited, medical cannabis is legal in some form in 30 states and the District of Columbia, and recreational use is legal in 8 states and the District of Columbia. The increasing legal acceptance of cannabis has led to a burgeoning industry that is producing an expanding variety of cannabis products. Physicians and other health care professionals should be aware of modern forms of cannabis consumption, as well as variations in tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations, to improve assessment of cannabis use and approach to treatment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376443/old-and-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-lessons-from-animal-models
#19
Mary Tresa Zanda, Liana Fattore
Synthetic cannabinoids have long been studied for their therapeutic potentials. However, during the last decade, new generations of synthetic cannabinoid agonists appeared on the drug market. These new psychoactive substances are currently sold as 'marijuana-like' products as they claim to mimic the effects of the psychoactive component of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Yet, their effects are more intense and potent than THC, typically last longer and are often associated to serious psychiatric consequences...
January 29, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370543/driving-under-the-influence-of-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-eastern-part-of-denmark-in-2015-and-2016-abuse-patterns-and-trends
#20
Kirsten Wiese Simonsen, Kristian Linnet, Brian Schou Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of psychoactive drugs and alcohol in drivers under suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol in 2015 and 2016 in the eastern part of Denmark. The trends in the number of traffic cases sent for drug analysis since 2000 and alcohol analysis since 2011 are also discussed. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers suspected of being under the influence of alcohol and/or medication and/or illicit drugs in 2015 and 2016 were investigated as requested by the police...
January 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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