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HIV in brain

Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Oscar K Serrano, Scott Kerwin, William D Payne, Timothy L Pruett
BACKGROUND: The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act allows for transplantation of organs from Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals (HIV+), provided it is performed under a research protocol. The safety assessment of an organ for transplantation is an essential element of the donation process. The risk for HIV associated opportunistic infections increases as circulating CD4+ lymphocytes decrease to <200 cells/μL; however, the numbers of circulating CD4+ cells in the HIV-negative (HIV-) brain dead donor (BDD) is not known...
September 29, 2016: Transplantation
Mamta Jain, Saroj Kumar Lenka
The main purpose of this work is to provide a novel and efficient method to the image steganography area of research in the field of biomedical, so that the security can be given to the very precious and confidential sensitive data of the patient and at the same time with the implication of the highly reliable algorithms will explode the high security to the precious brain information from the intruders. The patient information such as patient medical records with personal identification information of patients can be stored in both storage and transmission...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Bokai Cao, Xiangnan Kong, Jingyuan Zhang, Philip S Yu, Ann B Ragin
Investigating brain connectivity networks for neurological disorder identification has attracted great interest in recent years, most of which focus on the graph representation alone. However, in addition to brain networks derived from the neuroimaging data, hundreds of clinical, immunologic, serologic, and cognitive measures may also be documented for each subject. These measures compose multiple side views encoding a tremendous amount of supplemental information for diagnostic purposes, yet are often ignored...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Céline Marban, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Amina Ait-Ammar, Faiza Fahmi, Hala El Mekdad, Fadoua Daouad, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action "Towards an HIV Cure" is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Marloes A M Janssen, Max Hinne, Ronald J Janssen, Marcel A van Gerven, Stefan C Steens, Bozena Góraj, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated abnormalities in the brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients is associated with disruptions in subcortical regions of the brain in comparison to a matched HIV-negative control group...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Serena Marcelli, Elena Ficulle, Filomena Iannuzzi, Enikö Kövari, Robert Nisticò, Marco Feligioni
Synaptic dysfunction has been recognized as an early feature occurring at the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compromised neurotransmission leads over time to synaptic loss and these events correlate with the cognitive decline that progressively affects AD patients.Protein SUMOylation (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) is a post-translational modification (PTM) involved in several cellular processes including synaptic transmission.We here demonstrate that cortical synaptosomes prepared from Tg2576 mice of 6 months of age show an increased SUMO-1ylation, which returns back to normal levels at 20 months although synaptic SUMOylation, at this age, resulted more sensible to KCl stimulus...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Da-Zhen Jiang, Ding-Yi Zhou, Wei-Qing Wu, Guang-Yao Wu, Hong Quan
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI techniques have been widely used in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection related diseases. PURPOSE: To explore whether magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can track water molecular diffusion changes in the brain of asymptomatic HIV-positive adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multi-b value DWI was performed in 23 adolescents, including 15 HIV-positive participants and eight HIV-negative healthy participants...
October 12, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Manmeet K Mamik, Elizabeth Hui, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Jesse Chisholm, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain soon after seroconversion and induces chronic neuroinflammation by infecting and activating brain macrophages. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that mediate caspase-1 activation and ensuing cleavage and release of IL-1β and -18 by macrophages. Our group recently showed that HIV-1 infection of human microglia induced inflammasome activation in NLRP3-dependent manner. The HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein that is released from HIV-infected cells, although its effects on neuroinflammation are undefined...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Valentin Le Douce, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Sebastian Eilebrecht, Benoit Van Driessche, Amina Ait-Ammar, Roxane Verdikt, Yoshihito Kurashige, Céline Marban, Virginie Gautier, Ermanno Candolfi, Arndt G Benecke, Carine Van Lint, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
Among many cellular transcriptional regulators, Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HGMA1 have been described to control the establishment and the persistence of HIV-1 latency in microglial cells, the main viral reservoir in the brain. In this present work, we identify and characterize a transcription factor i.e. HIC1, which physically interacts with both Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HMGA1 to co-regulate specific subsets of cellular genes and the viral HIV-1 gene. Our results suggest that HIC1 represses Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kalpana J Kallianpur, Marissa Sakoda, Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Tracie Umaki, Dominic Chow, Suwarat Wongjittraporn, Cecilia M Shikuma
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV disease is associated with neurocognitive impairment and age-related conditions such as frailty. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regional brain volumetric changes correlate with frailty parameters in older (≥ 40 years) HIV+ patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. METHOD: Thirty-five HIV-infected participants in the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort - Cardiovascular Disease study underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging, frailty assessment and neuropsychological testing...
2016: Open Medicine Journal
Sunit K Singh
HIV-Tat protein displays an array of functions, essential for successful HIV replication. The structural flexibility of Tat protein has been regarded as one of the unique features responsible for sustaining diverse functions, ranging from cell membrane-crossing ability to strong affinity for RNA binding. RNA binding ability and presence of multiple interacting domains in the same protein is very important property of HIV-Tat protein. Tat protein has shown great ability to influence cellular and viral gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Guan-Han Li, Lisa Henderson, Avindra Nath
If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-to-cell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have ability directly bind to CXCR4 triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
C S Hakkers, J E Arends, R E Barth, S Du Plessis, A I M Hoepelman, M Vink
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity of HIV infection. Evidence suggests this condition starts subclinical before a progression to a symptomatic stage. Blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) fMRI has shown to be a sensitive tool to detect abnormal brain function in an early stage and might therefore be useful to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on brain function. An extensive literature search was performed in June 2015. Eligibility criteria for included studies were as follows: (1) conducting with HIV-positive patients, (2) using BOLD fMRI, and (3) including a HIV-negative control group...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Claudio Babiloni, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Capotosto, Paolo Onorati, Chiara Muratori, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Giuseppe Noce, Claudio Del Percio, Susanna Cordone, Cristina Limatola, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Magdalena Viscione, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni
OBJECTIVE: Cortical sources of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms were investigated in two sub-populations of naïve HIV subjects, grouped based on clinical criteria to receive different combination anti-retroviral therapies (cARTs). These EEG sources were hypothesized to reflect beneficial effects of both regimes. METHODS: Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were collected in 19 (Group A) and 39 (Group B) naïve HIV subjects at baseline (i.e. pre-treatment; T0) and after 5months of cART (T5)...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Julius Chacha Mwita, Matthew J Dewhurst, Mgaywa G Magafu, Monkgogi Goepamang, Bernard Omech, Koketso Lister Majuta, Marea Gaenamong, Tommy Baboloki Palai, Mosepele Mosepele, Yohana Mashalla
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation and therefore contributes to in-hospital outcomes such as mortality. In this study we describe patient characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) in Botswana. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 193 consecutive patients admitted with AHF at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone between February 2014 and February 2015. The length of hospital stay and 30-, 90- and 180-day in-hospital mortality rates were assessed...
August 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Fan Wu, Jing-Ping Zhang, Qian-Qiu Wang
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), the pathogen of syphilis, can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a series of severe diseases collectively termed neurosyphilis (NS).(1) Recently, there are increasing reports of NS cases, especially in HIV-infected syphilis patients.(2,3) Meanwhile, the misdiagnosis rate of NS is high, that of neurosyphilitic ischemic stroke was up to 80.95%.(4) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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