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Intestinal barrier function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924224/micu1-may-be-a-promising-intervention-target-for-gut-derived-sepsis-induced-by-intra-abdominal-hypertension
#1
Yuxin Leng, Qinggang Ge, Zhiling Zhao, Kun Wang, Gaiqi Yao
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a common and serious complication in critically ill patients, for which there is no targeted therapy. IAH-induced dysfunction of intestinal barriers is closely associated with oxidative imbalances, which are considered to provide a pathophysiological basis for subsequent gut-derived sepsis. However, the upstream mechanism that produces oxidative damage during IAH remains unknown. It is not clear whether 'mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake 1' (MICU1, the key protein regulating the oxidative process) is involved in preventing Ca(2+)m (mitochondrial Ca(2+)) overload...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920543/intestinal-permeability-in-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Manuel Aguirre Valadez, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Osvely Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Luis Chávez-Pacheco, Ignacio García Juárez, Aldo Torre
Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918411/potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ccfm639-in-protecting-against-aluminum-toxicity-mediated-by-intestinal-barrier-function-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Leilei Yu, Qixiao Zhai, Fengwei Tian, Xiaoming Liu, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy) were examined and the results indicated that L...
December 2, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915161/intestinal-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-is-down-regulated-in-fructose-fed-rats
#6
Ana Sofía Londero, Maite Rocío Arana, Virginia Gabriela Perdomo, Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Felipe Zecchinati, Carolina Inés Ghanem, María Laura Ruiz, Juan Pablo Rigalli, Aldo Domingo Mottino, Fabiana García, Silvina Stella Maris Villanueva
Expression and activity of jejunal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were examined in fructose fed Wistar rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Animals were fed on (a) control diet or (b) control diet plus 10% w/vol fructose in the drinking water. Mrp2 and the α class of GST proteins as well as their corresponding mRNAs were decreased, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by fructose. Confocal microscopy studies reaffirmed down-regulation of Mrp2...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#7
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912750/fermented-barley-and-soybean-bs-mixture-enhances-intestinal-barrier-function-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mouse-model
#8
Jong Kyu Woo, Seungho Choi, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Eung Kim, Byung-Serk Hurh, Jong-Eun Jeon, Sun Yeou Kim, Seung Hyun Oh
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic or relapsing immune system activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. The lack of safety and efficacy of standard therapies, the use of food supplements for managing IBD is increasing, and many studies have reported that various food supplements provide many beneficial effects for the IBD. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis effects of dietary supplementation with a fermented barley and soybean mixture (BS) on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#9
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907206/intestinal-fluid-permeability-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-is-affected-by-dietary-protein-source
#10
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#11
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905373/-enteral-distress-syndrome-in-surgery-definition-pathogenesis-diagnosis
#13
A P Vlasov, V A Trofimov, T I Grigor'eva, V A Shibitov, P A Vlasov
It was performed a comprehensive experimental and clinical study of functional and metabolic status of the intestine in acute peritonitis, pancreatic necrosis, acute intestinal obstruction. We obtained objective data of impaired barrier function based on levels of toxins in arterial and mesenteric venous blood. Association of organ and organismic homeostatic changes was revealed. It was proved an important role of membrane-destabilizing processes in intestinal epithelium as a cause of enteral insufficiency...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902414/modulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-to-ameliorate-salmonella-infection-in-mice-by-oral-administration-of-fermented-milks-produced-with-lactobacillus-plantarum-mtcc-5690-a-probiotic-strain-of-indian-gut-origin
#15
Namita Rokana, Rajbir Singh, Rashmi Hogarehalli Mallappa, Virender Kumar Batish, Sunita Grover
Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 -a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin as such and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this sudy as biotherapeutics by evauating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of intestine. The mice fed with probiotic Dahi (PD), Fermented Probiotic Drink (FD) and Sweetened fermented probiotic drink (SFD) maintained the health and integrity of intestinal epithelium in the infected mice as compared to those fed with phosphate buffered saline, milk, unfermented probiotic milk and Dahi...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895418/molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Ulrike Billmeier, Walburga Dieterich, Markus F Neurath, Raja Atreya
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies are successfully used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the molecular mechanism of action of these agents is still a matter of debate. Apart from neutralization of TNF, influence on the intestinal barrier function, induction of apoptosis in mucosal immune cells, formation of regulatory macrophages as well as other immune modulating properties have been discussed as central features. Nevertheless, clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies were shown to differ in their mode-of-action in vivo and in vitro...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894218/molecular-and-cellular-studies-on-the-absorption-function-and-safety-of-food-components-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#17
Hideo Satsu
The intestinal tract comes into direct contact with the external environment despite being inside the body. Intestinal epithelial cells, which line the inner face of the intestinal tract, have various important functions, including absorption of food substances, immune functions such as cytokine secretion, and barrier function against xenobiotics by means of detoxification enzymes. It is likely that the functions of intestinal epithelial cells are regulated or modulated by these components because they are frequently exposed to food components at high concentrations...
November 29, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892926/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-regulates-gut-microbiome-and-transcriptome-response-against-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#18
Jhen-Wei Ruan, Sarah Statt, Chih-Ting Huang, Yi-Ting Tsai, Cheng-Chin Kuo, Hong-Lin Chan, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tse-Hua Tan, Cheng-Yuan Kao
The gut microbiota plays profound roles in host metabolism and the inflammatory response associated with the development of obesity. Dusp6-deficient mice have been shown to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis demonstrated that dusp6-deficient mice harbour unique gut microbiota with resistance to diet-induced-obesity-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome. Using a germ-free mouse model, we found that faecal/gut microbiota derived from dusp6-deficient mice significantly increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain in recipient wild-type mice fed on a high-fat diet...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891580/acute-infection-with-the-intestinal-parasite-trichuris-muris-has-long-term-consequences-on-mucosal-mast-cell-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity
#19
Daniel Sorobetea, Jacob Bak Holm, Henrietta Henningsson, Karsten Kristiansen, Marcus Svensson-Frej
A hallmark of parasite infection is the accumulation of innate immune cells, notably granulocytes and mast cells, at the site of infection. While this is typically viewed as a transient response, with the tissue returning to steady state once the infection is cleared, we found that mast cells accumulated in the large-intestinal epithelium following infection with the nematode Trichuris muris and persisted at this site for several months after worm expulsion. Mast cell accumulation in the epithelium was associated with the induction of type-2 immunity and appeared to be driven by increased maturation of local progenitors in the intestinal lamina propria...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#20
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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