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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#1
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442909/tat-functionalized-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-meningitis-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Caterina Bartomeu Garcia, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47-57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439409/serial-deletion-reveals-structural-basis-and-stability-for-the-core-enzyme-activity-of-human-glutaminase-1-isoforms-relevance-to-excitotoxic-neurodegeneration
#3
Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Glutaminase 1 is a phosphate-activated metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis, which converts glutamine into glutamate. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter of excitatory synapses, executing important physiological functions in the central nervous system. There are two isoforms of glutaminase 1, KGA and GAC, both of which are generated through alternative splicing from the same gene. KGA and GAC both transcribe 1-14 exons in the N-terminal, but each has its unique C-terminal in the coding sequence...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434050/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-and-food-animals-and-direct-genotyping-of-t-gondii-isolates-southern-ghana
#4
Faustina Pappoe, Weisheng Cheng, Lin Wang, Yuanling Li, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Samuel Victor Nuvor, Henock Ambachew, Xiaodong Hu, Qingli Luo, Deyong Chu, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen
Toxoplasma gondii is of public health and veterinary importance causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals including HIV/AIDS patients and in congenital cases and animals. There is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in humans, particularly HIV patients and food animals and the parasite genotypes in Ghana. A total of 394 HIV-infected patients from three hospitals were screened for T. gondii anti-IgG and IgM using ELISA. DNAs from blood samples of seropositve participants and 95 brain tissues of food animals were PCR assayed to detect Toxoplasma gra6...
April 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428210/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-study-of-the-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-impact-on-neurometabolic-parameters-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#6
J Boban, D Kozic, V Turkulov, D Lendak, M Bjelan, M Semnic, S Brkic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has failed to reduce the high prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to test the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on brain metabolite ratios in chronic HIV infection by using proton chemical shift imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2D chemical shift imaging in 91 subjects (31 HIV+ patients with chronic infection on combination antiretroviral therapy, 19 combination antiretroviral therapy-na|fkve HIV+ subjects with chronic infection, and 41 healthy controls), covering frontal and parietal subcortical white and cingulate gyrus gray matter, analyzing ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr on long-TE and mIns/Cr on short-TE MR spectroscopy...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425451/ifn%C3%AE-protects-neurons-from-damage-in-a-murine-model-of-hiv-1-associated-brain-injury
#7
Victoria E Thaney, Alan M O'Neill, Melanie M Hoefer, Ricky Maung, Ana B Sanchez, Marcus Kaul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) causes brain injury. Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are critical mediators of any anti-viral immune response and IFNβ has been implicated in the temporary control of lentiviral infection in the brain. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 in their central nervous system (HIVgp120tg) mount a transient IFNβ response and provide evidence that IFNβ confers neuronal protection against HIVgp120 toxicity. In cerebrocortical cell cultures, neuroprotection by IFNβ against gp120 toxicity is dependent on IFNα receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and the β-chemokine CCL4, as IFNAR1 deficiency and neutralizing antibodies against CCL4, respectively, abolish the neuroprotective effects...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409354/retrosplenial-cortical-thinning-as-a-possible-major-contributor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-patients
#9
Na-Young Shin, Jinwoo Hong, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Uicheul Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. METHODS: HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. RESULTS: Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397143/tropism-intracerebral-distribution-and-transduction-efficiency-of-hiv-and-siv-based-lentiviral-vectors-after-injection-into-the-mouse-brain-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-in-vivo-study
#10
Juraj Hlavatý, Zbyněk Tonar, Matthias Renner, Sylvia Panitz, Helga Petznek, Matthias Schweizer, Silke Schüle, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Rudolf Moldzio, Kirsti Witter
Lentiviruses are suitable to transfer potential therapeutic genes into non-replicating cells such as neurons, but systematic in vivo studies on transduction of neural cells within the complete brain are missing. We analysed the distribution of transduced cells with respect to brain structure, virus tropism, numbers of transduced neurons per brain, and influence of the Vpx or Vpr accessory proteins after injection of vectors based on SIVsmmPBj, HIV-2, and HIV-1 lentiviruses into the right striatum of the mouse brain...
April 10, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396994/identifying-the-white-matter-impairments-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-patients-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis-of-dti-data
#11
Zhenchao Tang, Zhenyu Liu, Ruili Li, Xin Yang, Xingwei Cui, Shuo Wang, Dongdong Yu, Hongjun Li, Enqing Dong, Jie Tian
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter (WM) impairments of the antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV patients by conducting a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data METHODS: We enrolled 33 ART-naïve HIV patients and 32 Normal controls in the current study. Firstly, the DTI metrics in whole brain WM tracts were extracted for each subject and feed into the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO)-Logistic regression model to identify the impaired WM tracts...
