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colorectal cancer gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753429/fusobacterium-nucleatum-promotes-chemoresistance-to-colorectal-cancer-by-modulating-autophagy
#1
TaChung Yu, Fangfang Guo, Yanan Yu, Tiantian Sun, Dan Ma, Jixuan Han, Yun Qian, Ilona Kryczek, Danfeng Sun, Nisha Nagarsheth, Yingxuan Chen, Haoyan Chen, Jie Hong, Weiping Zou, Jing-Yuan Fang
Gut microbiota are linked to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chemotherapy failure is the major cause of recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we investigated the contribution of gut microbiota to chemoresistance in patients with colorectal cancer. We found that Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum was abundant in colorectal cancer tissues in patients with recurrence post chemotherapy, and was associated with patient clinicopathological characterisitcs. Furthermore, our bioinformatic and functional studies demonstrated that F...
July 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#2
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698865/comparisons-of-gut-microbiota-among-healthy-control-patients-with-conventional-adenoma-sessile-serrated-adenoma-and-colorectal-cancer
#3
Hyuk Yoon, Nayoung Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Yong Sung Kim, Jongchan Lee, Hyoung Woo Kim, Yoon Jin Choi, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, Dong Ho Lee, Hyun Chae Jung
BACKGROUND: Studies on gut microbiota regarding colorectal carcinogenesis, including sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), have been scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of mucosa-associated gut microbiota in the colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We collected biopsy samples of normal rectal mucosa during colonoscopy from healthy control and patients with conventional adenoma, SSA, and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively (n = 6). Pyrosequencing for 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was performed to compare gut microbiota...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669749/extracellular-vesicles-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-in-conjunction-with-microbiota-on-the-border-of-kingdoms
#4
REVIEW
Natasha S Barteneva, Yeldar Baiken, Elizaveta Fasler-Kan, Kenneth Alibek, Sheng Wang, Natalia Maltsev, Eugene D Ponomarev, Zarina Sautbayeva, Sholpan Kauanova, Anna Moore, Christoph Beglinger, Ivan A Vorobjev
Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicles). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations...
June 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649371/recent-advances-in-microbial-fermentation-for-dairy-and-health
#5
REVIEW
Daragh Hill, Ivan Sugrue, Elke Arendt, Colin Hill, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643625/microbial-interactions-and-interventions-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Terence Van Raay, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Recently, several lines of evidence that indicate a strong link between the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and aspects of the gut microbiota have become apparent. However, it remains unclear how changes in the gut microbiota might influence carcinogenesis or how regional organization of the gut might influence the microbiota. In this review, we discuss several leading theories that connect gut microbial dysbiosis with CRC and set this against a backdrop of what is known about proximal-distal gut physiology and the pathways of CRC development and progression...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624548/glucocorticoids-and-gut-bacteria-the-galf-hypothesis-in-the-metagenomic-era
#7
REVIEW
David J Morris, Jason M Ridlon
A new concept is emerging in biomedical sciences: the gut microbiota is a virtual 'organ' with endocrine function. Here, we explore the literature pertaining to the role of gut microbial metabolism of endogenous adrenocorticosteroids as a contributing factor in the etiology of essential hypertension. A body of literature demonstrates that bacterial products of glucocorticoid metabolism are absorbed into the portal circulation, and pass through the kidney before excretion into urine. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) syndrome patients were found to have congenital mutations resulting in non-functional renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) and severe hypertension often lethal in childhood...
