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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060859/physiological-biochemical-and-biophysical-characterization-of-the-lung-lavaged-spontaneously-breathing-rabbit-as-a-model-for-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
Francesca Ricci, Chiara Catozzi, Xabier Murgia, Brenda Rosa, Davide Amidani, Luca Lorenzini, Federico Bianco, Claudio Rivetti, Silvia Catinella, Gino Villetti, Maurizio Civelli, Barbara Pioselli, Carlo Dani, Fabrizio Salomone
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in spontaneously-breathing premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfactant administration techniques compatible with nCPAP ventilation strategy are actively investigated. Our aim is to set up and validate a respiratory distress animal model that can be managed on nCPAP suitable for surfactant administration techniques studies. Surfactant depletion was induced by bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) on 18 adult rabbits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057053/a-pig-model-of-acute-right-ventricular-afterload-increase-by-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction
#2
Kathrine Knai, Nils Kristian Skjaervold
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to construct a non-invasive model for acute right ventricular afterload increase by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Intact animal models are vital to improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute right ventricular failure. Acute right ventricular failure is caused by increased afterload of the right ventricle by chronic or acute pulmonary hypertension combined with regionally or globally reduced right ventricular contractile capacity...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056907/lung-function-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-after-pharmacological-and-surgical-treatment-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Payman Barikbin, Hannes Sallmon, Silke Wilitzki, Joachim Photiadis, Christoph Bührer, Petra Koehne, Gerd Schmalisch
BACKGROUND: The indications and strategies for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are controversial, and the safety and long-term benefits of surgical PDA closure remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the lung function of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants after successful PDA treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor or secondary surgical ligation. METHODS: A total of 114 VLBW infants (birth weight < 1500 g), including 94 infants (82%) with a birth weight < 1000 g, who received treatment for hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA), were examined at a median postmenstrual age of 48 weeks...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051570/severe-hypoxemia-in-muskoxen-ovibos-moschatus-immobilized-with-etorphine-and-xylazine-corrected-with-supplemental-nasal-oxygen
#4
Marianne Lian, Sven Björck, Jon M Arnemo, Núria Fandos Esteruelas, Martine Angel, Solveig C Minsaas, Krista L Jones, Alina L Evans
Twenty-three muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus ) housed in a captive facility for rewilding in Sweden were chemically immobilized for annual health evaluations and hoof trimming. The muskoxen were darted in May to September (2012-2015) in their holding pen with etorphine (0.015 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Twenty-two of the 23 animals were immobilized with a single dart injection. The mean (SD) induction time was 4 (2) min. Arterial blood gases were collected from 18 animals. All animals were severely hypoxemic with varying degrees of respiratory acidosis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035669/a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-transnasal-humidified-rapid-insufflation-ventilatory-exchange-thrive-pre-oxygenation-with-facemask-pre-oxygenation-in-patients-undergoing-rapid-sequence-induction-of-anaesthesia
#5
F Mir, A Patel, R Iqbal, M Cecconi, S A R Nouraei
Pre-oxygenation is an essential part of rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia for emergency surgery, in order to increase the oxygen reservoir in the lungs. We performed a randomised controlled trial of transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) pre-oxygenation or facemask pre-oxygenation in patients undergoing emergency surgery. Twenty patients were allocated to each group. No patient developed arterial oxygen saturation < 90% during attempted tracheal intubation. Arterial blood gases were sampled from an arterial catheter immediately after intubation...
December 30, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017167/effects-of-different-levels-of-end-expiratory-pressure-on-hemodynamic-respiratory-mechanics-and-systemic-stress-response-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#6
Oznur Sen, Yasemin Erdogan Doventas
OBJECTIVE: General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011948/molecular-hydrogen-affords-neuroprotection-in-a-translational-piglet-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#7
J Nemeth, V Toth-Szuki, V Varga, V Kovacs, G Remzso, F Domoki
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the major consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in term neonates. Although the newborn piglet is an accepted large animal PA/HIE model, there is no consensus on PA-induction methodology to produce clinically relevant HIE. We aimed to create and to characterize a novel PA model faithfully reproducing all features of asphyxiation including severe hypercapnia resulting in HIE, and to test whether H2 is neuroprotective in this model. Piglets were anaesthetised, artificially ventilated, and intensively monitored (electroencephalography, core temperature, O2 saturation, arterial blood pressure and blood gases)...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007877/mechanical-reperfusion-with-leucocyte-filtered-blood-does-not-prevent-injury-following-global-cerebral-ischaemia
#8
Rickard P F Lindblom, Thomas Tovedal, Bo Norlin, Lars Hillered, Svetlana N Popova, Irina Alafuzoff, Stefan Thelin
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged global cerebral ischaemia leads to irreversible injury, often with lethal outcome. Brain injuries are partly caused by the uncontrolled reperfusion that occurs once the circulation is re-established. Recent animal experiments suggest that controlled reperfusion following lengthy ischaemia might prevent severe brain injury. This study aimed at further exploring cerebral alterations and outcome following prolonged global cerebral ischaemia and mechanically manipulated reperfusion...
