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colorectal cancer gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#1
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904330/analysis-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Kehan Xu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota community structure, assess differences in intestinal bacterial types, and identify metagenomic biomarkers for disparate stages of colorectal cancer formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 individuals were recruited: 61 cases with non-tumor colon were regarded as the normal group, 47 cases with histology-substantiated colorectal adenomas were regarded as the adenoma group, and 52 cases with invasive adenocarcinomas were regarded as the cancer group...
September 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894048/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bowel-diseases
#3
Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna, Agata Mulak
Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833079/cancer-associated-faecal-microbial-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-detection
#4
Vincy Eklöf, Anna Löfgren-Burström, Carl Zingmark, Sofia Edin, Pär Larsson, Pontus Karling, Oleg Alexeyev, Jörgen Rutegård, Maria L Wikberg, Richard Palmqvist
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in the western world. An effective screening program leading to early detection of disease would severely reduce the mortality of CRC. Alterations in the gut microbiota has been linked to CRC, but the potential of microbial markers for use in CRC screening has been largely unstudied. We used a nested case-control study of 238 study subjects to explore the use of microbial markers for clbA+ bacteria harbouring the pks pathogenicity island, afa-C+ diffusely adherent Escherichia coli harbouring the afa-1 operon, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool as potential screening markers for CRC...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827587/a-prospective-analysis-of-mucosal-microbiome-metabonome-interactions-in-colorectal-cancer-using-a-combined-mas-1hnmr-and-metataxonomic-strategy
#5
James Kinross, Reza Mirnezami, James Alexander, Richard Brown, Alasdair Scott, Dieter Galea, Kirill Veselkov, Rob Goldin, Ara Darzi, Jeremy Nicholson, Julian R Marchesi
Colon cancer induces a state of mucosal dysbiosis with associated niche specific changes in the gut microbiota. However, the key metabolic functions of these bacteria remain unclear. We performed a prospective observational study in patients undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer without mechanical bowel preparation (n = 18). Using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing we demonstrated that microbiota ecology appears to be cancer stage-specific and strongly associated with histological features of poor prognosis...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#6
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753429/fusobacterium-nucleatum-promotes-chemoresistance-to-colorectal-cancer-by-modulating-autophagy
#7
TaChung Yu, Fangfang Guo, Yanan Yu, Tiantian Sun, Dan Ma, Jixuan Han, Yun Qian, Ilona Kryczek, Danfeng Sun, Nisha Nagarsheth, Yingxuan Chen, Haoyan Chen, Jie Hong, Weiping Zou, Jing-Yuan Fang
Gut microbiota are linked to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chemotherapy failure is the major cause of recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we investigated the contribution of gut microbiota to chemoresistance in patients with colorectal cancer. We found that Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum was abundant in colorectal cancer tissues in patients with recurrence post chemotherapy, and was associated with patient clinicopathological characterisitcs. Furthermore, our bioinformatic and functional studies demonstrated that F...
July 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#8
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698865/comparisons-of-gut-microbiota-among-healthy-control-patients-with-conventional-adenoma-sessile-serrated-adenoma-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
Hyuk Yoon, Nayoung Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Yong Sung Kim, Jongchan Lee, Hyoung Woo Kim, Yoon Jin Choi, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, Dong Ho Lee, Hyun Chae Jung
BACKGROUND: Studies on gut microbiota regarding colorectal carcinogenesis, including sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), have been scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of mucosa-associated gut microbiota in the colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We collected biopsy samples of normal rectal mucosa during colonoscopy from healthy control and patients with conventional adenoma, SSA, and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively (n = 6). Pyrosequencing for 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was performed to compare gut microbiota...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669749/extracellular-vesicles-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-in-conjunction-with-microbiota-on-the-border-of-kingdoms
#10
REVIEW
Natasha S Barteneva, Yeldar Baiken, Elizaveta Fasler-Kan, Kenneth Alibek, Sheng Wang, Natalia Maltsev, Eugene D Ponomarev, Zarina Sautbayeva, Sholpan Kauanova, Anna Moore, Christoph Beglinger, Ivan A Vorobjev
Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicles). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations...
June 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649371/recent-advances-in-microbial-fermentation-for-dairy-and-health
#11
REVIEW
Daragh Hill, Ivan Sugrue, Elke Arendt, Colin Hill, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643625/microbial-interactions-and-interventions-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
Terence Van Raay, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Recently, several lines of evidence that indicate a strong link between the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and aspects of the gut microbiota have become apparent. However, it remains unclear how changes in the gut microbiota might influence carcinogenesis or how regional organization of the gut might influence the microbiota. In this review, we discuss several leading theories that connect gut microbial dysbiosis with CRC and set this against a backdrop of what is known about proximal-distal gut physiology and the pathways of CRC development and progression...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624548/glucocorticoids-and-gut-bacteria-the-galf-hypothesis-in-the-metagenomic-era
#13
REVIEW
David J Morris, Jason M Ridlon
A new concept is emerging in biomedical sciences: the gut microbiota is a virtual 'organ' with endocrine function. Here, we explore the literature pertaining to the role of gut microbial metabolism of endogenous adrenocorticosteroids as a contributing factor in the etiology of essential hypertension. A body of literature demonstrates that bacterial products of glucocorticoid metabolism are absorbed into the portal circulation, and pass through the kidney before excretion into urine. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) syndrome patients were found to have congenital mutations resulting in non-functional renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) and severe hypertension often lethal in childhood...
