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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136766/behavioral-and-biochemical-evidences-for-nootropic-activity-of-boldine-in-young-and-aged-mice
#1
Dinesh Dhingra, Kapil Soni
Boldine, a bioactive compound, has been reported to be neuroprotective, but its effect on learning and memory has not been explored. So, the present study was aimed to study the effect of boldine on the learning and memory of the Swiss albino male young and aged mice. Boldine (1.5, 3 and 6mg/kg, po) and physostigmine salicylate (0.1mg/kg, ip) were administered to separate groups of mice for 7 successive days. Morris water maze was utilized as a behavioural model to study the effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104777/studying-the-specific-activity-of-the-amide-form-of-hldf-6-peptide-using-the-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
A P Bogachouk, Z I Storozheva, G B Telegin, A S Chernov, A T Proshin, V V Sherstnev, Yu A Zolotarev, V M Lipkin
The neuroprotective and nootropic activities of the amide form (AF) of the HLDF-6 peptide (TGENHR-NH2) were studied in transgenic mice of the B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1de9)85Dbo (Tg+) line (the animal model of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD)). The study was performed in 4 mouse groups: group 1 (study group): Tg+ mice intranasally injected with the peptide at a dose of 250 μg/kg; group 2 (active control): Tg+ mice intranasally injected with normal saline; group 3 (control 1): Tg- mice; and group 4 (control 2): C57Bl/6 mice...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053130/-multimodal-serotonergic-antidepressants
#3
D S Danilov
Based on the original literature, the author for the first time describes a history of selective serotonergic antidepressants simultaneously inhibiting the serotonin reuptake and directly interacting with serotonin receptors. A history of creation and introduction of their main representatives is presented. A history of investigation of their neurochemical activity is analyzed in details. The history of the evolution of their classifications is systemized. The data presented suggest the rationale for unifying all selective serotonergic antidepressants, simultaneously inhibiting the serotonin reuptake and directly interacting with serotonin receptors (trazodone, etoperidone, nefazodone, vilazodone, vortioxetine), in one group of 'multimodal serotonergic antidepressants'...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053119/-peptidergic-nootropic-therapy-in-cerebral-palsy-associated-with-epilepsy
#4
A A Kholin, N N Zavadenko, E S Il Ina, L M Kolpakchi, I D Fedonyuk, R C Bembeeva, E S Esipova
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of сortexin in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP) combined with epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four patients (55 boys and 29 girls), aged from 1 to 11 years, with CP combined with epilepsy received cortexin together with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Cortexin was administered in doses of 5-10 mg depending on the patient's age and body weight intramuscularly during hospitalization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cortexin as add-on to AEDs reduced for more than two times the number of seizures, along with improvement of motor function, in 31 (36...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979677/astrocytes-mediated-the-nootropic-and-neurotrophic-effects-of-sarsasapogenin-aa13-via-upregulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#5
Dong Dong, Yu Mao, Cui Huang, Qian Jiao, Hui Pan, Lei Ma, Rui Wang
Rhizoma Anemarrhena, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been shown to have neuroprotective effect. Sarsasapogenin-AA13 (AA13) is a novel synthetic derivative of Sarsasapogenin, which is extracted from Rhizoma Anemarrhena. The aim of this study is to investigate the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of AA13 and underlying mechanisms. In vitro, cell viability of rat primary astrocytes treated with AA13 and neurons cultured with conditioned medium of AA13-treated rat primary astrocytes was tested by MTT assays...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957691/differential-rubisco-content-and-photosynthetic-efficiency-of-rol-gene-integrated-vinca-minor-transgenic-plant-correlating-factors-associated-with-morpho-anatomical-changes-gene-expression-and-alkaloid-productivity
#6
Priyanka Verma, Shamshad Ahmad Khan, Nusrat Masood, N Manika, Abhishek Sharma, Neha Verma, Suaib Luqman, Ajay K Mathur
Transgenic plants obtained from a hairy root line (PVG) of Vinca minor were characterized in relation to terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) pathway gene expression and vincamine production. The hairy roots formed callus with green nodular protuberances when transferred onto agar-gelled MS medium containing 3.0mg/l zeatin. These meristematic zones developed into shoot buds on medium with 1.0mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 40mg/l ascorbic acid. These shoot buds subsequently formed rooted plants when shifted onto a hormone-free MS medium with 6% sucrose...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#7
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
December 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890737/from-hard-neuro-tools-to-soft-neuro-toys-refocussing-the-neuro-enhancement-debate
#8
Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Hub Zwart
Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884730/-pharmacological-effects-and-clinical-application-of-pantogam-and-pantogam-active
#9
T A Voronina, S A Litvinova
Clinical studies and experience in the use of pantogam (hopanthenic acid) and pantogam active (rac-gopantenic/D-, L-gopantenic acid) showed their efficacy and safety in patients with various pathologies. Pantogam has a unique spectrum of pharmacological effects (nootropic, anticonvulsant, mild activating) in the absence of addiction, hyperstimulation or withdrawal syndrome. Pantogam active, having also an additional anxiolytic effect, is characterized by bimodal activity, improves not only cognitive functions, but also emotional state in patients in psychiatric, neurological and cardiological practice with such diseases and conditions as anxiety/anxiety-depressive disorders, chronic brain ischemia, ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, epilepsy, craniocerebral trauma, schizophrenia as well as cognitive impairment in the structure of neurological and psychogenic deficiencies...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861754/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-cicer-microphyllum-seed-extract-in-global-hypoxia
#10
Deepti Sharma, Surya Narayan Biswal, Kushal Kumar, Pushpendar Bhardwaj, Kalpana Kumari Barhwal, Ashish Kumar, Sunil Kumar Hota, Om Prakash Chaurasia
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus has been implicated for memory impairment in conditions like stroke, ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia. The present study, aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic extract of Cicer microphyllum seeds (CSE) for amelioration of global hypoxia induced neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus. CSE supplementation considerably reduced neurodegeneration and dendritic atrophy in CA1 neurons along with improvement of memory in hypoxic rats...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855592/-s-oxiracetam-is-the-active-ingredient-in-oxiracetam-that-alleviates-the-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#11