December 22, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007319/nasal-flaring-as-a-clinical-sign-of-respiratory-acidosis-in-patients-with-dyspnea
#9
José Gregorio Zorrilla-Riveiro, Anna Arnau-Bartés, Ramón Rafat-Sellarés, Dolors García-Pérez, Arantxa Mas-Serra, Rafael Fernández-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of nasal flaring is a clinical sign of respiratory acidosis in patients attending emergency departments for acute dyspnea. METHODS: Single-center, prospective, observational study of patients aged over 15 requiring urgent attention for dyspnea, classified as level II or III according to the Andorran Triage Program and who underwent arterial blood gas test on arrival at the emergency department. The presence of nasal flaring was evaluated by two observers...
December 10, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997805/physiologic-effects-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#10
Tommaso Mauri, Cecilia Turrini, Nilde Eronia, Giacomo Grasselli, Carlo Alberto Volta, Giacomo Bellani, Antonio Pesenti
RATIONALE: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) improves the clinical outcomes of non-intubated acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of HFNC on gas exchange, inspiratory effort, minute ventilation, end-expiratory lung volume, dynamic compliance and ventilation homogeneity in AHRF patients. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized cross-over study in non-intubated AHRF patients with PaO2/setFiO2 ≤300 mmHg admitted to the Intensive Care Unit...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981304/the-impact-of-hypoxaemia-on-the-outcome-in-liver-cirrhosis
#11
Andrei Mihai Voiosu, Theodor Alexandru Voiosu, Bianca Smarandache, Aurelia Rădoi, Radu Bogdan Mateescu, Cristian Răsvan Băicuş, Mihail Radu Voiosu, Mihai Mircea Diculescu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prognostic factors for poor evolution are critical in the setting of limited access to liver transplantation for patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the impact of hypoxaemia on the outcome in cirrhosis and the evolution of arterial oxygen tension during long-term follow-up in these patients. METHODS: Consecutive cirrhotic patients were prospectively enroled and followed-up in our tertiary referral center. Clinical features, biological tests, arterial blood gases, NT-proBNP levels, pulse oximetry measurements, 12-lead ECG, and transthoracic contrast echocardiography were documented on enrolment...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916285/a-quick-reference-on-hypoxemia
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Bach
This article describes the calculation of the alveolar-arterial gas gradient and its clinical application in determining the cause of hypoxemia. It also outlines the analysis of arterial blood gases and the clinical approach toward diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease.