June 15, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600626/mucosa-associated-microbiota-signature-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
R Gao, C Kong, L Huang, H Li, X Qu, Z Liu, P Lan, J Wang, H Qin
The aim of this study was to explore the gut microbiota profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to examine the relationship between gut microbiota and other key molecular factors involved in CRC tumorigenesis. In this study, a 16S rDNA sequencing platform was used to identify possible differences in the microbiota signature between CRC and adjacent normal mucosal tissue. Differences in the microbiota composition in different anatomical colorectal tumor sites and their potential association with KRAS mutation were also explored...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599320/keratin-8-reduces-colonic-permeability-and-maintains-gut-microbiota-homeostasis-protecting-against-colitis-and-colitis-associated-tumorigenesis
#9
Chao Liu, En-Dong Liu, Yun-Xiao Meng, Xiao-Ming Dong, Ya-Lan Bi, Huan-Wen Wu, Yan-Chao Jin, Ke Zhao, Jian-Jie Li, Miao Yu, Yi-Qun Zhan, Hui Chen, Chang-Hui Ge, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
Keratin 8 (CK8) is the major component of the intermediate filaments of simple or single-layered epithelia. Gene targeting mice model suggest that CK8 is involved in colonic active ion transport, colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation. In the present study, we found that CK8 is downregulated in the colon during DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) development. In human patients with colon cancer, CK8 is downregulated. Using CK8 heterozygous knockout mice (CK8+/-), we found that CK8+/- mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis and more prone to AOM/DSS-induced CAC than wild type (WT) mice...
May 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598238/nlrc3-regulates-cellular-proliferation-and-apoptosis-to-attenuate-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer
#10
Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Qifan Zhu, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns. NLRs regulate diverse biologic processes such as inflammatory responses, cell proliferation and death, and gut microbiota to attenuate tumorigenesis. In a recent publication in Nature, we identified NLRC3 as a negative regulator of PI3K-mTOR signaling and characterized its potential tumor suppressor function. Enterocytes lacking NLRC3 cannot control cellular proliferation because they are unable to suppress activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways...
July 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539555/inter-patient-and-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-the-sensitivity-to-tumor-targeted-immunity-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Tsubasa Miyauchi, Tomonori Yaguchi, Yutaka Kawakami
  Efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as PD-1 antibody for colorectal cancer remains to be proved except in microsatellite-instability-high (MSI-H) cases. While the objective response rate of MSI-H cases was 40%, that of microsatellite-stable (MSS) cases was 0%, showing that response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors varies even among the microsatellite status. Some possible mechanisms that confer each patient variation in the response to immunotherapy should be considered. We focused on the combination of inter-patient heterogeneity and intra-tumor heterogeneity as a determining factor of immune reaction...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537887/dietary-factors-and-microrna-binding-site-polymorphisms-in-the-il13-gene-risk-and-prognosis-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer
#12
Yanming Yu, Junde Zhou, Chen Gong, Zhiping Long, Jingshen Tian, Lin Zhu, Jing Li, Hongyuan Yu, Fan Wang, Yashuang Zhao
Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of microorganisms residing in the human gut. The immune response and gut microbiota have a mutual influence on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study examines the association of gut microbiota-related dietary factors and polymorphisms in the microRNA-binding site of the interleukin 13 gene (IL13) with the risk and prognosis of CRC. Three polymorphisms (rs847, rs848, and rs1295685) were selected for genotyping in a case-control study (513 cases, 572 controls), and 386 CRC patients were followed up...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507600/insights-into-the-role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-colon-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Sofia Oke, Alberto Martin
The intestinal microbiota consists of a dynamic organization of bacteria, viruses, archaea, and fungal species essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and protecting the host against pathogenic invasion. When dysregulated, the intestinal microbiota can contribute to colorectal cancer development. Though the microbiota is multifaceted in its ability to induce colorectal cancer, this review will focus on the capability of the microbiota to induce colorectal cancer through the modulation of immune function and the production of microbial-derived metabolites...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465070/microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer-unraveling-host-microbiota-interactions-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-development
#14
REVIEW
Mingsong Kang, Alberto Martin
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota occurs in many human chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Reciprocally, uncontrolled immune responses, that may or may not be induced by dysbiosis, are central to the development of IBD and CAC. There has been a surge of interest in investigating the relationship between microbiota, inflammation and CAC. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to gut microbiota and chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as IBD and CAC...
