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Intestinal barrier function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441432/dysbiosis-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-decrease-in-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptide-level-during-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-rats
#1
Jing Chen, Chunlan Huang, Jingjing Wang, Hui Zhou, Yingying Lu, Lihong Lou, Junyuan Zheng, Ling Tian, Xingpeng Wang, Zhongwei Cao, Yue Zeng
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis was involved in intestinal barrier failure. Paneth cells protect intestinal barrier and are associated with intestinal microbiota. Here, we investigated changes in intestinal microbiota and antimicrobial peptides of Paneth cells in ileum during ANP. METHODS: Rats with ANP were established by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into biliopancreatic duct and sacrificed at 24h and 48h, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440501/transfer-of-cd11c-lamina-propria-mononuclear-phagocytes-from-post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-causes-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-and-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-recipient-mice
#2
Ya-Jun Ren, Lei Zhang, Tao Bai, Hong-Lu Yu, Ying Li, Wei Qian, Si Jin, Zhi-Fan Xiong, Huan Wang, Xiao-Hua Hou
The role of low-grade inflammation in the development of post‑infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI‑IBS) has attracted increasing attention. Abnormal CD11c+ mononuclear phagocytes, such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and monocytes, are involved in the disruption of immune tolerance in organisms, which can lead to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study tested the hypothesis that CD11c+ lamina propria mononuclear phagocytes (CD11c+ LPMPs) contribute to increased mucosal permeability and visceral hypersensitivity in a PI‑IBS mouse model...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438947/treatment-with-entinostat-heals-experimental-cholera-by-affecting-physical-and-chemical-barrier-functions-of-intestinal-epithelia
#3
Protim Sarker, Atanu Banik, Roger Stromberg, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Rubhana Raqib, Birgitta Agerberth
We have previously shown that oral treatment of an experimental model of shigellosis with sodium butyrate or phenylbutyrate improves clinical outcome and induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. In a subsequent study, we have found that Entinostat, an aroylated phenylenediamine compound has similar therapeutic potential against shigellosis. Here, we aim to evaluate Entinostat as a potential candidate for host-directed therapy against cholera in an experimental model...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436589/short-chain-fatty-acids-augment-rat-duodenal-mucosal-barrier-function
#4
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine, particularly from diets containing fibres and carbohydrates. The small intestinal epithelium is exposed to SCFAs derived mainly from oral bacteria or food supplementation. Although luminal nutrients are important in regulation of intestinal functions the role of SCFAs in regulation of small intestinal mucosal barrier function and motility has not been fully described. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of acetate and propionate on duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432022/a-crosstalk-between-muscarinic-and-crf2-receptors-regulates-cellular-adhesion-properties-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#5
M Pelissier-Rota, N T Chartier, B Bonaz, M R Jacquier-Sarlin
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428961/glucose-insulin-potassium-alleviates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injuries-involving-decreased-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-and-nlr-family-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#6
Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Guang-Dao Chen, Tao Wang, Ju-Xin Zhang, Qi-Yi Zeng
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) may be critical for intestinal barrier function which may play a key role in the development of sepsis, and insulin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, sham surgery group, CLP plus glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) group, and CLP plus glucose and potassium (GK) group. Ileum tissues were collected at 24 h after surgery. Histological and cytokine analyses, intestinal permeability tests, and western blots of intestinal epithelial tight junction component proteins and UCP2 were performed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428788/the-protective-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
REVIEW
Kevin P Kotredes, Brianna Thomas, Ana M Gamero
The immune system of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract manages the significant task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while maintaining tolerance of commensal bacteria. Dysregulation of this delicate balance can be detrimental, resulting in severe inflammation, intestinal injury, and cancer. Therefore, mechanisms to relay important signals regulating cell growth and immune reactivity must be in place to support GI homeostasis. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines, which exert a wide range of biological effects including promotion of both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425012/a-study-of-the-damage-of-the-intestinal-mucosa-barrier-structure-and-function-of-ctenopharyngodon-idella-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#8
Wei-Guang Kong, Si-Si Li, Xiao-Xuan Chen, Yu-Qing Huang, Ying Tang, Zhi-Xin Wu
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of Aeromonas hydrophila on the intestinal mucosal barrier structure and intestinal permeability in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Histopathological examinations showed that A. hydrophila induced severe intestinal lesions, including inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal villus fusion and swelling. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and MyD88 was significantly increased after infection with A. hydrophila...
April 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424943/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-attenuates-alcohol-induced-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#9
Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Byeong-Moo Kim, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Sara A Morrison, Tyler J Tantillo, Qingsong Tao, Mussa M Rafat Mohamed, Juan M Ramirez, Aaron Karas, Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Abeba Teshager, Sarah Shireen Gul, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Atul K Bhan, Madhu S Malo, Michael Y Choi, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacterially derived factors from the gut play a major role in the activation of inflammatory pathways in the liver and in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The intestinal brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) detoxifies a variety of bacterial pro-inflammatory factors and also functions to preserve gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral IAP supplementation could protect against alcohol-induced liver disease...