June 15, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600626/mucosa-associated-microbiota-signature-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
R Gao, C Kong, L Huang, H Li, X Qu, Z Liu, P Lan, J Wang, H Qin
The aim of this study was to explore the gut microbiota profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to examine the relationship between gut microbiota and other key molecular factors involved in CRC tumorigenesis. In this study, a 16S rDNA sequencing platform was used to identify possible differences in the microbiota signature between CRC and adjacent normal mucosal tissue. Differences in the microbiota composition in different anatomical colorectal tumor sites and their potential association with KRAS mutation were also explored...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599320/keratin-8-reduces-colonic-permeability-and-maintains-gut-microbiota-homeostasis-protecting-against-colitis-and-colitis-associated-tumorigenesis
#15
Chao Liu, En-Dong Liu, Yun-Xiao Meng, Xiao-Ming Dong, Ya-Lan Bi, Huan-Wen Wu, Yan-Chao Jin, Ke Zhao, Jian-Jie Li, Miao Yu, Yi-Qun Zhan, Hui Chen, Chang-Hui Ge, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
Keratin 8 (CK8) is the major component of the intermediate filaments of simple or single-layered epithelia. Gene targeting mice model suggest that CK8 is involved in colonic active ion transport, colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation. In the present study, we found that CK8 is downregulated in the colon during DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) development. In human patients with colon cancer, CK8 is downregulated. Using CK8 heterozygous knockout mice (CK8+/-), we found that CK8+/- mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis and more prone to AOM/DSS-induced CAC than wild type (WT) mice...
May 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598238/nlrc3-regulates-cellular-proliferation-and-apoptosis-to-attenuate-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Qifan Zhu, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns. NLRs regulate diverse biologic processes such as inflammatory responses, cell proliferation and death, and gut microbiota to attenuate tumorigenesis. In a recent publication in Nature, we identified NLRC3 as a negative regulator of PI3K-mTOR signaling and characterized its potential tumor suppressor function. Enterocytes lacking NLRC3 cannot control cellular proliferation because they are unable to suppress activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways...
July 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539555/inter-patient-and-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-the-sensitivity-to-tumor-targeted-immunity-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Tsubasa Miyauchi, Tomonori Yaguchi, Yutaka Kawakami
  Efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as PD-1 antibody for colorectal cancer remains to be proved except in microsatellite-instability-high (MSI-H) cases. While the objective response rate of MSI-H cases was 40%, that of microsatellite-stable (MSS) cases was 0%, showing that response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors varies even among the microsatellite status. Some possible mechanisms that confer each patient variation in the response to immunotherapy should be considered. We focused on the combination of inter-patient heterogeneity and intra-tumor heterogeneity as a determining factor of immune reaction...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537887/dietary-factors-and-microrna-binding-site-polymorphisms-in-the-il13-gene-risk-and-prognosis-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer
#18
Yanming Yu, Junde Zhou, Chen Gong, Zhiping Long, Jingshen Tian, Lin Zhu, Jing Li, Hongyuan Yu, Fan Wang, Yashuang Zhao
Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of microorganisms residing in the human gut. The immune response and gut microbiota have a mutual influence on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study examines the association of gut microbiota-related dietary factors and polymorphisms in the microRNA-binding site of the interleukin 13 gene (IL13) with the risk and prognosis of CRC. Three polymorphisms (rs847, rs848, and rs1295685) were selected for genotyping in a case-control study (513 cases, 572 controls), and 386 CRC patients were followed up...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507600/insights-into-the-role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-colon-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Sofia Oke, Alberto Martin
The intestinal microbiota consists of a dynamic organization of bacteria, viruses, archaea, and fungal species essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and protecting the host against pathogenic invasion. When dysregulated, the intestinal microbiota can contribute to colorectal cancer development. Though the microbiota is multifaceted in its ability to induce colorectal cancer, this review will focus on the capability of the microbiota to induce colorectal cancer through the modulation of immune function and the production of microbial-derived metabolites...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465070/microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer-unraveling-host-microbiota-interactions-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-development
#20
REVIEW
Mingsong Kang, Alberto Martin
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota occurs in many human chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Reciprocally, uncontrolled immune responses, that may or may not be induced by dysbiosis, are central to the development of IBD and CAC. There has been a surge of interest in investigating the relationship between microbiota, inflammation and CAC. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to gut microbiota and chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as IBD and CAC...
April 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
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