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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#1
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540469/a-3d-microfluidic-perfusion-system-made-from-glass-for-multiparametric-analysis-of-stimulus-secretioncoupling-in-pancreatic-islets
#2
Torben Schulze, Kai Mattern, Eike Früh, Lars Hecht, Ingo Rustenbeck, Andreas Dietzel
Microfluidic perfusion systems (MPS) are well suited to perform multiparametric measurements with small amounts of tissue to function as an Organ on Chip device (OOC). Such microphysiolgical characterization is particularly valuable in research on the stimulus-secretion-coupling of pancreatic islets. Pancreatic islets are fully functional competent mini-organs, which serve as fuel sensors and transduce metabolic activity into rates of hormone secretion. To enable the simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and oxygen consumption we designed a microfluidic perfusion system from borosilicate glass by 3D femtosecond laser ablation...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537845/high-rates-of-access-to-health-care-disclosure-of-sexuality-and-gender-identity-to-providers-among-house-and-ball-community-members-in-new-york-city
#3
Sean Cahill, Sarah Trieweiler, John Guidry, Nelisa Rash, Layla Stamper, Kerith Conron, Nicole Turcotte, Ilana Gratch, Paige Lowry
The House and Ball community is an important cultural manifestation of resiliency for Black and Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender women. Participants at the August, 2013 House of Latex Ball in New York City were surveyed about insurance coverage, health care access, experiences in health care, and housing instability. The sample (n = 367) was 58% Black/African American and 20% Hispanic/Latino, with a mean age of 31. Fifty-five percent were gay and bisexual men. While only 6% identified as transgender, nearly half were gender nonconforming...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535888/independence-of-carbohydrate-deficient-isoforms-of-transferrin-and-cyclic-citrullinated-peptides-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Monika Gudowska, Ewa Gindzienska-Sieskiewicz, Ewa Gruszewska, Bogdan Cylwik, Stanislaw Sierakowski, Maciej Szmitkowski, Lech Chrostek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the two types of posttranslational modifications of proteins in RA: glycosylation on the example of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and citrullination by means of autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides. METHODS: The study was carried out in 50 RA patients. CDT was measured using N Latex CDT immunonephelometric test, the results were presented in absolute and relative units. Anti-CCP were measured using the chemiluminescent method and rheumatoid factor by immunoturbidimetric method...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535028/preparation-of-highly-thermally-conductive-polymer-composite-at-low-filler-content-via-a-self-assembly-process-between-polystyrene-microsphere-and-boron-nitride-nanosheet
#5
Xiongwei Wang, Peiyi Wu
Rational distribution and orientation of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) are very significant for a polymer/BNNS composite to obtain a high thermal conductivity at low filler content. In this paper, a high-performance thermal interface material based on exfoliated BNNSs and polystyrene microspheres was fabricated by latex blending and subsequent compression molding. In this case, BNNSs and polystyrene (PS) microspheres would firstly self-asemble to form the complex microspheres via strong electrostatic interactions between them...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532649/condom-availability-in-schools-a-practical-approach-to-the-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infection-hiv-and-unintended-pregnancy
#6
(no author information available yet)
Adolescents and young adults are highly impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy in the United States and globally. Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms is associated with protection against both STIs and pregnancy. Providing adolescents and young adults with access to free condoms in schools may increase the use of condoms by improving condom availability, eliminating cost, and decreasing embarrassment associated with purchasing condoms. Studies demonstrate that condom availability in schools is associated with the increased use of condoms and improved overall sexual health...
June 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532507/isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-dandelion-latex-is-enhanced-by-the-overexpression-of-three-key-enzymes-involved-in-the-mevalonate-pathway
#7
Katharina M Pütter, Nicole van Deenen, Kristina Unland, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
BACKGROUND: Latex from the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum contains many high-value isoprenoid end products, e.g. triterpenes and polyisoprenes such as natural rubber. The isopentenyl pyrophosphate units required as precursors for these isoprenoids are provided by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The key enzyme in this pathway is 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and its activity has been thoroughly characterized in many plant species including dandelion. However, two enzymes acting upstream of HMGR have not been characterized in dandelion latex: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), which provides the acetyl-CoA utilized in the MVA pathway, and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), which catalyzes the first step in the pathway to produce acetoacetyl-CoA...
