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HIV in brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#1
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777461/hiv-aids-and-an-overweight-body-mass-are-associated-with-excessive-intra-individual-variability-in-response-preparation
#2
Lance O Bauer
Factors other than HIV/AIDS may influence the cognitive function of patients living with this disease. The present study tested the influence of a common comorbid problem-an overweight body mass. It also examined intra-task variabilities in performance and brain activation as potentially more sensitive indicators of dysfunction than their mean levels. One-hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited and categorized by HIV-1 serostatus (-/+) and body mass (BMI < 26/≥ 26 kg/m2 ). They performed a simple time estimation task during which response time accuracy and electroencephalographic readiness potentials were recorded...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770863/siv-latency-in-macrophages-in-the-cns
#3
Lucio Gama, Celina Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Suzanne E Queen, Sarah E Beck, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Brandon T Bullock, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements
Lentiviruses infect myeloid cells, leading to acute infection followed by persistent/latent infections not cleared by the host immune system. HIV and SIV are lentiviruses that infect CD4+ lymphocytes in addition to myeloid cells in blood and tissues. HIV infection of myeloid cells in brain, lung, and heart causes tissue-specific diseases that are mostly observed during severe immunosuppression, when the number of circulating CD4+ T cells declines to exceeding low levels. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) controls viral replication but does not successfully eliminate latent virus, which leads to viral rebound once ART is interrupted...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768358/spastic-paraparesis-caused-by-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-mimicking-vacuolar-myelopathy-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient-a-case-report
#4
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological deteriorations including adult onset spastic paraparesis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of newly developed spastic paresis due to X-ALD in a patient with HIV infection...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750804/temporal-compartmental-changes-in-viral-rna-and-neuronal-injury-in-a-primate-model-of-neuroaids
#5
R Gilberto González, Robert Fell, Julian He, Jennifer Campbell, Tricia H Burdo, Patrick Autissier, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Faramarz Taheri, Termara Parker, Jeffrey D Lifson, Elkan F Halpern, Mark Vangel, Eliezer Masliah, Susan V Westmoreland, Kenneth C Williams, Eva-Maria Ratai
Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a significant problem. Furthermore, the precise pathogenesis of this neurodegeneration is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and neuronal injury in the rhesus macaque using in vivo and postmortem sampling techniques. The effect of SIV infection in 23 adult rhesus macaques was investigated using an accelerated NeuroAIDS model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747571/axonal-chronic-injury-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-adults-with-asymptomatic-neurocognitive-impairment-and-its-relationship-with-clinical-variables-and-cognitive-status
#6
Rui-Li Li, Jun Sun, Zhen-Chao Tang, Jing-Ji Zhang, Hong-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neurotropic virus, and it can bring about neurodegeneration and may even result in cognitive impairments. The precise mechanism of HIV-associated white matter (WM) injury is unknown. The effects of multiple clinical contributors on WM impairments and the relationship between the WM alterations and cognitive performance merit further investigation. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 20 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) adults and 20 healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746297/microglial-activation-is-inversely-associated-with-cognition-in-individuals-living-with-hiv-on-effective-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Leah H Rubin, Ned Sacktor, Jason Creighton, Yong Du, Christopher J Endres, Martin G Pomper, Jennifer M Coughlin
OBJECTIVE: Despite viral suppression, HIV-associated cognitive impairment persists and may be partially due to persistent immune signaling by cells of the myeloid-lineage. Here we aimed to understand the contribution of activated microglia located in vulnerable brain regions (e.g., frontal, subcortical) of HIV-infected, virally suppressed (HIV+VS) individuals in relation to cognitive and motor function. DESIGN: 21 HIV+VS individuals underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with [C]DPA-713 to image the translocator protein 18 KDa (TSPO), a marker of microglial activation, and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742062/global-perspective-of-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-neuroaids
