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Intestinal barrier function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352300/5-aminosalicylic-acid-improves-lipid-profile-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-through-its-dual-effects-on-intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Zheng Wang, Debby Koonen, Marten Hofker, Zhijun Bao
Obesity is associated with a series of metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that lack effective therapies. In recent years, intestinal inflammation has been suggested to contribute to obesity related metabolic syndrome and targeting gut inflammation with 5-ASA improves diet induced IR, however, its role in dyslipidemia is unknown and has never been explored. In the present study, we reported for the first time that administration of 5-ASA for 12 weeks significantly improved lipid profile by repressing plasma triglycerides and free cholesterol levels in mice fed high-fat cholesterol diet (HFC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352002/intestinal-epithelial-cell-derived-lkb1-suppresses-colitogenic-microbiota
#2
Xia'nan Liu, Jinfeng Lu, Zhenshan Liu, Junjie Zhao, Hongxiang Sun, Ningbo Wu, Hongzhi Liu, Weiwei Liu, Zhuqin Hu, Guangxun Meng, Lei Shen, Aaron W Miller, Bing Su, Xiaoxia Li, Zizhen Kang
Dysregulation of the immune barrier function of the intestinal epithelium can often result in dysbiosis. In this study we report a novel role of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) -derived liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in suppressing colitogenic microbiota. IEC-specific deletion of LKB1 (LKB1ΔIEC) resulted in an increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and a definitive shift in the composition of the microbial population in the mouse intestine. Importantly, transfer of the microbiota from LKB1ΔIEC mice was sufficient to confer increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in wild-type recipient mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351391/the-bile-acids-deoxycholic-acid-and-ursodeoxycholic-acid-regulate-colonic-epithelial-wound-healing
#3
Magdalena S Mroz, Natalia K Lajczak, Bridie J Goggins, Simon Keely, Stephen Joseph Keely
The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although, bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable, supports was assessed over 48 hrs {plus minus} bile acids...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346364/mutations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-neuroligin-like-glit-1-the-apoptosis-pathway-and-the-calcium-chaperone-crt-1-increase-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-after-6-ohda-treatment
#4
Sarah-Lena Offenburger, Elisabeth Jongsma, Anton Gartner
The loss of dopaminergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, the aetiology of which is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress. We used C. elegans to screen for genes that protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and isolated glit-1 (gliotactin (Drosophila neuroligin-like) homologue). Loss of the C. elegans neuroligin-like glit-1 causes increased dopaminergic neurodegeneration after treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an oxidative-stress inducing drug that is specifically taken up into dopaminergic neurons...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343654/intestinal-epithelial-cell-specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-ii-ameliorates-experimental-colitis
#5
Koichiro Suzuki, Takahiro Yamada, Keiko Yamazaki, Masato Hirota, Narumi Ishihara, Mizuki Sakamoto, Daisuke Takahashi, Hideki Iijima, Koji Hase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is believed to develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Glycosylation, a type of post-translational modification, is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including IBD, by modulating the function of various glycoproteins. To identify novel genes contributing to the development of IBD, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glycosylation-related genes in IBD patients and identified MAN2A1, encoding alpha-mannosidase II (α-MII), as a candidate gene...
January 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339045/deficiency-of-dietary-pyridoxine-disturbed-the-intestinal-physical-barrier-function-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#6
Pei Wu, Xin Zheng, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Lin Feng
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary pyridoxine (PN) deficiency on intestinal antioxidant capacity, cell apoptosis and intercellular tight junction in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (231.85 ± 0.63 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of PN (0.12-7.48 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 2 weeks. The results showed that compared with the optimal PN level, PN deficiency (1) increased the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC), decreased the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes such as copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) (P < ...