May 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527158/asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-plhiv-with-severe-immunosuppression-is-routine-crag-screening-indicated-in-india
#8
S Anuradha, Abhaya Narayana H, Richa Dewan, Ravinder Kaur, K Rajeshwari
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524089/green-synthesized-zinc-oxide-zno-nanoparticles-induce-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-lathyrus-sativus-l-root-bioassay-system
#9
Kamal K Panda, Dambaru Golari, A Venugopal, V Mohan M Achary, Ganngam Phaomei, Narasimham L Parinandi, Hrushi K Sahu, Brahma B Panda
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn(2+) from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L(-1) for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and (•)OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L...
May 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523021/single-incision-laparoscopic-appendectomy-for-acute-appendicitis-using-a-10-mm-laparoscope-and-the-glove-port-technique
#10
Takaaki Tsushimi, Hirohito Mori, Manabu Sudo, Yoshihide Minami, Koichi Ueki, Makoto Tamai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the single incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) using existing instruments, the 10-mm laparoscope, and glove port technique. METHODS: SILA was performed on 16 patients (8 male cases, 8 female cases) between June 2012 and September 2015. A 20-mm incision was made in the umbilicus and a wound retractor was placed. A 10-mm trocar for the laparoscope and two 5-mm trocars were fixed to the three fingers of the latex gloves and it was attached to the wound retractor...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520780/towards-a-point-of-care-strip-test-to-diagnose-sickle-cell-anemia
#11
Meaghan Bond, Brady Hunt, Bailey Flynn, Petri Huhtinen, Russell Ware, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
A rapid test to identify patients with sickle cell disease could have important benefits in low-resource settings. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) affects about 300,000 newborns each year, the majority of whom are born in sub-Saharan Africa. Low-cost therapies are available to treat SCA, but most countries in sub-Saharan Africa lack robust neonatal screening programs needed to identify patients in need of treatment. To address this need, we developed and evaluated a competitive lateral flow assay that identifies patients with SCA (genotype HbSS) in 15 minutes using undiluted whole blood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516267/methods-of-candida-dubliniensis-identification-and-its-occurrence-in-human-clinical-material
#12
Martina Mahelová, Filip Růžička
Candida dubliniensis was reported as a new species in 1995. This species is often misidentified as Candida albicans. The aims of this work were to determine the occurrence of C. dubliniensis in various clinical materials, to evaluate several ways to identify it and to examine the genetic variability of isolates. Among 7706 isolates originally identified as C. albicans, 237 were identified as C. dubliniensis (3.1%). Most of the C. dubliniensis isolates were obtained from the upper and lower respiratory tract (61...
May 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512547/vascular-labeling-of-the-head-and-neck-vessels-technique-advantages-and-limitations
#13
Alba Gálvez, José-Leonardo Caraballo, María-Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes, Iván Valdivia-Gandur, Rui Figueiredo, Eduard Valmaseda-Castellón
BACKGROUND: Vascular staining techniques have been used to describe the vascular structures of several anatomic areas. However, few reports have described this procedure in the head and neck region. This paper describes a head and neck vascular labeling procedure, and describes some of the technical complications that may occur. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen specimen cadaver heads were prepared. After drying the vascular system, the internal carotid arteries were ligated and a solution with latex and a gelling agent was injected into the internal carotid arteries and external jugular veins...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512013/evaluation-of-the-n-latex-serum-free-light-chain-assay-on-the-siemens-bnii-analyzer-and-agreement-with-the-binding-site-freelite-assay-on-the-spaplus
#14
Nicole M A White-Al Habeeb, Tammy Earle, Megan Spencer, Ivan M Blasutig
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Siemens N-latex kappa free light chain (κFLC) and lambda FLC (λFLC) assays on the BNII nephelometer and assess agreement with The Binding Site Freelite FLC assays on the SPAPlus. DESIGN AND METHODS: Over 180 patient serum samples from routine analysis of κFLC and λFLC measured by the Freelite assay were collected for the study and measured with the N-latex κFLC and λFLC assays to assess precision, linearity, method comparison and dilutional effects...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511370/correlation-of-plasma-neutrophil-elastase-activity-and-endogenous-protease-inhibitor-levels-with-the-severity-of-pre-eclampsia
#15
Mamatha Kunder, Av Moideen Kutty, V Lakshmaiah, S R Sheela
INTRODUCTION: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common maternal syndrome characterized by severe systemic inflammatory response including neutrophil activation leading to uncontrolled activity of elastase. The excessive activity of elastase would lead to destroyal of the integrity of endothelial cells and could exacerbate the pathophysiological symptoms in PE. Thus, assessment of NE activity and its control mechanisms would be of relevance in the determination of severity of PE. AIM: To correlate the activity of plasma NE and its endogenous inhibitors α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) with severity of PE...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506793/frequency-and-risk-factors-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-bali-cattle
#16
I Wayan Suardana, Dyah Ayu Widiasih, Widagdo Sri Nugroho, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, I Nyoman Suyasa
Cattle are known as the main reservoir of zoonotic agents verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. These bacteria are usually isolated from calves with diarrhea and/or mucus and blood. Tolerance of these agents to the environmental conditions will strengthen of their transmission among livestock. A total of 238 cattle fecal samples from four sub-districts in Badung, Bali were used in this study. Epidemiological data observed include cattle age, sex, cattle rearing system, the source of drinking water, weather, altitude, and type of cage floor, the cleanliness of cage floor, the slope of cage floor, and the level of cattle cleanliness...