#8
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741401/comparison-of-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-serum-level-between-alzheimer-s-patients-cognitive-healthy-and-mild-cognitive-impaired-individuals
#9
Roberto Dominici, Dario Finazzi, Letizia Polito, Emanuela Oldoni, Giovanna Bugari, Alessandro Montanelli, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Antonio Guaita
BACKGROUND: Several studies performed in the last years on the brain, showed that beta2-microglobulin (β2m) and MHC can act independently of their canonical immune function to regulate normal brain development, synaptic plasticity and behaviour. Increased systemic levels of soluble β2m have been implicated in cognitive impairments like that associated with chronic hemodialysis, or aortic valve replacement. Increased soluble β2m has also been detected in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with HIV-associated dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
May 9, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739366/angiocentric-lymph-proliferative-disorder-lymphomatoid-granulomatosis-in-a-person-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infection-a-case-report
#10
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Jason Karamchandani, Ali Bessissow, Jean-Pierre Routy, Jason Szabo, Charles Frenette
BACKGROUND: Angiocentric lymph proliferative disorder (ALPD) is a granulomatous lymphoproliferative condition associated with various primary and secondary immunodeficiency states. ALPD is so rare that its prevalence has not been established. Typically affecting middle-aged adults, this condition is often found in the context of Epstein Bar Virus infection and consists of angiocentric and angioinvasive pulmonary infiltrates. Herein, we present a biopsy-proven case of a patient manifesting with a viral meningoencephalomyelitis-like picture with brain, spinal cord, renal and splenic lesions...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737194/characterization-of-cellular-immune-responses-in-thai-individuals-with-and-without-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#11
Silvia Ratto-Kim, Alexandra Schuetz, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, John Barber, Nicholas Hutchings, Sukalaya Lerdlum, James L K Fletcher, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Weerawan Chuenarom, Somporn Tipsuk, Mantana Pothisri, Tanate Jadwattanakul, Supunnee Jirajariyavej, Chayada Sajjaweerawan, Siriwat Akapirat, Thep Chalermchai, Duanghathai Suttichom, Boot Keawboon, Peeriya Prueksakaew, Putthachard Karnsomlap, David Clifford, Robert H Paul, Mark de Souza, Jerome H Kim, Jintinant Anaworanich, Victor Valcour
HIV-associated cognitive disorder (HAND) remains a challenge despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), and has been linked to monocyte/macrophage (M/M) migration to the brain. Due to the potential impact of T cell effector mechanisms in eliminating activated/HIV-infected M/M, T cell activation may play a role in the development of HAND. We sought to investigate the relationship between cognition and both CD8+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR+/CD38+) and HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses at the time of HIV diagnosis and 12 months post initiation of ART...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737186/asymptomatic-hiv-vertical-transmitted-adolescents-brain-functional-changes-based-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#12
Panying Wang, Jielan Li, Xiangyu Wang, Guang-Yao Wu, Deepa Thapa
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents survive longer with the use of readily found combination antiretroviral therapy(cART), however, they still have the risk of developing cognitive deficits. The paper aims to explore the brain functional changes in asymptomatic PHIV+ adolescents with cART based on the resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI was performed on 20 PHIV+ adolescents and 28 PHIV- controls to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) in different brain regions by calculating the Kendall harmonious coefficient(KCC)...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733459/hiv-1-tat-regulation-of-dopamine-transmission-and-microglial-reactivity-is-brain-region-specific
#13
Douglas R Miller, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Leah Phan, Nesrin Sharif, Joyonna Gamble-George, Jay P McLaughlin, Wolfgang J Streit, Habibeh Khoshbouei
The transactivator of transcription protein, HIV-1 Tat, is linked to neuroAIDS, where degeneration of dopamine neurons occurs. Using a mouse model expressing GFAP-driven Tat protein under doxycycline (Dox) regulation, we investigated microglial-neuronal interactions in the rostral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Immunohistochemistry for microglia and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed that the ratio of microglia to dopamine neurons is smaller in the SNc than in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and that this difference is maintained following 7-day Dox exposure in wild type animals...