April 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444508/study-protocol-on-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer-treatment-a-pathway-to-personalized-medicine-2-0
#15
R Aarnoutse, J M P G M de Vos-Geelen, J Penders, E G Boerma, F A R M Warmerdam, B Goorts, S W M Olde Damink, Z Soons, S S M Rensen, M L Smidt
PURPOSE: Investigate in patients with metastatic and/or irresectable colorectal cancer treated with systemic treatment with capecitabine or TAS-102 whether: 1. Intestinal microbiota composition can act as a predictor for response. 2. Intestinal microbiota composition changes during systemic treatment and its relation to chemotoxicity. BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota and host determinants evolve in symbiotic and dependent relationships resulting in a personal ecosystem...
July 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431245/host-microbe-co-metabolism-dictates-cancer-drug-efficacy-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#16
Timothy A Scott, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Povilas Norvaisas, Prudence P Lui, Matthew P Wilson, Kit-Yi Leung, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Sonia Sudiwala, Alberto Pessia, Peter T Clayton, Kevin Bryson, Vidya Velagapudi, Philippa B Mills, Athanasios Typas, Nicholas D E Greene, Filipe Cabreiro
Fluoropyrimidines are the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but their efficacy is highly variable between patients. We queried whether gut microbes, a known source of inter-individual variability, impacted drug efficacy. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we performed three-way high-throughput screens that unraveled the complexity underlying host-microbe-drug interactions. We report that microbes can bolster or suppress the effects of fluoropyrimidines through metabolic drug interconversion involving bacterial vitamin B6, B9, and ribonucleotide metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416491/locoregional-effects-of-microbiota-in-a-preclinical-model-of-colon-carcinogenesis
#17
Sarah Tomkovich, Ye Yang, Kathryn Winglee, Josee Gauthier, Marcus Mühlbauer, Xiaolun Sun, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Xiuli Liu, Patricia Martin, Gary P Wang, Eric Oswald, Anthony A Fodor, Christian Jobin
Inflammation and microbiota are critical components of intestinal tumorigenesis. To dissect how the microbiota contributes to tumor distribution, we generated germ-free (GF) Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+) ;Il10(-/-) mice and exposed them to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) or colorectal cancer-associated bacteria. We found that colon tumorigenesis significantly correlated with inflammation in SPF-housed Apc(Min/+) ;Il10(-/-) , but not in Apc(Min/+) mice. In contrast, small intestinal neoplasia development significantly correlated with age in both Apc(Min/+) ;Il10(-/-) and Apc(Min/+) mice...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393287/starch-enriched-diet-modulates-the-glucidic-profile-in-the-rat-colonic-mucosa
#18
Maria Gabriella Gabrielli, Daniele Tomassoni
PURPOSE: The protective function of the intestinal mucosa largely depends on carbohydrate moieties that as a part of glycoproteins and glycolipids form the epithelial glycocalyx or are secreted as mucins. Modifications of their expression can be induced by an altered intestinal microenvironment and have been associated with inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer. Given the influence of dietary factors on the gut ecosystem, here we have investigated whether a long term feeding on a starch-rich diet can modulate the glucidic profile in the colonic mucosa of rats...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361558/mining-the-fecal-proteome-from-biomarkers-to-personalised-medicine
#19
Ping Jin, Kui Wang, Canhua Huang, Edouard C Nice
Fecal proteomics has gained increased prominence in recent years. It can provide insights into the diagnosis and surveillance of many bowel diseases by both identifying potential biomarkers in stool samples and helping identify disease-related pathways. Fecal proteomics has already shown its potential for the discovery and validation of biomarkers for colorectal cancer screening, and the analysis of fecal microbiota by MALDI-MS for the diagnosis of a range of bowel diseases is gaining clinical acceptance. Areas covered: Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, we introduce the range of sensitive and specific proteomics methods which comprise the current 'Proteomics Toolbox', explain how the integration of fecal proteomics with data processing/bioinformatics has been used for the identification of potential biomarkers for both CRC and other gut-related pathologies and analysis of the fecal microbiome, outline some of the current fecal assays in current clinical practice and introduce the concept of personalised medicine which these technologies will help inform...
May 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#20
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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