April 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#10
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423466/zonulin-transgenic-mice-show-altered-gut-permeability-and-increased-morbidity-mortality-in-the-dss-colitis-model
#11
Craig Sturgeon, Jinggang Lan, Alessio Fasano
Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4-7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#12
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412413/activation-of-muscarinic-receptors-prevents-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-disruption-through-p38-mapk
#14
Junsuke Uwada, Takashi Yazawa, Md Tariqul Islam, Md Rafiqul Islam Khan, Susanne M Krug, Michael Fromm, Shin-Ichiro Karaki, Yuichi Suzuki, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Kiyonao Sada, Ikunobu Muramatsu, Takanobu Taniguchi
Intestinal epithelial cells form a tight barrier to act as selective physical barriers, repelling hostile substances. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a well characterized pro-inflammatory cytokine which can compromise intestinal barrier function and the suppression of TNF-α function is important for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the contribution of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced signalling pathways to the maintenance of epithelial barrier function...
April 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411859/cd14-plays-a-protective-role-in-experimental-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-enhancing-intestinal-barrier-function
#15
Stephanie Buchheister, Manuela Buettner, Marijana Basic, Andreas Noack, Gerhard Breves, Barbara Buchen, Lydia M Keubler, Christoph Becker, André Bleich
Intestinal homeostasis disturbance through intestinal barrier disruption presumably plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. Genetic and candidate gene analyses in an Il10-deficient IBD mouse model system identified Cd14 as a potentially protective candidate gene. The role of Cd14 in colitis development was determined using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and an Il10-deficiency-induced chronic model of intestinal inflammation. Intestinal permeability was investigated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran uptake assay, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of tight junction proteins, myosin light chain kinase, and proinflammatory cytokine expression...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410991/naip-nlrc4-inflammasomes-coordinate-intestinal-epithelial-cell-expulsion-with-eicosanoid-and-il-18-release-via-activation-of-caspase-1-and-8
#16
Isabella Rauch, Katherine A Deets, Daisy X Ji, Jakob von Moltke, Jeannette L Tenthorey, Angus Y Lee, Naomi H Philip, Janelle S Ayres, Igor E Brodsky, Karsten Gronert, Russell E Vance
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a critical barrier against pathogen invasion. By generation of mice in which inflammasome expression is restricted to IECs, we describe a coordinated epithelium-intrinsic inflammasome response in vivo. This response was sufficient to protect against Salmonella tissue invasion and involved a previously reported IEC expulsion that was coordinated with lipid mediator and cytokine production and lytic IEC death. Excessive inflammasome activation in IECs was sufficient to result in diarrhea and pathology...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410406/lubiprostone-improves-intestinal-permeability-in-humans-a-novel-therapy-for-the-leaky-gut-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Takayuki Kato, Yasushi Honda, Yusuke Kurita, Akito Iwasaki, Takamitsu Sato, Takaomi Kessoku, Shiori Uchiyama, Yuji Ogawa, Hidenori Ohkubo, Takuma Higurashi, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407121/urea-and-chronic-kidney-disease-the-comeback-of-the-century-in-uraemia-research
#18
Raymond Vanholder, Tessa Gryp, Griet Glorieux
Urea, a marker of uraemic retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and of adequacy of intradialytic solute removal, has traditionally been considered to be biologically inert. However, a number of recent experimental data suggest that urea is toxic at concentrations representative for CKD. First of all, at least five studies indicate that urea itself induces molecular changes related to insulin resistance, free radical production, apoptosis and disruption of the protective intestinal barrier. Second, urea is at the origin of the generation of cyanate, ammonia and carbamylated compounds, which as such all have been linked to biological changes...
April 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406025/biogenic-nanoselenium-particles-effectively-attenuate-oxidative-stress-induced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-injury-by-activating-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#19
Deguang Song, Yuanzhi Cheng, Xiaoxiao Li, Fengqin Wang, Zeqing Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yizhen Wang
In the present study, a new form of selenium nanoparticle (biogenic nanoselenium (BNS) particles) was synthesized using bacteria. The protection of BNS particles against oxidative stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and the inherent mechanisms of this process were investigated, and selenomethionine (SeMet) and chemically synthesized nanoselenium (Nano-Se) particles were used for comparison. Characterization of BNS particles revealed that they were monodispersed and homogeneous spheres, with an average size of 139...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405720/ceramide-synthase-2-deficiency-aggravates-aom-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-role-of-colon-barrier-integrity
#20
Stephanie Oertel, Klaus Scholich, Andreas Weigert, Dominique Thomas, Julia Schmetzer, Sandra Trautmann, Marthe-Susanna Wegner, Heinfried H Radeke, Natalie Filmann, Bernhard Brüne, Gerd Geisslinger, Irmgard Tegeder, Sabine Grösch
Loss of intestinal barrier functions is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood, but likely involve dysregulation of membrane composition, fluidity, and permeability, which are all essentially regulated by sphingolipids, including ceramides of different chain length and saturation. Here, we used a loss-of-function model (CerS2(+/+) and CerS2(-/-) mice) to investigate the impact of ceramide synthase 2, a key enzyme in the generation of very long-chain ceramides, in the dextran sodium salt (DSS) evoked model of UC...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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