May 7, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729322/methamphetamine-augment-hiv-1-tat-mediated-memory-deficits-by-altering-the-expression-of-synaptic-proteins-and-neurotrophic-factors
#14
Anantha Ram Nookala, Daniel C Schwartz, Nitish S Chaudhari, Alexy Glazyrin, Edward B Stephens, Nancy E J Berman, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is common among individuals infected with HIV-1 and has been shown to affect HIV replication and pathogenesis. These HIV-1 infected individuals also exhibit greater neuronal injury and higher cognitive decline. HIV-1 proteins, specifically gp120 and HIV-1 Tat, have been earlier shown to affect neurocognition. HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein released early during HIV-1 replication, contributes to HIV-associated neurotoxicity through various mechanisms including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and dysregulation of neuroplasticity...
May 2, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713221/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-a-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#15
Se Won Oh, Na-Young Shin, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Mi Rim Bang
Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known to damage the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM). However, only a few studies have assessed the brain regions in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Therefore, we sought to compare the DTI data between HIV patients with and without HAND using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two HIV-infected patients (10 with HAND and 12 without HAND) and 11 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709610/effects-of-hiv-1-tat-protein-and-methamphetamine-exposure-on-visual-discrimination-and-executive-function-in-mice
#16
James P Kesby, Jerel A Fields, Ariel Chang, Hamza Coban, Cristian L Achim, Svetlana Semenova
Mild neurocognitive impairments are common in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-encoded proteins, such as trans-activator of transcription (TAT), contribute to neuropathology and cognitive function in medicated subjects. The combination of TAT and comorbid methamphetamine use may further impair neurocognitive function in HIV-positive individuals by affecting dopaminergic systems in the brain. The current study examined the effects of TAT protein expression and methamphetamine exposure on cognitive function and dopamine systems in mice...
April 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706959/cathelicidin-derived-antimicrobial-peptides-inhibit-zika-virus-through-direct-inactivation-and-interferon-pathway
#17
Miao He, Hainan Zhang, Yuju Li, Guangshun Wang, Beisha Tang, Jeffrey Zhao, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotrophic flavivirus that is able to infect pregnant women and cause fetal brain abnormalities. Although there is a significant effort in identifying anti-ZIKV strategies, currently no vaccines or specific therapies are available to treat ZIKV infection. Antimicrobial peptides, which are potent host defense molecules in nearly all forms of life, have been found to be effective against several types of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza A. However, they have not been tested in ZIKV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705930/united-states-national-trends-in-mortality-length-of-stay-los-and-associated-costs-of-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-population-from-2005-to-2014
#18
Smit Patel, Neil U Parikh, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Jessica L Reynolds, Rashmi Dmello, Stanley A Schwartz, Supriya D Mahajan
We evaluated national trends of in-hospital discharge rates, mortality outcomes, health care costs, length of stay in HIV patients with cognitive disorders. Neurological involvement in HIV is commonly associated with cognitive impairment termed as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which includes a spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction associated with HIV infection. Although severe and progressive neurocognitive impairment has become rare in HIV patients in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy, a majority of HIV patients have mild to moderate degree of neurocognitive impairment...
April 28, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705605/the-role-of-catecholamines-in-hiv-neuropathogenesis
#19
R Nolan, P J Gaskill
The success of anti-retroviral therapy has improved the quality of life and lifespan of HIV+ individuals, transforming HIV infection into a chronic condition. These improvements have come with a cost, as chronic HIV infection and long-term therapy have resulted in the emergence of a number of new pathologies. This includes a variety of the neuropathological and neurocognitive effects collectively known as HIVassociated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) or NeuroHIV. These effects persist even in the absence of viral replication, suggesting that they are mediated the long-term changes in the CNS induced by HIV infection rather than by active replication...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705491/structural-discordance-in-hiv-1-vpu-from-brain-isolate-alarms-amyloid-fibril-forming-behavior-a-computational-perspective
#20
Sneha Patil, Pritam Kumar Panda, Fatemeh Gharemirshamlu Rahimi, Kourosh Bamdad, Seetharaman Balaji
HIV-1 being the most widespread type worldwide accounts for almost 95% of all infections including HIV associated dementia (HAD) that triggers neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration in patients. The common features associated with HAD and other neurodegenerative diseases are accumulation of amyloid plaques, neuronal loss and deterioration of cognitive abilities, amongst which amyloid fibrillation is considered to be a hallmark. The success of effective therapeutics lies in the understanding of mechanisms leading to neurotoxicity...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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