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906717/spectrum-of-postoperative-complications-in-pulmonary-hypertension-and-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome
#13
Roop K Kaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to identify chronic pulmonary conditions which may often not be recognized preoperatively especially before elective noncardiac surgery and which carry the highest risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses some of the most recent studies that highlight the perioperative complications, and their prevention and management strategies. SUMMARY: Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognized risk factor for postoperative complications after cardiac surgery but the literature surrounding noncardiac surgery is sparse...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898867/angus-calves-born-and-raised-at-high-altitude-adapt-to-hypobaric-hypoxia-by-increasing-alveolar-ventilation-rate-but-not-hematocrit
#14
A K Gulick, F B Garry, T N Holt, K Retallick-Trennepohl, R M Enns, M G Thomas, J M Neary
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of altitude on arterial blood-gases and hematocrit in Angus-based calves. It was hypothesized that alveolar ventilation rate, as indicated by arterial pCO, would increase with altitude but hematocrit would not. Five Angus-based herds ( = 30 to 80 per cohort) located at 105 m, 1,470 m, 2,010 m, 2,170 m, and 2,730 m above sea level were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. A portable analyzer measured blood-gas tensions in coccygeal arterial blood. Calves at 1,470 m, 2,170 m, and 2,730 m were sampled twice, at approximately 4 mo and 7 mo of age...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869558/polynitroxylated-pegylated-hemoglobin-a-novel-small-volume-therapeutic-for-traumatic-brain-injury-resuscitation-comparison-to-whole-blood-and-dose-response-evaluation
#15
Erik C Brockman, Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Hülya Bayɪr, Robert S B Clark, Vincent Vagni, Keri Feldman, Catherine Byrd, Li Ma, Carleton Hsia, Patrick M Kochanek
Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a pegylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo versus Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that resuscitation with PNPH would improve acute physiology versus whole blood after TBI+HS and would be safe and effective across a wide dosage range...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867566/effectiveness-of-temporary-positive-expiratory-pressure-t-pep-at-home-and-at-hospital-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Valentina Mascardi, Bruna Grecchi, Cornelius Barlascini, Paolo Banfi, Antonello Nicolini
BACKGROUND: Temporary positive airway pressure (T-PEP) is a tool recently introduced in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. It demonstrated encouraging results also in severe COPD patients. The aim of this study is verify if adding T-PEP to best bronchodilator therapy both in clinic and home administering could reduce disease exacerbations and improve lung function in patients with severe COPD. METHODS: A total of 142 patients with severe COPD (FEV1 <50%) were enrolled; 120 were randomized in three groups: a group treated with T-PEP at home, a group with T-PEP at hospital and a group with medical therapy only (control group)...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842708/-effects-of-different-levels-of-end-expiratory-pressure-on-hemodynamic-respiratory-mechanics-and-systemic-stress-response-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#17
Oznur Sen, Yasemin Erdogan Doventas
OBJECTIVE: General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818327/an-educational-intervention-optimizes-the-utilization-of-arterial-blood-gases-across-intensive-care-units-from-different-specialties-a-quality-improvement-study
#18
Carlos D Martínez-Balzano, Paulo Oliveira, Michelle O'Rourke, Luanne Hills, Andrés F Sosa
BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gas (ABG) overutilization leads to increased costs, inefficient use of staff work-hours, patient discomfort and blood loss. We developed guidelines to optimize ABG utilization in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: ABG utilization guidelines were implemented on all adult ICUs in our institution: three medical, two trauma-surgery, one cardiovascular and one neurosurgical ICU. While relying on pulse oximetry, we encouraged the utilization of ABGs after an acute respiratory event or for a rational clinical concern, and discouraged obtaining ABGs for routine surveillance, after planned changes of PEEP or FiO2 on the mechanical ventilator, for spontaneous breathing trials, or when a disorder was not suspected...
November 3, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816133/anesthesia-for-patients-with-concomitant-sepsis-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#19
REVIEW
Abed Abubaih, Charles Weissman
Anesthesiologists faced with a patient with sepsis and concurrent cardiac dysfunction must be cognizant of the patient's cardiac status and cause of the cardiac problem to appropriately adapt physiologic and metabolic monitoring and anesthetic management. Anesthesia in such patients is challenging because the interaction of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction greatly complicates management. Intraoperative anesthesia management requires careful induction and maintenance of anesthesia; optimizing intravascular volume status; avoiding lung injury during mechanical ventilation; and close monitoring of arterial blood gases, serum lactate concentrations, and hematology renal and electrolyte parameters...
December 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812638/is-there-a-rationale-for-pulmonary-rehabilitation-following-successful-chemotherapy-for-tuberculosis
#20
Marcela Muñoz-Torrico, Adrian Rendon, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Zhenia Fuentes, Carlos Torres-Duque, Fernanda Mello, Margareth Dalcolmo, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Antonio Spanevello, Giovanni Battista Migliori
The role of tuberculosis as a public health care priority and the availability of diagnostic tools to evaluate functional status (spirometry, plethysmography, and DLCO determination), arterial blood gases, capacity to perform exercise, lesions (chest X-ray and CT), and quality of life justify the effort to consider what needs to be done when patients have completed their treatment. To our knowledge, no review has ever evaluated this topic in a comprehensive manner. Our objective was to review the available evidence on this topic and draw conclusions regarding the future role of the "post-tuberculosis treatment" phase, which will potentially affect several million cases every year...
September 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
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