January 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336925/a-novel-inactivated-vaccine-against-lawsonia-intracellularis-induces-rapid-induction-of-humoral-immunity-reduction-of-bacterial-shedding-and-provides-robust-gut-barrier-function
#7
F Roerink, C L Morgan, S M Knetter, M-H Passat, A L Archibald, T Ait-Ali, E L Strait
Porcine proliferative ileitis is a major economic burden for the swine industry, affecting growing pigs and young adult pigs. In this study, the protective efficacy of an inactivated, injectable whole-cell bacteria vaccine against L. intracellularis - Porcilis® Ileitis was evaluated under field conditions. Eighty-five, three-week-old pigs on a commercial farrow-to-finish farm were vaccinated by the intramuscular route, either with a dose of injectable vaccine, or with saline. A subset of vaccinates and control pigs were necropsied at 21 days post-challenge...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335601/loss-of-cd14-leads-to-disturbed-epithelial-b-cell-crosstalk-and-impairment-of-the-intestinal-barrier-after-e-coli-nissle-monoassociation
#8
Marijana Basic, Manuela Buettner, Lydia M Keubler, Anna Smoczek, Inga Bruesch, Stephanie Buchheister, André Bleich
The TLR4 co-receptor CD14 was identified as an IBD candidate gene. Here, its influence on the intestinal barrier was addressed utilizing E. coli Nissle (EcN), which induces severe inflammation in germfree TLR4-/- mice. After monoassociation, EcN was detected in spleens and livers of TLR4-/- and CD14-/- but not wildtype mice. Barrier impairment was characterized by increased apoptosis and decreased epithelial junction (EJ) expression and was reversed by TLR2 stimulation in CD14-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation revealed contribution of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells towards intestinal homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333697/lactic-acid-bacteria-may-impact-intestinal-barrier-function-by-modulating-goblet-cells
#9
Chengcheng Ren, Jelleke Dokter-Fokkens, Susana Figueroa Lozano, Qiuxiang Zhang, Bart J de Haan, Hao Zhang, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigated effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression profiles of goblet cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T were studied...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331460/inhibition-of-shigella-sonnei-induced-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-surface-layer-associated-proteins-of-lactobacilli-from-chinese-fermented-food
#10
Yingchun Zhang, Xiaolu Shi, Siqi Hao, Qianhui Lu, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han, Weihong Lu
Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L were examined to identify the functional basis for their protection within intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L remained active in a trypsin solution and retained a 45-kDa protein band, similar to that observed in controls. In contrast, under conditions of simulated gastric juice, the SLAP were partially degraded. Inhibitory effects of SLAP on adherence of Shigella sonnei to HT-29 cells were assessed with use of exclusion, competition, and replacement assays...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#11
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329594/modelling-the-structure-of-a-cerna-theoretical-bipartite-microrna-mrna-interaction-network-regulating-intestinal-epithelial-cellular-pathways-using-r-programming
#12
J M Robinson, W A Henderson
OBJECTIVE: We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#13
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321178/transcription-factor-dependent-anti-repressive-mammalian-enhancers-exclude-h3k27me3-from-extended-genomic-domains
#14
Madhurima Saxena, Adrianna K San Roman, Nicholas K O'Neill, Rita Sulahian, Unmesh Jadhav, Ramesh A Shivdasani
Compacted chromatin and nucleosomes are known barriers to gene expression; the nature and relative importance of other transcriptional constraints remain unclear, especially at distant enhancers. Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) places the histone mark H3K27me3 predominantly at promoters, where its silencing activity is well documented. In adult tissues, enhancers lack H3K27me3, and it is unknown whether intergenic H3K27me3 deposits affect nearby genes. In primary intestinal villus cells, we identified hundreds of tissue-restricted enhancers that require the transcription factor (TF) CDX2 to prevent the incursion of H3K27me3 from adjoining areas of elevated basal marking into large well-demarcated genome domains...
January 10, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#15
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317252/flavonoids-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-local-and-systemic-effects
#16
REVIEW
P I Oteiza, C G Fraga, D A Mills, D H Taft
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI tract can have an impact systemically, e...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#17
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This manuscript reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts and epithelial cells' migration and function...
January 8, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315653/group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#18
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Andreas Diefenbach
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e., conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major brances of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several functions such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors...
January 9, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314490/a-mixture-of-lactobacillus-species-isolated-from-traditional-fermented-foods-promote-recovery-from-antibiotic-induced-intestinal-disruption-in-mice
#19
Ying Shi, Xi Zhao, Zhao Jianxin, Zhang Hao, Qixiao Zhai, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
AIMS: This study evaluated the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial ecology, intestinal dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation; and the combined effect of four different Lactobacillus species on recovery of microbiota composition and improvement of gut barrier function in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Administration of the antibiotic ampicillin for 2 weeks decreased microbial community diversity, induced caecum tumefaction and increased gut permeability in mice. Application of a probiotic cocktail of four Lactobacillus species (JUP-Y4) modulated the microbiota community structure and promoted the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#20
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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