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colorectal cancer gut microbiota

Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Juan Tuan, Ying-Xuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Diets and lifestyles have been strongly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past several decades, emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota may have a role in the development of CRC. Its interaction with diets and lifestyles could affect the carcinogenesis of CRC. SUMMARY: This review presents the most recent epidemiologic and experimental evidence of three factors that may convincingly have a role in CRC, including fiber, red or processed meat, and alcohol, focusing on potential mechanisms and their interactions with the gut microbiota...
September 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Allison L Richards, Michael B Burns, Adnan Alazizi, Luis B Barreiro, Roger Pique-Regi, Ran Blekhman, Francesca Luca
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota in healthy and disease states. However, establishing the causality of host-microbiota interactions in humans is still challenging. Here, we describe a novel experimental system to define the transcriptional response induced by the microbiota in human cells and to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-gut microbiota interactions. In primary human colonic epithelial cells, we identified over 6,000 genes that change expression at various time points following co-culturing with the gut microbiota of a healthy individual...
July 2016: MSystems
Jessie Qy Liang, Jonathan Chiu, Yingxuan Chen, Yanqin Huang, Akira Higashimori, Jing-Yuan Fang, Hassan Brim, Hassan Ashktorab, Siew Chien Ng, Simon Sm Ng, Shu Zheng, Francis Kl Chan, Joseph Jy Sung, Jun Yu
PURPOSE: Gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the utility of fecal bacterial marker candidates identified by our metagenome sequencing analysis for CRC diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 439 subjects (203 CRC and 236 healthy subjects) from two independent Asian cohorts were included. Probe-based duplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were established for quantification of bacterial marker candidates. RESULTS: Candidates identified by metagenome sequencing, including Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Bacteroides clarus (Bc), Roseburia intestinalis (Ri), Clostridium hathewayi (Ch), and one undefined species (labeled as m7), were examined in fecal samples of 203 CRC patients and 236 healthy controls by duplex-qPCR...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Thierry Pédron, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiome has provided a wealth of information that allowed an exceptionally detailed description of its microbial content and physiological potential. It also set the basis for studies allowing correlation of alterations in the balance of this microbiota and the occurrence of a certain number of emerging diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity and diabetes, and possibly colorectal cancer. The time has come to give the intestinal microbiota in symbiosis with its host an experimental dimension...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Vanessa L Hale, Jun Chen, Stephen Johnson, Sean C Harrington, Tracy C Yab, Thomas C Smyrk, Heidi Nelson, Lisa A Boardman, Brooke R Druliner, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex, Dennis J Ahnen, Peter Lance, David A Ahlquist, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. METHODS: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n=233) and without (n=547). RESULTS: Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, pro-inflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Gut dysbiosis may result in various diseases, such as metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), especially during development, may also increase the risk for such disorders. An unexplored possibility is that EDC-exposure might alter the gut microbial composition. Gut flora and their products may thus be mediating factors for the disease-causing effects of these chemicals. To examine the effects of EDCs on the gut microbiome, female and male monogamous and biparental California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were exposed to BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or EE (0...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Caitlin A Brennan, Wendy S Garrett
Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota (the microorganisms associated with the human body) in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Herein, we discuss both human data from meta'omics analyses and data from mechanistic studies in cell culture and animal models that support specific bacterial agents as potentiators of tumorigenesis-including Fusobacterium nucleatum, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, and colibactin-producing Escherichia coli...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
Oliver Ng
Iron deficiency and anaemia are common in colorectal cancer. Replacement with oral or intravenous iron effectively treats this deficiency. However, mechanistic and population studies suggest that excess iron promotes colorectal carcinogenesis. Growing research into gut microbiota and dysbiosis suggests one explanation for this association. Iron is growth limiting for many pathogenic bacteria and may promote a shift in the ratio of pathogenic to protective bacteria. This may increase the toxic bacterial metabolites, promoting inflammation and carcinogenesis...
October 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
M Y Zeng, N Inohara, G Nuñez
The gut microbiota has diverse and essential roles in host metabolism, development of the immune system and as resistance to pathogen colonization. Perturbations of the gut microbiota, termed gut dysbiosis, are commonly observed in diseases involving inflammation in the gut, including inflammatory bowel disease, infection, colorectal cancer and food allergies. Importantly, the inflamed microenvironment in the gut is particularly conducive to blooms of Enterobacteriaceae, which acquire fitness benefits while other families of symbiotic bacteria succumb to environmental changes inflicted by inflammation...