May 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503426/expression-and-role-of-specificity-protein-1-in-the-sclera-remodeling-of-experimental-myopia-in-guinea-pigs
#17
Bo Jiang, Zhang-You Wu, Zi-Cheng Zhu, Gen-Jie Ke, Yue-Chun Wen, Si-Qin Sun
AIM: To study the expression of collagen I and transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) downstream target, and reveal the impact of the TGF-β1-Sp1 signaling pathway on collagen remodeling in myopic sclera. METHODS: Seventy-five 1-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into normal control, form deprivation myopia (FDM), and self-control groups. FDM was induced for different times using coverage with translucent latex balloons and FDM recovery was performed for 1wk after 4wk treatment; then, changes in refractive power and axial length were measured...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501941/paracrine-release-of-il-2-and-anti-ctla-4-enhances-the-ability-of-artificial-polymer-antigen-presenting-cells-to-expand-antigen-specific-t-cells-and-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Lei Zhang, Limin Wang, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Tao Xu, Xin Wan, Weiya Pei, Chuanlai Shen
Accumulating evidence indicates that bead-based artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) are a powerful tool to induce antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. To date, most conventional aAPCs have been generated by coupling an antigen signal (signal 1) and one or two costimulatory signals, such as anti-CD28 with anti-LFA1 or anti-4-1BB (signal 2), onto the surfaces of cell-sized or nanoscale magnetic beads or polyester latex beads. The development of a biodegradable scaffold and the combined use of multiple costimulatory signals as well as third signals for putative clinical applications is the next step in the development of this technology...
May 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501130/collateral-artery-pathways-of-the-femoral-and-popliteal-artery
#19
Rombout R Kruse, Denise E Doomernik, Kasper V Maltha, Jan G M Kooloos, Tamas L Kozicz, Michel M P J Reijnen
BACKGROUND: The role of collateral artery circulation in the lower limb is under debate but clinically relevant, particularly when using covered stents for occlusive disease. Covered stents seem to outperform nitinol stents in extensive disease, but collaterals could be essential in case of acute thrombosis. In the present study, we describe the collateral pathways of the deep and superficial femoral artery (DFA, SFA) and the popliteal artery (PA), observed in human cadavers. METHODS: Ten fresh frozen cadaver legs were selected...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500046/roxb-is-a-novel-type-of-rubber-oxygenase-that-combines-properties-of-rubber-oxygenase-roxa-and-latex-clearing-protein-lcp
#20
Jakob Birke, Wolf Röther, Dieter Jendrossek
Only two types of rubber oxygenases, rubber oxygenase (RoxA) and latex clearing protein (Lcp), have been described so far. RoxAs are c-type cytochromes of ≈70 kDa produced by Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria and cleave polyisoprene into 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD), a C15 oligo-isoprenoid, as major end product. Lcps are common among Gram-positive rubber-degraders and don't share amino acid sequence similarities with RoxA proteins (RoxAs). Furthermore, Lcps have much smaller molecular masses (≈40 kDa), are b-type cytochromes and cleave polyisoprene to a mixture of C20, C25, C30 and higher oligo-isoprenoids as end products...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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