April 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394985/-chagas-disease-affecting-the-central-nervous-system-in-a-patient-with-aids-demonstrated-by-quantitative-molecular-methods
#12
Alberto Fica, Marcia Salinas, María Isabel Jercic, Jeannette Dabanch, Andrés Soto, Sergio Quintanilla, Carlos Flores
Although infrequent, Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation is possible among patients with HIV/AIDS infection that develop a tumor-like or granulomatous lesion in the CNS. We report the case of a 60 years old male patient with HIV/AIDS and low CD4 lymphocytes count with cerebellar symptoms and mild paresis, associated to supra and infratentorial hypodense lesions and positive serology tests both to T. gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. Empirical therapy against toxoplasmosis was prescribed together with antiretroviral therapy but without a favorable response...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#13
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387814/grey-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-treated-hiv-disease-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#14
Jonathan Underwood, James H Cole, Matthan Caan, Davide De Francesco, Robert Leech, Rosan A van Zoest, Tanja Su, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Peter Portegies, Maria Prins, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Caroline A Sabin, Charles Majoie, Peter Reiss, Alan Winston, David J Sharp
Background: Long-term comorbidities such as cognitive impairment remain prevalent in otherwise effectively treated people-living-with-HIV. We investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain structure in successfully treated patients using multi-modal neuroimaging from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort. Methods: Cognitive function, brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure were assessed in 134 HIV-positive patients and 79 controls...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383502/the-role-of-hiv-infection-in-neurologic-injury
#15
REVIEW
Rossana Scutari, Claudia Alteri, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Stefano Aquaro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary, in which HIV-1 replication is established early on during acute infection and can persist despite potent antiretroviral treatments. HIV-1 infected macrophages play a pivotal role acting as vehicles for HIV-1 to spread into the brain, and can be the major contributor of an early compartmentalization. HIV-1 infection in CNS may lead to a broad spectrum of neurological syndromes, such as dementia, mild neurocognitive disorders, and asymptomatic impairment...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378026/considerations-on-the-relevance-of-cerebral-fusiform-aneurysms-observed-during-hiv-infection
#16
Bruno Law-Ye, Robert-Yves Carlier, Raphaël Richard, Raphaël Blanc, Claire Jourdan, Pierre de Truchis, Flore Viry, Didier Dormont, Delphine Leclercq, Frédéric Clarençon
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated ectatic cerebral vasculitis (HIV-AECV) is a rare form of vasculitis with diffuse fusiform aneurysms. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Although extensively described in children, it is still incompletely studied in adults. Our objective was to present five adult cases with emphasis on imaging findings and long-term evolution. From 2006 to 2014, we included 5 HIV-infected patients presenting with fusiform cerebral aneurysms. Vessels abnormalities were assessed with brain computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and/or digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373843/antihyperalgesic-activities-of-endocannabinoids-in-a-mouse-model-of-antiretroviral-induced-neuropathic-pain
#17
Neha Munawar, Mabayoje A Oriowo, Willias Masocha
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs. Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368497/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-is-initiated-during-primary-hiv-infection-and-not-rapidly-altered-by-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Elham Rahimy, Fang-Yong Li, Lars Hagberg, Dietmar Fuchs, Kevin Robertson, Dieter J Meyerhoff, Henrik Zetterberg, Richard W Price, Magnus Gisslén, Serena Spudich
Background.: We explored the establishment of abnormal blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and its relationship to neuropathogenesis during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by evaluating the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum albumin quotient (QAlb) in patients with primary HIV infection. We also analyzed effects of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods.: The QAlb was measured in longitudinal observational studies of primary HIV infection...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366764/in%C3%A2-vivo-excision-of-hiv-1-provirus-by-sacas9-and-multiplex-single-guide-rnas-in-animal-models
#19
Chaoran Yin, Ting Zhang, Xiying Qu, Yonggang Zhang, Raj Putatunda, Xiao Xiao, Fang Li, Weidong Xiao, Huaqing Zhao, Shen Dai, Xuebin Qin, Xianming Mo, Won-Bin Young, Kamel Khalili, Wenhui Hu
CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome editing provides a promising cure for HIV-1/AIDS; however, gene delivery efficiency in vivo remains an obstacle to overcome. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of excising the HIV-1 provirus in three different animal models using an all-in-one adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver multiplex single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) plus Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (saCas9). The quadruplex sgRNAs/saCas9 vector outperformed the duplex vector in excising the integrated HIV-1 genome in cultured neural stem/progenitor cells from HIV-1 Tg26 transgenic mice...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363832/primary-cns-lymphomas-of-the-brain-a-retrospective-analysis-in-a-single-institute
#20
Tzu-Kang Lin, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Peng-Wei Hsu, Chih-Cheng Chuang, Po-Hsun Tu, Pin-Yuang Chen, Shih-Ming Jung, Kuo-Chen Wei, Yin-Cheng Huang
Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) are relatively rare brain tumors. Their accurate diagnosis is mainly by surgical biopsy. In addition to surgical biopsy/decompression, treatment options include high dose methotrexate/chemotherapy and radiation therapy and stem cell therapy. Due to the rarity of this disease, guidelines for PCNSL diagnosis and treatment usually form from a large series of experiences. As a tertiary referral center, we retrospectively reviewed 79 patients during a 13-year period. All patients with PCNSL underwent surgical procedures/bone marrow biopsy procedures, and diagnoses were confirmed by hematologists/neuropathologists...
March 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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