August 24, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Tzu-Tang Wei, Yi-Ting Lin, Ruo-Yu Tseng, Chia-Tung Shun, Yu-Chin Lin, Ming-Shiang Wu, Jim-Min Fang, Ching-Chow Chen
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is a worldwide cancer with rising annual incidence. Inflammation is a well-known cause of colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Metabolic inflammation (metaflammation) and altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) have contributed to colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is an important strategy to reduce cancer-related mortality. Recently, various polypharmacologic molecules that dually inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC) and other therapeutic targets have been developed...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Mehrbod Estaki, Jason Pither, Peter Baumeister, Jonathan P Little, Sandeep K Gill, Sanjoy Ghosh, Zahra Ahmadi-Vand, Katelyn R Marsden, Deanna L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Reduced microbial diversity in human intestines has been implicated in various conditions such as diabetes, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. The role of physical fitness in the context of human intestinal microbiota is currently not known. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyze fecal microbiota of 39 healthy participants with similar age, BMI, and diets but with varying cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Fecal short-chain fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography...
2016: Microbiome
Amy M Sheflin, Erica C Borresen, Jay S Kirkwood, Claudia M Boot, Alyssa K Whitney, Shen Lu, Regina J Brown, Corey D Broeckling, Elizabeth P Ryan, Tiffany L Weir
SCOPE: Heat-stabilized rice bran and cooked navy bean powder contain a variety of phytochemicals that are fermented by colonic microbiota and may influence intestinal health. Dietary interventions with these foods should be explored for modulating colorectal cancer risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized-controlled pilot clinical trial investigated the effects of eating heat-stabilized rice bran (30g/day) or cooked navy bean powder (35g/day) on gut microbiota and metabolites (NCT01929122)...
July 27, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Chong-Zhi Wang, Chunhao Yu, Xiao-Dong Wen, Lina Chen, Chun-Feng Zhang, Tyler Calway, Yunping Qiu, Yunwei Wang, Zhiyu Zhang, Samantha Anderson, Yitao Wang, Wei Jia, Chun-Su Yuan
Inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for colorectal cancer initiation and development. In this study, the effects of American ginseng on chemically induced colitis and colon carcinogenesis were evaluated using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model. During the acute phase on day 15, the oral administration of ginseng (15 and 30 mg/kg/day) significantly suppressed AOM/DSS-induced colitis, as demonstrated by the disease activity index and colon tissue histology. During the chronic phase in week 13, AOM/DSS-induced tumor multiplicity was significantly suppressed by ginseng...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Eugene Dogkotenge Kuugbee, Xueqi Shang, Yaser Gamallat, Djibril Bamba, Annoor Awadasseid, Mohammed Ahmed Suliman, Shizhu Zang, Yufang Ma, Gift Chiwala, Yi Xin, Dong Shang
BACKGROUND: Structural change in the gut microbiota is implicated in cancer. The beneficial modulation of the microbiota composition with probiotics and prebiotics prevents diseases. AIM: We investigated the effect of oligofructose-maltodextrin-enriched Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria bifidum, and Bifidobacteria infantum (LBB), on the gut microbiota composition and progression of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were acclimatized, given ampicillin (75 mg/kg), and treated as follows; GCO: normal control; GPR: LBB only; GPC: LBB+ 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH); and GCA: DMH only (cancer control)...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Julia L Drewes, Franck Housseau, Cynthia L Sears
The gut microbiota has been hailed as an accessory organ, with functions critical to the host including dietary metabolic activities and assistance in the development of a proper functioning immune system. However, an aberrant microbiota (dysbiosis) may influence disease processes such as colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contributions of the microbiota to prevention, initiation/progression, and treatment of colorectal cancer, with a major focus on biofilms and the antimicrobial and antitumoural immune response...
July 26, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Mayuko Yamamoto, Satoshi Matsumoto
The mucosal immune system is unique to the gastrointestinal mucosa, in which a large number of immune cells are located and exert multiple functions. Meanwhile, ~100 trillion microorganisms are thought to co-inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, immune cells and gut microbiota have a mutual influence and the maintenance of this symbiotic relationship results in gut homeostasis. A recent study suggested that a disturbance of gut microbiota-so called "dysbiosis"-is related to various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated cancer (CAC)...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Roman M Stilling, Marcel van de Wouw, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders...
October 2016: Neurochemistry International
Zhiliang Wei, Shougen Cao, Shanglong Liu, Zengwu Yao, Teng Sun, Yi Li, Jiante Li, Dongfeng Zhang, Yanbing Zhou
Evidences have shown that dysbiosis could promote the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association of dysbiosis and prognosis of CRC is barely investigated. Therefore, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to determine differences in microbiota among tumor tissues of different prognosis and found that Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis were more abundant in worse prognosis groups, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii displayed higher abundance in survival group. To further explore the prognostic value of the found bacteria, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional regression analyses were used and the results exhibited that high abundance of F...
June 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Celestine Wong, Philip J Harris, Lynnette R Ferguson
Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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