Wan Li, Huihui Liu, Hanjie Jiang, Chen Wang, Yongfei Guo, Yi Sun, Xin Zhao, Xin Xiong, Xianhua Zhang, Ke Zhang, Zongxiu Nie, Xiaoping Pu
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a pathological state that is associated with the cognitive impairments in vascular dementia. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that is commonly used to treat cognitive deficits of cerebrovascular origins. However, oxiracetam is currently used as a racemic mixture whose effective ingredient has not been identified to date. In this study, we first identified that (S)-oxiracetam, but not (R)-oxiracetam, was the effective ingredient that alleviated the impairments of spatial learning and memory by ameliorating neuron damage and white matter lesions, increasing the cerebral blood flow, and inhibiting astrocyte activation in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855122/bacterial-isolates-degrading-ritalinic-acid-human-metabolite-of-neuro-enhancer-methylphenidate
#12
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
The consumption of nootropic drugs has increased tremendously in the last decade, though the studies on their environmental fate are still scarce. Nootropics are bioactive compounds designed to alter human's physiology therefore the adverse effects towards wildlife can be expected. In order to understand their environmental impact, the knowledge on their transformation pathways is necessary. Methylphenidate belongs to the most prescribed neuro-enhancers and is among the most favored smart drugs used in non-medical situations...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836990/wound-healing-effect-of-euphorbia-hirta-linn-euphorbiaceae-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Riazul Haque Tuhin, Marium Begum, Sohanur Rahman, Rubaba Karim, Taslima Begum, Siraj Uddin Ahmed, Ronia Mostofa, Amir Hossain, Mohamed Abdel-Daim, Rayhana Begum
BACKGROUND: Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant...
August 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832626/the-effect-of-bacopa-monnieri-on-gene-expression-levels-in-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#14
How-Wing Leung, Gabriel Foo, Gokulakrishna Banumurthy, Xiaoran Chai, Sujoy Ghosh, Tora Mitra-Ganguli, Antonius M J VanDongen
Bacopa monnieri is a plant used as a nootropic in Ayurveda, a 5000-year-old system of traditional Indian medicine. Although both animal and clinical studies supported its role as a memory enhancer, the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying Bacopa's nootropic action are not understood. In this study, we used deep sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the transcriptome changes upon Bacopa treatment on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We identified several genes whose expression levels were regulated by Bacopa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#15
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760594/s-oxiracetam-protect-against-ischemic-stroke-via-alleviating-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-rats
#16
Liangliang Huang, Erxin Shang, Wenxiang Fan, Xiang Li, Binbin Li, Shucheng He, Yuxin Fu, Yizhi Zhang, Yunman Li, Weirong Fang
The blood brain barrier (BBB) maintains the basic stability of the brain tissue under physiological conditions, while destroys and exaggerates brain edema and inflammatory response after ischemic stroke. In this study, we researched S-oxiracetam (S-ORC), a nootropic drug, alleviates BBB dysfunction and protects against ischemic stroke in rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)/reperfusion in rats is applied to mimic ischemic stroke. One hour after reperfusion, rats are administered intravenously with different dose (0...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743458/s-phenylpiracetam-a-selective-dat-inhibitor-reduces-body-weight-gain-without-influencing-locomotor-activity
#17
Liga Zvejniece, Baiba Svalbe, Edijs Vavers, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Elina Makarova, Vilnis Liepins, Ivars Kalvinsh, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova
S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively...
September 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720419/isolation-of-two-ochrobactrum-sp-strains-capable-of-degrading-the-nootropic-drug-piracetam
#18
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Boris Kolvenbach, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide) is a popular cognitive enhancer, which has recently been detected in waste and drinking water. Nootropic drugs are designed to affect human metabolism and act on the nervous system, but their environmental effects have yet to be the subject of detailed studies. In this report, we present the efficient biodegradation of the cognitive enhancer, piracetam. Two bacterial strains capable of using this compound as the sole carbon source were isolated and later identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi strain MW6 and Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MW7...
July 16, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638040/-complex-application-2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-succinate-and-vinpocetine-in-cerebrovascular-disorder
#19
E Yu Solovyeva, A N Karneev, A V Chekanov, O A Baranova, I V Choi
Developing brain ischemia due to cerebral vascularization leads to disruption of brain metabolism. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to irreversible brain damage and plays an important role in the development of some types of dementia. Early use of antioxidants such as ethyl ether apovincamine acid (vinpocetine) and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-succinate in the treatment of this pathology is seen as a real pathogenetically based method of correction of cerebral metabolism with cerebral vascular disorders, demonstrating the increase in cerebral blood flow and also neuroprotective effects...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618989/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-novel-12-n-methylcytisine-derivatives
#20
Inna P Tsypysheva, Sophia S Borisevich, Liana F Zainullina, Nina S Makara, Alena V Koval'skaya, Polina R Petrova, Sergey L Khursan, Yulia V Vakhitova, Felix S Zarudii
Neurodegenerative diseases and inflammation are always linked to each other; therefore the elaboration of new chemical compounds, which interact with pharmacological targets involved into these two processes, can become one of ways of correction of these types of human CNS pathology. In the field of this problem the anti-inflammatory activity of ten 3-amino derivatives of quinolizidine alkaloid (-)-cytisine (the data about nootropic activity of these compounds are outlined by us previously) was studied by using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches...
June 16, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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